An 11-year-old girl is presented at the clinic with reports of frequent fainting and lethargy. Prolonged fasting may result from an inability to obtain food, from the desire to lose weight rapidly, or in clinical situations in which an individual cannot eat because of trauma, surgery, neoplasms, burns etc. Glucagon- It opposes insulin action by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. Please help Biochemistry for Medics by "CLICKING ON THE ADVERTISEMENTS" every time you visit us.
Informed consent must be obtained from participants in this experiment (parental consent must be granted for minors). Follow all safety precautions when using the blood glucose monitoring kit and when handling blood, as described in the Procedure. You are probably very familiar with the fact that over time, exercise changes your muscles, your lungs, your bones, and even your mindset; but did you know it has an immediate effect on your body's biochemistry? Investigate how blood glucose (sugar) levels change with exercise, and how to stabilize those levels during and after exercise. Fortunately, for most of us, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are unlikely to occur because our bodies carefully regulate our blood glucose levels.
This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011).
Of course, in order to regulate glucose, our bodies need to have some to work with in the first place.
Although blood glucose levels stay in a safe range for most people, they do fluctuate over the course of a day based on when, how much, and what you eat.
Exercise also either increases or decreases blood glucose levels, depending on the person and other factors (the effects of exercise will be further explained in the next paragraph). This video shows how glucose is normally taken up from the blood by cells, and how problems with this process occur in diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring system and additional test strips and lancets, which are small surgical blades used to obtain a drop of blood. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service. Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. Before participating, discuss the science project (and any exercise routine required) with his or her doctor. Limit exercise to 1–2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions. Not exercise within 2 hours of going to sleep (to avoid changes in blood glucose levels while the person is asleep). Before testing how exercise affects a volunteer's blood glucose levels, establish a baseline of blood glucose levels for that person. Become familiar with the blood glucose monitoring system and how to use it to check a person's blood glucose levels. In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's baseline blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer eats either breakfast or lunch, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels. Touch the test strip down onto the drop of blood, allowing the blood to be drawn into the strip. Once you are done taking the measurement, properly dispose of the test strip and have the volunteer wash his or her hands. Two hours after the volunteer started eating the meal, check his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3, above. Repeat steps 3–4 for the next two days so that you have taken these measurements for three days in a row. If possible, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, before and while you take measurements. How did the person's blood glucose levels change from before eating a meal to after eating a meal? You will now measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels before, during, and after exercising for 20 minutes. Note: A person with diabetes should limit exercise to 1 to 2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) (unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions). Choose which exercise activity (or combination of activities) you want your volunteer to do.
Figure out when to have the volunteer do the exercise activity (either right before they eat breakfast or lunch, or 2 hours after he or she has started eating the meal). If the volunteer does not have diabetes, and their blood glucose levels are not abnormal, it should be safe to have them exercise at either time.
If the volunteer has diabetes, it is recommended that exercise is done after eating a meal to prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia).
In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer starts the exercise activity, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. After the volunteer has finished exercising (for 20 minutes), measure his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. Safety Note: Checking blood glucose levels after exercising is important for a person with diabetes so he or she can prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) hours later.
Repeat steps 6–8 for the next two days so that you have taken these exercise-related measurements for three days in a row.
If possible, before the measurements are taken each day, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, and consistent to when you took the original blood glucose measurements. Calculate the average glucose levels for before exercising, during exercising, and after exercising for the three days.
Look at your graph and the average glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data.
Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when they exercised? You will now investigate how the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels could be managed and lessened, keeping the blood glucose levels more stable. Look at your results from the previous section and figure out whether the blood glucose levels were relatively high or low at any point.
For an idea of blood glucose level ranges, see step 6 in the "Creating a Baseline" section, above, and the resources in the Bibliography in the Background section. Make a plan for how to lessen the effects of exercise on the volunteer's blood glucose levels by changing only one of the following three factors: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of exercise, and (3) exercise time. Eating food: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly drop during exercise, then eating a carbohydrate snack may help increase his or her blood glucose levels. Intensity of the exercise and time spent exercising: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly decrease or increase during exercise, then doing a less intense exercise or exercising for less time may help.
