Via email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site.Ask follow up questions if you need to. Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer people’s questions. I can go as far as to say it could have resulted in saving my sons life and our entire family now knows what bipolar is and how to assist and understand my most wonderful son, brother and friend to all who loves him dearly.
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Anemia is a medical condition in which the number of red blood cells (RBCs) – also called the RBC count — or the amount of hemoglobin is less than normal.
Symptoms of anemia are usually caused by hypoxia — a reduced amount of oxygen delivered to the cells and tissues of the body.
Anemia is caused by a process involving damage or destruction of red blood cells that results in low hemoglobin levels. Anemia may be classified according to the Mean Corposcular Volume (MCV), also known as the mean cell volume.
Acute blood loss anemia occurs when there is a fast and significant blood loss within 1 to 2 days of a sudden major hemorrhage (bleeding) and the bleeding then is controlled. A loss of more than 30-40% of the blood volume can trigger shock and possibly death unless the abnormally low blood volume (hypovolemia) is treated appropriately with IV fluids or a blood transfusion.
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition that alters the shape and function of red blood cells in some African-Americans and some people of West or Central African black descent. Thalassemia refers to a group of inherited blood disorders characterized by reduced or no hemoglobin. Anemia is diagnosed through a physical exam by the doctor as well as through blood tests to identify a specific type of anemia that may be present. Mild anemia with no or minimal symptoms may be due to low iron levels and can be treated with iron supplements. Chemotherapy for cancer may cause bone marrow damage, and bone marrow damage can lead to anemia. In severe anemia, the hemoglobin level may fall too low and reduce the amount of oxygen delivered to all of the tissues.
The prognosis, or outlook, of anemia is often good, depending upon the type and specific cause of the disorder. A healthy lifestyle, including an appropriate diet, limited alcohol use, and regular medical checkups for blood tests can help to prevent anemia or, for those already diagnosed with the condition, keep it under control. Anemia is a potentially serious condition because it may be linked with another underlying disease.
Make a Donation!Without the philanthropic support of individuals who care, PHLBI’s unique ability to develop new treatment approaches would be impossible. What to do if you are having headache along with tinnitus (hissing or buzzing in the ears) and fainting? It must be known to the viewer that the process of dietary recommendation in hypertension is complex and has been the focus of several research works over the past 3 to 4 decades. The usual average salt intake for adults, as recommended by researchers, is no more than 6g per day. Care must be taken as to not lessen the salt diet to such an extent that complications arise due to salt deficiency. It should be noted that the sole decrease in salt intake may not prove beneficial in the overall outcome of lower blood pressure, as a combination of other dietary changes are also recommended. Caffeine’s central action is stimulation of the CNS, thereby increasing alertness, and also of the heart, thereby resulting in a short term increase in blood pressure. Sometimes people ignore the fact that caffeine is also a vital ingredient in many other preparations, especially weight loss pills and chocolates.
Though it may seem harmless, but sugary beverages have been found to increase blood pressure.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Blood pressure results from the force of the heart that pumps the blood into the arteries, and the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow. It was found out that people with blood pressure within this range are at least risk to suffer from heart attack, stroke or other circulatory disorders (1), so it is often called optimal, ideal or healthy blood pressure range.
Standing up for a while, exercising, stress and even appointment with a doctor can increase blood pressure for more than 10 mm Hg within few minutes, so an average value from several blood pressure measurements rather than one single measurement should be considered as actual blood pressure. First value 120-139 ORsecond value 80-90 are considered as pre-high blood pressure or pre-hypertension.
First value 140 or above ORsecond value above 90 are considered as high BP or hypertension. As you will recall, a developing human is called a fetus from the ninth week of gestation until birth.
During male fetal development, the bipotential gonads become the testes and associated epididymis. During prenatal development, the fetal circulatory system is integrated with the placenta via the umbilical cord so that the fetus receives both oxygen and nutrients from the placenta.
The placenta provides the fetus with necessary oxygen and nutrients via the umbilical vein. The descending aorta carries partially oxygenated and partially deoxygenated blood into the lower regions of the body. During weeks 9–12 of fetal development, the brain continues to expand, the body elongates, and ossification continues. During approximately weeks 16–20, as the fetus grows and limb movements become more powerful, the mother may begin to feel quickening, or fetal movements. Developmental weeks 21–30 are characterized by rapid weight gain, which is important for maintaining a stable body temperature after birth.
