Hba1c – normal range, chart, blood test values, What is hba1c, this blood test helps find blood sugar levels and diagnose diabetes.
Printable diabetes chart- convert hba1c to estimated, Chart posted for general educational use.
Diabetes chart- convert hba1c to equivalent blood glucose, Free printable charts and tools to better understand, track and manage your blood glucose..
Because the majority of diabetic patients have type 2 diabetes, the rest of this web module will focus on diagnosis and management of this population. In type 2 diabetes, it is important to remember that insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are closely linked. Before type 2 diabetes fully develops (a€?pre-diabetesa€? period), insulin resistance may already be present. At some point, type 2 diabetics can no longer increase or maintain insulin secretion levels to compensate for increasing insulin resistance.
A A patient can also be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on an elevated Hemoglobin A1C. The diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes is included in the table below.
Diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is the preferred test to diagnose diabetes in children and non-pregnant adults. The 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is more sensitive and slightly more specific than the FPG. The diagnosis of pre-diabetes can be categorized as a€?impaired fasting glucosea€? (IFG) or a€?impaired glucose tolerancea€? (IGT). The incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Clinical judgment should be used to test for for diabetes in high-risk patients who do not meet these criteria.
When should women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and no pre-pregnancy history of diabetes be screened initially for diabetes mellitus? Laboratory values provide healthcare professionals with essential clues about the patient’s condition and the medical interventions needed for his full recovery. Complete blood count is one of the most basic laboratory examinations to determine the status of the patient’s health. On the other hand, if the total RBC count is above normal, polycythemia vera may be present. High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, congenital heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis, renal cell carcinoma, polycythemia vera. Low Level:     Bleeding, anemia, malnutrition, overhydration, hemolysis, erythropoietin deficiency, leukemia, multiple myeloma, porphyria, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia. Drugs that may decrease RBC count: Quinidine, hydantoins, chloramphenicol, chemotherapeutic drugs. High hemoglobin levels are usually present among people living in high altitude levels and among smokers. High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping.
Low Level:     Nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, renal problems, sickle cell anemia, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Drugs that may decrease hemoglobin: Aspirin, antibiotics, sulfonamides, trimethadione, anti-neoplastic drugs, indomethacin, doxapram, rifampin and primaquine. High Level:    Dehydration, hypoxia, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping, erythrocytosis, cor pulmonale.
Low Level:     Overhydration, nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chemotherapy treatment. High Level:    Cancer, allergic reactions, polycythemia vera, recent spleen removal, chronic myelogenous leukemia, inflammation, secondary thombocytosis. Low Level:     Viral infection, aplastic anemia, leukemia, alcoholism, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic uremic condition, HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, vasculitis, sepsis, splenic sequestration, cirrhosis. Drugs that may decrease platelet: Aspirin, hydroxyurea, anagrelide, chemotherapeutic drugs, statins, ranitidine, quinidine, tetracycline, vancomycin, valproic acid, sulfonamides, phenytoin, piperacillin, penicillin, pentoxifylline, omeprazole, nitroglycerin. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, defend the body against infections and other foreign bodies.
High Level:    Infections, cigarette smoking, leukemia, inflammatory diseases, tissue damage, severe physical or mental stress.
Low Level:     Autoimmune disorders, bone marrow deficiencies, viral diseases, liver problems, spleen problems, severe bacterial infections, radiation therapy. Drugs that may increase white blood cells: Corticosteroids, heparin, beta adrenergic agonists, epinephrine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, lithium.
Drugs that may decrease white blood cells: Diuretics, chemotherapeutic drugs, histamine-2 blockers, captopril, anticonvulsants, antibiotics, antithyroid drugs, quinidine, chlorpromazine, terbinafine, clozapine, sulfonamides, ticlopidine. Pink to reddish – consumption of beets, rhubarb or blueberries, mercury poisoning, tumors, kidney diseases, prostate problems, UTI. Blue or green – consumption of asparagus, genetic disorders, excess calcium, heartburn medications, multivitamins. Once the strip is dipped into the urine, there will be some changes in the color of the partitions. Albumin is usually the first type of protein compound excreted in the urine whenever there is a kidney problem. The presence of blood in the urine is called hematuria and this usually happens when there is an injury in the urinary tract. On the other hand, when there are many white blood cells present in the urine the leukocyte esterase level elevates and it could be detected in strips.
Bilirubin is a part of bile which is the yellow fluid secreted into the intestines to aid in digestion.
When bacterial infection is present in the urinary tract, the bacterial flora can convert the urine’s nitrate compound to nitrite. In microscopic examination, the urine sample is centrifuged so sediments will settle at the bottom and the clear part can be discarded. RBCs are present in the urine sample of a person with severe urinary tract infection, renal disorders, urinary tract injuries and inflammation. In a normal urine specimen, there are few epithelial cells that can be seen under microscopic examination.