Safety note: If your volunteer has diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing a more intense, or longer, exercise activity. If you have more than one volunteer, make a plan for each volunteer based on their individual results. Once you have planned how the activity will be changed, repeat steps 4–9 of the "Investigating the Effects of Exercise" section, but this time use your modified activity.
If you want, you can make a line graph of the averages from the modified activity and the original activity.
You should end up with six lines, with three from the averages of each type of activity tested. Look at your graphs and the average blood glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data. Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when he or she exercised? Does it look like your plan helped make the volunteer's blood glucose levels more stable when he or she exercised? Overall, were you able to help lessen the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels by changing the volunteer's exercise routine or having them eat? Eating food changes our blood glucose levels, and different types of foods may affect it differently.
How does eating a certain, defined amount of glucose affect a person's blood glucose levels immediately and over time? Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project.
My group had problems with making sure we recorded what we ate, our levels, and what time we took the reading. The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources. Who does a diabetic turn to if they have questions or do not understand how to manage their disease?


Ever wondered who plans the school lunch, food for patients at a hospital, or the meals for athletes at the Olympics? You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. The figure below, from the excellent book by Wilmore and colleagues (2007), shows the variation of blood insulin and glucose in response to an endurance exercise session. As you can see, blood insulin levels decreased markedly in response to the exercise bout, in an exponential decay fashion. Muscle tissue will increase its uptake of free fatty acids and ketones during exercise, to spare glucose for the brain.
Truth be told, the discussion in the paragraph above is mostly academic, because muscle tissue can take up glucose without insulin.
Exercise seems to lead, in the long term, to insulin sensitivity; but through a fairly complex and longitudinal process that involves the interaction of many hormones. Ned,Doug McGuff mentioned a few studies in Body By Science indicating that high intensity strength training (to failure) has a greater impact on insulin sensitivity than lower intensity training.
Hi Chris.Higher intensity training will have a bigger impact on growth hormone release in response to exercise.
Ned,I recently came across some information related to exercise and lipase that may be of interest.
An analogy would be a car using carbon dioxide emissions as fuel, and creating more fuel in the process!I don't know, that seems like a pretty bad thermodynamic analogy. Hi Anon.I definitely think that one should wait a bit before eating after exercising, but not too much. HI have reactive hypoglycemia (not diabetic) and have found that if I eat more protein, it is more or less being controlled.Can I still do high intensity work outs?
I strongly believe that lifestyle, nutrition and exercise habits that are compatible with our evolutionary past are the key to optimal health. Ned Kock gratefully acknowledges that he regularly consults with the most interesting man in the world, especially in connection with complex scientific matters. The endocrine system is made up of ductless glands called endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream or in the extracellular fluid. A hormone is a chemical substance made and secreted by one cell that travels through the circulatory system or the extracellular fluid to affect the activities of cells in another part of the body or another nearby cell. The nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms.
These hormones consist of chains of amino acids that vary in size from 3 amino acids (TRH) to 191 amino acids (GH).
Thyroid hormones that go to the mitochondria increase the rate of ATP production in the cell.
Ex: Preganglionic sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines. This hormone signals the collecting ducts of the kidneys to reabsorb more water and constrict blood vessels, which leads to higher blood pressure and thus counters the blood pressure drop caused by dehydration. Stimulates the myoepithelial cells of the breasts to contract which releases milk from breasts when nursing. The releasing and inhibiting hormones made by the hypothalamus reach the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland DIRECTLY by a special set of blood vessels called the hypophyseal portal system.
The hypothalamus makes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin in the cell bodies of neurons and then the hormones are transported down the axons which extend into the posterior pituitary gland.