Visit this site for a summary of the stages of pregnancy, as experienced by the mother, and view the stages of development of the fetus throughout gestation.
Developing Fetus Throughout the second half of gestation, the fetal intestines accumulate a tarry, greenish black meconium.
Although meconium is a sterile substance, it interferes with the antibiotic properties of the amniotic fluid and makes the newborn and mother more vulnerable to bacterial infections at birth and during the perinatal period. The first sign that a fetus has passed meconium usually does not come until childbirth, when the amniotic sac ruptures.
Aspiration of meconium with the first breath can result in labored breathing, a barrel-shaped chest, or a low Apgar score. What is the physiological benefit of incorporating shunts into the fetal circulatory system? Circulatory shunts bypass the fetal lungs and liver, bestowing them with just enough oxygenated blood to fulfill their metabolic requirements. Premature lungs may not have adequate surfactant, a molecule that reduces surface tension in the lungs and assists proper lung expansion after birth. Sepsis is an overwhelming infection that can attack any part of the body but especially can be found from infections which begin in the kidneys, gall bladder, liver, skin, bowel, and lungs. Meningitis can often be accompanied by sepsis, and patients who are hospitalized for any period of time can develop sepsis at the site of an intravenous line, surgical wound, surgical drains, or even through the development of bed sores. Symptoms of sepsis are likely to include fever, warm skin, chills, shaking, rapid heart rate, skin rash, hyperventilation, hypothermia, confusion, delirium, or a decrease in urination.
A patient with sepsis will also not be able to accurately provide for the tests discerning peripheral smears, blood differential, and fibrin degradation. Sepsis can usually be treated in the Intensive Care Wing with intensive broad spectrum antibiotics delivered intravenously.
Supportive therapy is often required involving oxygen therapy, fluids, and medication that can increase the patient’s blood pressure in order to help the patient through the sepsis.
Septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and deprivation of blood and oxygen to vital organs including the heart, brain, and kidneys may complicate a case of sepsis.
Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic used in therapy of infectious diseases of sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat. The answer was far more informative than what I got from the Physicians I saw in person for my problem. I seriously don't know what my sisters situation would be today if you had not gone above and beyond just answering my questions.


Please download the latest version of the Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Windows Internet Explorer browser. Hemoglobin is a reddish, iron-containing protein found in red blood cells that gives the red color to blood. More than 44,000 blood donations are performed every day in the United States, and nearly 4.5 million Americans receive a blood transfusion each year. Fatigue is the main complaint of anemia, but some types of the disease, including very mild anemia, have no symptoms. The MCV is a measurement of the average red blood cell size, measured in units of femtoliters (fL), detected in a standard complete blood count. The red blood cells are crescent-shaped, causing them to break down quickly which prevents oxygen from reaching the body’s organs. The type of anemia must first be correctly determined before the proper treatment can be started. Patients who are undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or who have bone marrow disease often require medications such as epoetin alfa to stimulate the production of red blood cells in bone marrow production. Low levels of oxygen (hypoxia) in vital organs such as the heart may result in cardiovascular complications. The severity of anemia, patient’s age, patient’s health, and patient’s compliance with treatment will affect recovery. Patients with sickle cell anemia or other chronic conditions should be monitored by medical professionals on a regular basis. If you have any signs and symptoms of anemia – fatigue, low energy, weakness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, unusual bleeding — consult a medical doctor immediately for a full evaluation, including proper testing. It is pertinent to mention here is that along with the above mention factors, diet also has an important influence on the outcome of hypertension.
This is mainly because the foods which are commonly advised to avoid complications in hypertension are usually similar to healthy diet recommendations in general. The sodium component of salt is important for the maintenance of vital body functions such as controlling the pH of blood, for controlling the amount of water in the body and for muscular contractions.
But the true fact is that most people are at a rate of over 9g per day which, evidently, is increasing the prevalence of hypertension.
