Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder which is due to two main causes; insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Macrovascular disease can therefore lead to heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease.
Does controlling your blood glucose levels reduce your risk of developing heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, or stroke i.e. The largest and longest study done looking at the relationship between glucose levels and complications in type 2 diabetes is called the UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Study). The excess glucose in your blood stream will stick to the protein in your red blood cell, namely the haemoglobin. This “sweetened red blood cell” is called your haemoglobin A1c, glycated haemoglobin, or HbA1c. The chart below shows how the HbA1c indicates what your average glucose has been over the last 2 to 3 months (National Glycohaemoglobin Standardization Program, 2010). In 1995, a group of researchers started to follow up 505 adults living with T2 diabetes for a period of 14 years.
We can see that there has been much research done with regard to preventing or reducing the risk of macrovascular disease and its complications in diabetes. American Diabetes Association (2012) ‘Standard of Medical care in Diabetes – 2012’, Diabetes Care, 35(1), pp. ACCORD Study Group (2008) ‘Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes’,New England Journal of Medicine358, pp. This review article highlights the current researches on the efficacy, side effects and action mechanisms of hypoglycemic herbs in vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo systems [4]. Certain herbs may lower blood glucose [3,11]; however, their test results are subject to several factors. Ginseng (Renshen): The therapeutic potency of ginseng mainly relies on its geographical locality, dosage, processing and types of diabetes. Coptis chinensis (Huanglian): Coptis chinensis is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. This article is an Open Access article published in Chinese Medicine and originated from Bio Med Central.
Insulin is secreted by your pancreas and controls your blood glucose (sugar) levels by allowing it to move from your bloodstream into your cells where it is used for energy. The aim of treating diabetes is to bring your blood glucose levels down to as close to normal as possible to prevent problems with your health.

Long term complications may be either microvascular complications which involve the smallest blood vessels in your body or macrovascular complications which involve the large blood vessels in the body that supply blood to your heart, brain, and feet. This study showed that for every 1% reduction in your HbA1c, your risk of complications is reduced significantly. There was another study done, called the ACCORD Study (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes, 2008), which set out to do just that. This will give you an indication of what your blood glucose average has been over the last 2 to 3 months. Once glucose sticks to haemoglobin it remains stuck there for the life of the red blood cell which has a life span of approximately 3 months.
Below are the blood glucose levels that are recommended by the American Diabetes Association (2012).
It has been proven that controlling your blood glucose as best as you can, will benefit you in the years to come. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. There are three main types of diabetes, namely type I diabetes (juvenile diabetes), type II diabetes and gestational diabetes. Insulin injections, glucose-lowering drugs and lifestyle changes, such as exercise, weight control and diet therapy, are recommended for treating diabetes. Firstly, each herb contains thousands of components, only a few of which may be therapeutically effective [12]. In type 2 diabetes your cells do not recognize this insulin so the movement of glucose between your bloodstream and cells is affected.
This can be achieved through healthy eating, exercise and medication which may be in the form of tablets, insulin or a combination of both.
For example, your risk of a heart attack is reduced by 14% and your risk of leg amputation by 37%. The HbA1c (see explanation below of HbA1c or glycated haemolglobin) target was to get it under 6%! The blood glucose readings, especially those first thing in the morning (fasting) and 2 hours after a meal (postprandial) help to see whether your medication is at the right dose. During this period the researchers tried to see if blood glucose sugar levels that are measured 2 hours after a meal play a role in predicting macrovascular complications. ADVANCE Collaborative Group (2008) ‘Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes’.

This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis.
Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) is the medium potency grade ginseng, while Panax japonicus (Japanese ginseng) is considered the low potency grade ginseng.
Patients in this study were monitored for a further 10 years and it was found that although they did not follow such strict advice after the study ended, the benefits were still noticeable years later. However the end results showed that getting your HbA1C too low predisposes a person to getting too many hypoglycaemic episodes i.e. It seems that the most useful measurement to predict heart disease is to check blood sugar levels 2 hours after a meal along with the your bi-annual HbA1c.
Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). Type II diabetes is the major form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90?95% of all diabetic cases.
However, few herbal medicines have been well characterized and demonstrated the efficacy in systematic clinical trials as those of Western drugs. This benefit is felt to be due to ongoing benefits from early good glucose control and is called “metabolic memory’” or “The Legacy Effect”. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. This form of diabetes usually begins with insulin insensitivity, a condition in which muscle, liver and fat cells do not respond to insulin properly.
The anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginseng have been recently delineated [16]?K. This underlines the importance of discussing your glucose level targets with your diabetes health care provider.
The pancreas eventually loses the ability to produce and secrete enough insulin in response to food intake. Gestational diabetes is caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy or by insulin insufficiency. Glucose in the blood fails to enter cells, thereby increasing the glucose level in the blood.

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    Main symptoms of low blood sugar are and those between the ages of 45-55 who have.

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