Click here for an animation on the relationship of the hypothalamus to the anterior and posterior pituitary glands and on the relationship of the hormones made in the hypothalamus (ADH, oxytocin, releasing hormones, and inhibiting hormones) to the anterior and posterior pituitary glands. Neurohypophysis – posterior lobe (neural tissue) receives, stores, and releases hormones (oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone) made in the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary via axons.
IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth. Travels to the adrenal gland (target cells) where it stimulates the release of corticosteroids (such as cortisol) in the adrenal cortex. Click here for an animation that will help you to understand how GnRH, FSH, and LH are involved in the female reproductive cycle. Travels to the mammary glands (target cells) and stimulates the development of mammary glands to produce milk. Click here for an animation that describes how the hypothalamus releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) which then acts on other organs to have its effects. In males it stimulates muscle contractions in the prostate gland to release semen during sexual activity. Click here for an animation that provides an example of positive and negative feedback control of the reproductive hormones.
Calcitonin decreases the concentration of calcium in the blood where most of it is stored in the bones; it stimulates osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity, resulting in new bone matrix formation.
Click here for an animation that describes the structure of the thyroid gland, how thyroid hormones are made, the functions of calcitonin and thyroid hormones, and the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism.
Click here for an animation that describes the structure of the parathyroid glands, the function of parathyroid hormones, and the effects of hypo- and hyperparathyroidism.
Norepinpehrine is similar to epinephrine, but it is less effective in the conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Up-regulation (receptors) occurs with insulin after 4 weeks of exercise to increase its sensitivity (diabetic importance).
Reduced plasma volume leads to release of aldosterone which increases Na+ and H2O reabsorption by the kidneys and renal tubes. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is released from the posterior pituitary when dehydration is sensed by osmoreceptors, and water is then reabsorbed by the kidneys. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized differently and is due to insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity, combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion which in some cases becomes absolute. When glucose levels become depleted, glucagon and cortisol levels rise significantly to enhance gluconeogenesis. Up-regulation (receptors) occurs with insulin after 4 weeks of exercise to increase its sensitivity (diabetic importance). This material is based upon work supported by the Nursing, Allied Health and Other Health-related Educational Grant Program, a grant program funded with proceeds of the State’s Tobacco Lawsuit Settlement and administered by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Apparently her condition is consistent with a low energy state that might be due to poor diet or anorexia nervosa which is very common in girls of this age. In the absence of food the plasma levels of glucose, amino acids and triacylglycerols fall, triggering a decline in insulin secretion and an increase in glucagon release. The blood glucose levels are maintained by dietary glucose during fed state, through glycogenolysis during early fasting and by gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting or starvation.
The experimental design (including consent forms) must be approved by your fair's Scientific Review Committee (SRC). If somebody who has diabetes wants to participate in this science project, review the safety notes at the beginning of the Procedure before starting.
You can see this in the amount of glucose (a type of sugar your body uses for fuel) circulating in your blood. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas.
This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels.
Levels can decrease because glucose in the blood (and stored glucose) is used up during exercise. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Note: You will test blood glucose levels at least 24 times, and since a lancet and test strip are needed for each test, you will need at least 24 lancets and 24 test strips that work with the monitoring system. A baseline is a typical amount that can be used to compare to experimental amounts to see if they are much larger, or smaller, than normal. Be sure to read through all of the instructions that came with the system before you start using it. After a drop of blood has been touched to the test strip, you can read the test strip results on the blood glucose meter. Big changes in the type of food the volunteer eats could significantly affect his or her blood glucose levels (as shown in Figure 1, in the Background tab), but you are taking measurements over three days to try and account for these fluctuations.
So if your volunteer has diabetes, find out his or her schedule for the three days you will be doing exercise testing.
The volunteer will exercise for 20 minutes, so make sure that the exercise planned is not too vigorous for your volunteer. Include space to record the date, time, and whether the measurements are before or after eating a meal. Be sure to do it around the same time (right before or after the same meal you decided on in step 3) for each day.