Although it is very rare as our salt intake is always proficient enough to not result in such complications, occasionally it may give rise to headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, drowsiness, fainting, fatigue and possibly coma.
Therefore care should be taken to read the label and note the presence or absence of caffeine in these preparations. For every extra can of these drinks consumed per day, incremental rise in blood pressure occurs.
Once the diastolic (the second reading) passes 90 it is not a good sign even if the systolic (first reading is under 140).
This 30-week period of development is marked by continued cell growth and differentiation, which fully develop the structures and functions of the immature organ systems formed during the embryonic period.
Embryonic males and females, though genetically distinguishable, are morphologically identical ([link]). However, after childbirth, the umbilical cord is severed, and the newborn’s circulatory system must be reconfigured. The fetal circulation therefore bypasses the lungs by shifting some of the blood through the foramen ovale, a shunt that directly connects the right and left atria and avoids the pulmonary trunk altogether. It eventually passes into the umbilical arteries through branches of the internal iliac arteries. The eyes move closer together; blinking motions begin, although the eyes remain sealed shut. However, space restrictions limit these movements and typically force the growing fetus into the “fetal position,” with the arms crossed and the legs bent at the knees. The bone marrow completely takes over erythrocyte synthesis, and the axons of the spinal cord begin to be myelinated, or coated in the electrically insulating glial cell sheaths that are necessary for efficient nervous system functioning. The added fat fills out the hypodermis, and the skin transitions from red and wrinkled to soft and pink.
The newborn’s first stools consist almost entirely of meconium; they later transition to seedy yellow stools or slightly formed tan stools as meconium is cleared and replaced with digested breast milk or formula, respectively. This may be caused by maternal drug abuse (especially tobacco or cocaine), maternal hypertension, depletion of amniotic fluid, long labor or difficult birth, or a defect in the placenta that prevents it from delivering adequate oxygen to the fetus. Specifically, inflammation of the fetal membranes, inflammation of the uterine lining, or neonatal sepsis (infection in the newborn) may occur.
Normal amniotic fluid is clear and watery, but amniotic fluid in which meconium has been passed is stained greenish or yellowish. An obstetrician can identify meconium aspiration by listening to the lungs with a stethoscope for a coarse rattling sound.
Because these organs are only semifunctional in the fetus, it is more efficient to bypass them and divert oxygen and nutrients to the organs that need it more.
If the lungs do not expand properly, the newborn will develop hypoxia and require supplemental oxygen or other respiratory support. Sepsis is a life threatening infection and thus needs immediate emergency medical treatment.
It is not uncommon for a blood culture to return negative for sepsis if the patient is taking antibiotics already. Peripheral smears will show the destruction of red blood cells as well as a low platelet count. Testing will resume as the patient stabilizes to attempt to identify the source of the sepsis. If a patient develops a complication, it is likely that their chances of survival decrease by at least 20%. Patients who have been hospitalized for any reason should be checked daily for signs of bed sores and other sites that may develop sepsis. Post survival the patient will remain weak, fatigued, and easily exhausted for weeks or even months afterward.
Hemoglobin combines with oxygen from the lungs and then transports the oxygen to cells throughout the body. Since the treatment for anemia is always based on the specific type of disease, it is imperative that a qualified doctor make an exact diagnosis. An elevated number of red blood cells increases the amount of hemoglobin in the blood so that more oxygen can be transported to tissues throughout the body. Hypertension is a chronic medical condition of elevated blood pressure that taxes the heart and it may result in damage to vital organs of the body such as brain, eyes and heart.
While the remaining 10% cases are suffering from Secondary Hypertension, in which there is an underlying condition effecting the arteries, kidney or heart that is resulting in an elevated blood pressure.
Well, according to a recent research, nearly one billion people (equivalent to 26% of the population) have hypertension worldwide, making it the number one chronic disease in the world today. There are some foods which lower blood pressure, like for example celery, cold water fish, broccoli, dandelion, whole-grain oats and black beans, and these natural products have regularly been prescribed by physicians to hypertensive patients.
Reducing salt intake of their patients has been the primary focus of doctors in dealing with hypertension.
Caffeine is an ingredient of both coffee and tea, whereby it is present in excess particularly in the former. It should be noted that this effect of caffeine on blood pressure is usually when caffeine is taken in excess amount.
