We have a two-story house and I’m usually pretty groggy when I check on Q in the middle of the night. At bedtime we bring Q’s pump pouch and the clipboard where we log her numbers and put it on the bathroom counter. But if there is a high or low blood sugar to deal with overnight, I have our supplies at the ready to minimize my activity and thinking at 2:00 am. The extra meter is just in case the meter on her PDM wouldn’t work for some reason or if the PDM was still downstairs. The blood ketone meter is awesome for overnight because I can check for ketones while she sleeps and she doesn’t even wake up. The syringes are in case I would have to give her insulin by syringe if her pump failed and her blood sugar was very high. Never thought of it before, but would a travel toothbrush holder fit well with the syringes? DisclaimerThe information provided here is for entertainment purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. CopyrightAll material on this blog is subject to copyright protection including text and pictures.
The pancreas has many islets that contain insulin-producing beta cells and glucagon-producing alpha cells.
Since diabetes is a disease that affects your body's ability to use glucose, let's start by looking at what glucose is and how your body controls it.
When you eat food, glucose gets absorbed from your intestines and distributed by the bloodstream to all of the cells in your body. To maintain a constant blood-glucose level, your body relies on two hormones produced in the pancreas that have opposite actions: insulin and glucagon. Insulin is made and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, small islands of endocrine cells in the pancreas. As such, insulin stores nutrients right after a meal by reducing the concentrations of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids in the bloodstream.
There is a difference between glycaemic index and glycaemic load, but as you’ll see from this article, the fixation on glycaemic index numbers may be preventing the really important, key messages getting through!
The glycaemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate foods based on the effect they have on blood glucose levels after consumption.  The ranking was determined when subjects, after an overnight fast, were fed foods that contain 50 grams of carbohydrate.
It is generally recommended that we eat more low GI foods as they create less blood sugar havoc and will provide energy over a longer period than high GI foods, which give a short burst of energy.
Diabetics are certainly given the generalised information that they should be eating low GI foods. However, even glycaemic load does not take into consideration the beneficial impact of a balanced meal of protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate. Whilst I am not a devotee of any particular “dietary regime”, I do call myself a Real Foodist.
So, whilst the GI and GL certainly have credibility and interest value, in many ways they actually add to the confusion in regard to what ‘healthy eating’ is. It would seem that the GI message supports the general recommendations from the New Zealand Ministry of Health in regard to eating wholegrain carbohydrate foods, more fresh fruit and vegetables, and legumes such as beans, lentils and peas, but this recommendation has been in play for a long time – and it’s not working! Breast Cancer is not, in most cases, fast moving or aggressive.  There are better ways than mammograms to monitor the health of your breasts and things you can do to improve or maintain healthy breast tissues.
If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer, take a breath - you have time to consider all your options.
An hour of current affairs background and debate from Australia and the world every Monday to Friday, 12:05 pm, ABC Local Radio and Radio National.
The World Today is a comprehensive current affairs program which backgrounds, analyses, interprets and encourages debate on events and issues of interest and importance to all Australians.