Casts are cylindrically shaped particles formed from coagulated protein secreted by renal cells.
Crystals can be formed from the solutes of the urine especially if the urine is concentrated or when the pH is too high or too low. Low Level:     Anorexia nervosa, malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, poorly managed diabetes, hyperaldosteronism.
Drugs that may increase potassium: ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, NSAIDs, potassium-sparing diuretics. Drugs that may decrease potassium: Amphotericin B, gentamicin, carbenicillin, corticosteroids, beta-adrenergic agonists, potassium-wasting diuretics.
Sodium reflects a part of renal function as kidneys are responsible for the elimination of sodium from the body. High Level: Cushing syndrome, diabetes insipidus, excessive fluid loss, malnutrition, dehydration.
Drugs that may increase sodium: NSAIDs, laxatives, birth control pills, corticosteroids and lithium.
Together with sodium, potassium and carbon dioxide, chloride maintains the normal acid-base balance of the body through balancing body fluids. High Level:    Diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, compensated respiratory alkalosis, renal tubular acidosis, bromide poisoning, kidney diseases, Cushing syndrome, hyperventilation. Low Level:     Malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, low blood level of albumin, kidney failure, magnesium deficiency, liver disease, osteomalacia, pancreatitis. Drugs that may increase calcium: Lithium, tamoxifen, thiazides, calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements. Magnesium is important in muscle and nerve functions, blood pressure regulation and immune system. Although half of magnesium in the body is stored in bones, magnesium can also be found in cells of organs and body tissues. High Level:    Oliguria, dehydration, Addison disease, chronic renal failure, diabetic acidosis. Low Level:     Chronic diarrhea, alcoholism, hemodialysis, ulcerative colitis, delirium tremens, hypoparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, toxemia of pregnancy. Drugs that may decrease magnesium: Insulin, antiarrhythmic drugs, digoxin amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, bretylium,  strophanthin, diuretics, isoproterenol. Phosphorus is involved in the intracellular metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Drugs that may decrease phosphorous: Antacids, diuretics, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, ACE inhibitors, insulin. BUN can also reflect protein tolerance, hydration status, degree of catabolism and risk of uremic syndrome. High Level: Hypovolemia, excessive protein levels in the gastrointestinal tract, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart attack, urinary tract obstruction, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, kidney failure, shock. Drugs that may increase BUN: Allopurinol, furosemide, indomethacin, cisplatin, methyldopa, propanolol, tetracyclines, rifampin, vancomycin, thiazide diuretics, gentamycin, carbamazepine, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B. High Level: Preeclampsia, dehydration, renal problems, rhabdomyolysis, blocked urinary tract, myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, muscular dystrophy. Drugs that may increase creatinine: Aminoglycosides, methicillin, amphotericin B, cistplatin, dextran,cyclosporine, gallium, lithium, hydroxyurea, methoxyflurane, nitrofurantoin, plicamycin, pentamidine, streptozocin. There are some polysaccharides that contain just molecules of one sugar and they called homopolysaccharides or homoglycans.
There are also other groups of polysaccharides that contain molecules of more than a sugar. Polysaccharides can exhibit characteristics that are different from those of the monosaccharide from which they are built. There is also another group of polysaccharides that are known as bacterial polysaccharides. It also suggests that combination therapy for type 2 diabetes will likely play a role in most patients in order to address the insulin resistance and deficiency. It is poorly reproducible, more expensive, and inconvenient for patients, and rarely used in clinical practice. 50% of undiagnosed patients are eventually diagnosed after complications of diabetes develop especially cardiovascular complications. Testing for diabetes should be considered in all individuals at age 45 years and above, particularly in those with a BMI a‰?25* and, if normal, should be repeated at 3-year intervals. Only children at increased risk for the presence of the development of type 2 diabetes should be tested. Women with GDM should be screened for diabetes 6 a€“ 12 weeks postpartum and should be followed up with a subsequent screening for the development of diabetes or pre-diabetes. As nurses are the first-line responders to the healthcare needs of patients, we should always be familiar with the common laboratory values and how to interpret them. It can help diagnose conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, anemia and other blood diseases.
They circulate in the bloodstream and bind together to form a clot over the damaged blood vessel. In general, there are five types of white blood cells – neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Although the result of urinalysis cannot directly pinpoint the disease that may be present, it is often used as a supportive examination in diagnosing illnesses.
This strip has partitions impregnated by different chemicals that correspond to certain substances present in the urine, so abnormalities will be detected. Therefore, consumption of acidic or basic foods as well as the occurrence of any condition in the body that produces acids or bases will directly affect the pH of the urine.  In some circumstances, too acidic or basic urine produces crystals. Other types of protein compounds are not detectable in dip stick test and can be measured through a different urine protein test. However, in some circumstances the renal threshold allows the excretion of glucose in the urine when the blood glucose levels are too high.