As you can imagine, the danger lies in the situation – a blackout while driving or when walking down stairs can cause serious injury and even lead to death. The completion of fetal development results in a newborn who, although still immature in many ways, is capable of survival outside the womb.
Bipotential gonads, or gonads that can develop into male or female sexual organs, are connected to a central cavity called the cloaca via Mullerian ducts and Wolffian ducts. The Mullerian ducts become the uterine tubes and uterus, and the cloaca divides and develops into a vagina, a urethra, and a rectum.
When the heart first forms in the embryo, it exists as two parallel tubes derived from mesoderm and lined with endothelium, which then fuse together. In this case, the blood flowing to the fetal heart is oxygenated because it comes from the placenta.
Most of the rest of the blood is pumped to the right ventricle, and from there, into the pulmonary trunk, which splits into pulmonary arteries. The deoxygenated blood collects waste as it circulates through the fetal body and returns to the umbilical cord.
The bone marrow begins to take over the process of erythrocyte production—a task that the liver performed during the embryonic period.


Sebaceous glands coat the skin with a waxy, protective substance called vernix caseosa that protects and moisturizes the skin and may provide lubrication during childbirth. Unlike these later stools, meconium is sterile; it is devoid of bacteria because the fetus is in a sterile environment and has not consumed any breast milk or formula.
Meconium passage is typically a complication of full-term or post-term newborns because it is rarely passed before 34 weeks of gestation, when the gastrointestinal system has matured and is appropriately controlled by nervous system stimuli.
Antibiotics given to the mother may reduce the incidence of maternal bacterial infections, but it is critical that meconium is aspirated from the newborn before the first breath. The fetal circulatory system becomes much more specialized and efficient than its embryonic counterpart.
Sepsis means that the original infection has become so powerful that it has spread to the bloodstream and is overpowering the body’s immune system. Blood differentials will return with immature white cells present, and fibrin degradation will present as elevated. Treating the initial infection is vital in treating the sepsis, although it is not uncommon for the initial infection to clear up while the patient is receiving intravenous broad spectrum high dose antibiotics. Patients who are recovering from a surgical procedure should be checked for signs of sepsis multiple times daily.
A rapidly bleeding stomach ulcer is treated with both medications to heal the ulcer and a blood transfusion to replace the depleted red blood cells, thereby reducing the symptoms of anemia. Anemia due to chronic medical conditions such as kidney failure, heart disease or lung disease may be more severe and usually requires ongoing, long-term monitoring and treatment.
Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on arteries and veins, which depends upon the rate and force of contraction of heart.
And not just this, but the prevalence of hypertension is gradually increasing rather than it being abolished. In addition, there are some other foods which may precipitate hypertension, like those which contain alcohol, fats and salts. A precise mechanism is yet unclear, but it is believed that excess of sugar in blood results in the disruption of blood vessel tone and salt levels in the body. Also if your low blood pressure is related to problems with your heart rate or cardiac output then this can lead to complications like clot formation.
As the embryo develops into a fetus, the tube-shaped heart folds and further differentiates into the four chambers present in a mature heart. The respiratory system is immature and cannot yet oxygenate blood on its own.) From the umbilical vein, the oxygenated blood flows toward the inferior vena cava, all but bypassing the immature liver, via the ductus venosus shunt ([link]). However, a shunt within the pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus, diverts a portion of this blood into the aorta.
Thus, the two umbilical arteries carry blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide and fetal wastes.
A silky hair called lanugo also covers the skin during weeks 17–20, but it is shed as the fetus continues to grow.
Fetal distress can stimulate the vagus nerve to trigger gastrointestinal peristalsis and relaxation of the anal sphincter. Under these conditions, an obstetrician will extensively aspirate the infant’s airways as soon as the head is delivered, while the rest of the infant’s body is still inside the birth canal.
Inhaled meconium after birth could obstruct a newborn’s airways leading to alveolar collapse, interfere with surfactant function by stripping it from the lungs, or cause pulmonary inflammation or hypertension.