The Prime Minister and Treasurer have embarked on the traditional post budget sales job, emphasising the $5 billion the budget will give to low and middle income earners over the next four years. One political commentator says while the budget has some good things it will be 'pecked to death' in the 'quagmire of day-to-day politics.' Professor Scott Prasser says history shows budgets sink quickly and Labor is on track to lose every House of Representatives seat it holds in Queensland. Foreign funds and investors will pay twice as much tax if a budget proposal is approved, Tax lawyers are worried a new tax of 15 per cent will make foreign investors look for better breaks. Americans are slowly digesting news of an ambitious plan by Al Qaeda's affiliate in Yemen to blow up a US-bound plane using an underwear bomb. A pay dispute in Libya has turned deadly, with armed demonstrators storming the office of the country's interim prime minister. Victoria Police will ask the state's coroner to hold an inquest into the 2004 murders of police informer Terence Hodson and his wife Christine.
The NSW Nationals and the state's Shooters Party are unhappy about new laws making it harder for people to buy ammunition. New research shows that the Government could avert around 220,000 cases of diabetes if people at high risk of the disease took part in programs to modify their diet and fitness.
Global share markets fell sharply overnight on news that a new Greek coalition government may not support the measures already underway to save the country from a debt default. The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder estimated to affect over 256 million adults worldwide [1]. Interestingly, reduced transcription of the PARK6 gene, encoding PINK1, has been reported in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients implicating PINK1 in glucose metabolism [11].
To assess whether loss of PINK1 function would potentially have an effect on islet cell function, we sought to determine whether PINK1 was expressed in islet cells. Given the close link between intracellular calcium levels and the stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells, we assessed the basal levels of [Ca2+]c in PINK1-deficient ?-cells. I try to zombie my way through overnight checks with one eye only slightly open in hopes that I can fall back asleep. In two years of pumping, I’ve only had to do this twice and the one time I probably could have bolused with the new site.
Your body tries to keep a constant supply of glucose for your cells by maintaining a constant glucose concentration in your blood -- otherwise, your cells would have more than enough glucose right after a meal and starve in between meals and overnight.
Their subsequent blood glucose levels were measured and a ranking given.  Foods that are deemed high GI are rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in a greater rise in blood sugar levels, while foods deemed low GI are slowly digested and absorbed resulting in a slower, lower rise in blood sugar levels.
This rapid increase in blood sugars triggers significant volumes of insulin to be released from the pancreas. However, this low GI message is not really giving people the right information or the right tools to eat a truly healthy, nourishing Real Food diet.
The Government's defended the decision to abandon a corporate tax cut, saying it would still like to deliver the reduction in the future.
Airlines providing discounted or free travel to staff could also be forced to pay a higher fringe benefits tax rate which could hit company bottom lines. There are around one million Ultra Orthodox Jews in Israel, who are exempt from being drafted into the army. The demonstrators included gunmen from the country's west who fought against the Gadaffi regime.
The Hodsons were shot in their home in the Melbourne suburb of Kew, just before Terence Hodson was due to give evidence in a police corruption case.
In comparison, introducing a junk food tax or giving obese people gastric banding surgery would prevent less than 70,000 cases. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function.


The predominant mechanism underlying this disease is insulin resistance in peripheral metabolic tissues such as muscle, liver and adipose tissue accompanied by a relative deficit in insulin secretion [2,3]. Homozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene (PARK6) and loss of PINK1 function have been shown to be an underlying cause of early onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) [7]. Owing to continuing problems assessing mouse PINK1 by western blot, we assayed MIN6 cells and isolated PINK1 wild-type (WT) and KO islets for PINK1 expression by RT-PCR. After a couple of nights when I had to go all the way downstairs for some supply or another, I put together a little kit that we keep in the kids’ bathroom upstairs. The cells take in glucose from the blood and break it down for energy (some cells, like brain cells and red blood cells, rely solely on glucose for fuel).
So, when you have an oversupply of glucose, your body stores the excess in the liver and muscles by making glycogen, long chains of glucose. Insulin is required by almost all of the body's cells, but its major targets are liver cells, fat cells and muscle cells. This insulin spike quickly transports the glucose into the cells, leaving the blood in a state of hypoglycaemia – low blood sugar – think 3pm sugar cravings!
The Opposition has described the surplus as microscopic, and it's criticised the detail to raise the debt ceiling to $300 billion.
The Obama administration isn't revealing all the details, but it has been forced to defend its decision not to tell the public about the threat sooner.
We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose.
Under normal circumstances, the alpha (?) and beta (?) islet cells in the pancreas monitor blood glucose levels. In previous studies, we and others have demonstrated that loss of or impaired PINK1 function in neurons results in a series of mitochondrial abnormalities. However, the consequences of PINK1 deficiency on islet cell function and hence the mechanism by which PINK1 dysfunction could contribute to T2DM have yet to be investigated.
However, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's new coalition deal with a centrist party means he'll find it easier to redraft the law, without having to pander to the smaller religious parties in his former coalition that opposed a tougher bill. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. When an increase in blood glucose is detected, these cells take up glucose via the GLUT2 glucose transporter leading to an increase in glucose metabolism within the cell [4].
We therefore used a combination of PINK1 siRNA, primary PINK1 knockout (KO) intact islets and PINK1 KO mice to determine the effect of PINK1 deficiency on ?-cell function.
Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. The subsequent increase in mitochondrial substrate availability drives the electron transport chain, increases intracellular ATP levels and induces closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K+-ATP) at the plasma membrane. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function. When the K+-ATP channel closes, it induces depolarization of the plasma membrane (Vm), which activates the voltage-dependent calcium channels and induces a calcium influx into the cell.
Increased cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) concentrations then stimulate the secretion of insulin which, in turn, activates glucose transporters in insulin-sensitive cells to allow cells and tissues throughout the body to take up glucose as an energy source [5].



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