Ketones are by-products of fat metabolism and they form whenever there is not enough carbohydrates present for energy production. Other conditions that may induce hematuria include cigarette smoking, strenuous exercise, kidney problems and trauma.
Normally, there are white blood cells present in the urine, but they are so few that there is no leukocyte esterase detectable in dip stick test.
However, the detection of nitrite in the urine is not used as a sole basis for the determination of UTI as some people can still have UTI with a negative nitrite result.

It can also reflect improper urine sample collection as in the case of urine specimen contaminated by vaginal secretions.
However, in cases of severe urinary tract infection, inflammation and malignancies, there will be increased number of epithelial cells in the urine. However, in cases of urinary tract infection and improper urine collection, microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and trichomonads can be found under microscopic examination. Examples of casts that are not typically present in the urine include leucine, cystine and tyrosine. For this reason, a standard calcium test can be misleading and determination of ionized calcium is recommended.
Magnesium levels are determined whenever there are changes in motor functions or when patients are suspected for metabolic diseases.
It also participates in the production of ATP which is the chemical compound that supplies energy to the cell. This test is used to determine the adequacy of renal function but it may also produce false-positive result as it is dependent on renal blood flow, protein metabolism, catabolism, drugs and diet.
Whenever there is an elevation in serum creatinine levels, renal dysfunction is usually suspected since the kidneys are responsible for the excretion of creatinine in the body. She is working as a staff nurse in the pediatric ward of a private city hospital for more than two years. Linear or branched polysaccharides can be packed together to give rise to a rigid structure. These are so called because they contain phosphate groups, carboxyl groups and sulphuric ester groups. Over several years, insulin secretion can no longer meet insulin needs and eventually fasting hyperglycemia develops. On the other hand, low hemoglobin levels may be present in a variety of blood diseases like sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Determining platelet count is vital in assessing patients for tendencies of bleeding and thrombosis. The total number of white blood cells is often used as indicator of bacterial and viral infections.
A standard urinalysis involves three stages – visual exam, dipstick test and microscopic exam.
If cloudiness and unpleasant odor are present, there might be infection in the urinary tract system.
Determining specific gravity is useful when you want to detect a particular substance in the urine sample.
Conditions that usually produce high amounts of protein in the urine include preeclampsia, multiple myeloma, inflammation, urinary tract injuries, malignancies and other disorders that destroy red blood cells. The conditions that can cause glucosuria are pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases and hormonal disorders. Ketones also form when insulin levels are not enough to initiate carbohydrate metabolism so the body just uses fat in order to produce the energy needed for daily activities. It should not be present in a normal urine sample but once detected, it can reflect the presence of liver diseases. High urobilinogen levels in the urine can signify liver diseases and other conditions that can cause RBC destruction. The sediments observed under the microscope are measured in terms of per lower power field (LPF) or per high power field (HPF).
Elevated number of epithelial cells can also signify improper collection of urine specimen, especially if it is not collected using the midstream-catch technique. Results should be correlated clinically as these microorganisms are also present externally in the genitals. When there are kidney problems present, the casts have different components inside like RBCs or WBCs.
The movement of nutrients into the cell and the transport of waste products out of the cell are also mediated by potassium. Patients are tested for serum sodium levels in cases of dehydration, edema, abnormal blood pressure levels and changes in motor functions. Quite a good number of heteroglycans are associated with protein and they are made of two distinct units.
The branched structures are known for their solubility in water and they can also make pastes. Once again, a diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. Determining hematocrit is helpful in diagnosing and assessing blood diseases, nutritional deficiencies and hydration status.
For example, if you suspect that a patient secretes small amounts of protein in the urine, the first morning-void urine is the best sample because it has high specific gravity and appears concentrated.
Other conditions that produce ketones in the urine are diabetes mellitus, frequent vomiting, strenuous exercise, and high protein diet.
For people with liver problems and obvious signs of liver dysfunction, the absence of urobilinogen may indicate the presence of hepatic or biliary obstruction. Whenever potassium levels are increased or decreased, the heart rhythms are affected as signified by EKG changes.
Determining serum calcium levels is important when there are existing nerve and motor dysfunctions. 5 Nursing Jobs At Home You Can Consider 6 Easy Passive Income Ideas for Busy Nurses Today's Meme: Brace Yourselves 7 Easy Stain Removal Tips Every Nurse Needs To Know 5 Things You Should Know Before Becoming a Vocational Nurse Today's Meme: Am I Going Crazy? Most carbohydrates in the body exist in the form of polysaccharides which is also called glycan. A diagnosis of diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day unless unequivocal symptoms of diabetes are present. It is called polysaccharides because it is made up of many molecules of monosaccharide that is sugars. Examples of such glycoproteins are acid mucopolysaccharides and gamma globulin present in the blood plasma. Currently, FPG and 2-hour OGTT are the recommended tests for detecting all states of hyperglycemia.

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