It includes three shunts—the ductus venosus, the foramen ovale, and the ductus arteriosus—that enable it to bypass the semifunctional liver and pulmonary circuit until after childbirth. Sepsis can be determined if the white blood cell count is too low or too high, the platelet count is low, kidney function tests will reveal abnormalities in the early stages of sepsis, blood gases that reveal acidosis, and the presence of bacteria in the blood. Patients with nominal infections should be encouraged to always see a physician for infections, as self care may not always clear up the infection, especially infections of internal organs or bones. There are more than 400 different types of anemia, but many of them have different causes, treatments, and outlooks. An MCV in the normal range (80-99 fL) is considered a normocytic anemia (normal cell volume).
A patient who has sustained an injury may require a blood transfusion to correct extensive blood loss. Hypertensive patients are strictly advised against taking these substances as hemorrhage and stroke may ensue and the outcome may be fatal.
This can be achieved by reading labels of processed foods and calculating the dosage requirement necessary to maintain a balanced level between adequate nutrition and hypertension. If a hypertensive patient drinks two or more cups of coffee, then it might lead to precipitation of hypertension. This is predominant in those people who consume an excess of salt and sugar and it is already a known fact that salt increases blood pressure.
It depends on the cause of your hypotension but it should be ignored with the readings you report. Unlike a mature cardiovascular system, however, the fetal cardiovascular system also includes circulatory shortcuts, or shunts.
The liver receives just a trickle of blood, which is all that it needs in its immature, semifunctional state. This ensures that only a small volume of oxygenated blood passes through the immature pulmonary circuit, which has only minor metabolic requirements. This blood is filtered through the placenta, where wastes diffuse into the maternal circulation. The lungs begin producing surfactant, a substance that reduces surface tension in the lungs and assists proper lung expansion after birth. Once born, the newborn is no longer confined to the fetal position, so subsequent measurements are made from head-to-toe instead of from crown-to-rump. However, in 5–20 percent of births, the fetus has a bowel movement in utero, which can cause major complications in the newborn.
Notably, fetal hypoxic stress also induces a gasping reflex, increasing the likelihood that meconium will be inhaled into the fetal lungs. Any of these complications will make the newborn much more vulnerable to pulmonary infection, including pneumonia. If intravenous lines, surgical drains, or surgical wounds are the source of the sepsis, immediate removal and repair of the site is required. In 2003, shockingly, it increased 5% to 29% Americans despite the Government taking initiatives to help eradicate this menace. Therefore it is beneficial if the intake of sugary beverages is in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
A shunt is an anatomical (or sometimes surgical) diversion that allows blood flow to bypass immature organs such as the lungs and liver until childbirth. Blood flows from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium, mixing with fetal venous blood along the way.
Blood vessels of uninflated lungs have high resistance to flow, a condition that encourages blood to flow to the aorta, which presents much lower resistance.
Oxygen and nutrients from the mother diffuse into the placenta and from there into the fetal blood, and the process repeats. The excretory system is also developing: the kidneys are well-formed, and meconium, or fetal feces, begins to accumulate in the intestines. Inadequate surfactant production in premature newborns may result in respiratory distress syndrome, and as a result, the newborn may require surfactant replacement therapy, supplemental oxygen, or maintenance in a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) chamber during their first days or weeks of life. Although it has been well established that hypertension is usually common in geriatrics, but recently studies have shown that children aged 8-10 years are being diagnosed along with type II diabetes and high cholesterol. By using fresh herbs and spices for this purpose, salt intake per day may be reduced to an appropriate level.
The oxygenated blood moves through the foramen ovale into the left atrium, where it mixes with the now deoxygenated blood returning from the pulmonary circuit.
In the womb, the developing fetus moves, blinks, practices sucking, and circulates amniotic fluid. The fetus at 30 weeks measures 28 cm (11 in) from crown to rump and exhibits the approximate body proportions of a full-term newborn, but still is much leaner. Some of this blood moves through the coronary arteries into the myocardium, and some moves through the carotid arteries to the brain.
Embryonic organ structures that were primitive and nonfunctional develop to the point that the newborn can survive in the outside world.



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Comments

  1. 08.12.2014 at 11:48:53


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    Author: Prinsesa_Wostoka
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