Hint: You may want to refer to the information in the Introduction to help you explain the results.


Based on your results from the previous section, you will pick one of the following factors to explore over three days: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of the exercise, or (3) time spent exercising. Research what factors affect blood glucose levels and then investigate how exactly they affect it using a blood glucose monitoring system.
Do some background research into this topic to investigate how blood glucose levels change (over time) when a person eats different foods.
How do the results from urinalysis strips compare to the results from a glucose monitoring system? If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help. Athletic trainers help athletes, and other physically active people, avoid such injuries, while also working to improve their strength and conditioning. During exercise, the brain will derive part of its energy from ketones, but will still need glucose to function properly. And muscle tissue will also consume glucose, in part for glycogenesis; that is, for making muscle glycogen, which is being depleted by exercise.
Insulin is a hormone that allows the pancreas, its secreting organ, to communicate with two main organs – the liver and body fat.
The reason is that resistance exercise leads to the conversion of muscle glycogen into energy, releasing lactate in the process. One of the mechanisms may be an overall reduction in insulin levels, leading to increased insulin sensitivity as a compensatory adaptation. The combination of the long- and short-term effects of exercise appears to lead to an overall slowing down of the progression of insulin resistance with age.
Glycogenolysis leads to lactate production, which is also used by muscle as a source of energy. Protein synthesis is dramatically increased after exercise, particularly within a 2 h window. I am used to working out hard and find it so sad that my sugar levels may drop post workout? On the other hand, I do not believe that closely mimicking life in the Paleolithic is optimal for health, or even viable. This blog makes limited use of copyrighted material (including tables and figures) for commentary, always with proper attribution and in ways that comply with fair use law.
The hormone binds to a G protein-linked receptor on the cell membrane; t he hormone acts as a first messenger. The binding of the hormone to the G protein-linked receptor activates a second messenger such as cAMP.
Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones pass directly through the cell membrane of target cells.
If they bind to receptors in the cytoplasm, the hormone-receptor complex then enters the nucleus.
Name Email WebsiteSubmit Comment Recent Posts One Size May Not Fit All on GI Foods Low GI Foods May Help You Sleep What Exactly Is the Glycemic Index Diet? The decreased insulin to glucagon ratio, and the decreased availability of circulating substrates, make this period of nutritional deprivation a catabolic state, characterized by degradation of glycogen, triacylglycerol and protein. The substrates for gluconeogenesis are obtained from the products of catabolism such as carbon skeleton of amino acids, glycerol, lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle.
In the current state of hypoglycemia the epinephrine level cannot be low, instead it should be high. When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it to use for energy. To prevent blood glucose levels from dropping too much (and causing hypoglycemia), it is sometimes recommended that people with type 1 diabetes have a snack before and while exercising.
The volunteer will be exercising for 20 minutes, so make sure to pick an activity that is not too vigorous for your volunteer.
To create a baseline of blood glucose levels, you will measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels over three days, twice a day: right before the volunteer eats a meal (which is called the preprandial plasma glucose) and 2 hours after they started eating the meal (called the postprandial plasma glucose). If there are too many ketones in the blood, it could mean that a person does not have enough insulin to lower his or her blood glucose levels.) The ketone results may affect whether the person can later safely do the exercise activity required for participating in this science project, and whether you may need to find a new volunteer(s) because of this.
Base this on the average baseline glucose levels you determined in step 7 (and any ketone data from step 4) of the previous section, as well as any known medical history the person has. If the investigation is being done on a person with diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing testing. Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Should a sports injury occur, athletic trainers help to evaluate the injury, determine the treatment needed, and design a fitness regime to rehabilitate the athlete so he or she is ready to go out and compete again.
Exercise appears to have a positive effect on insulin sensitivity in the long term, but also increases blood glucose levels in the short term. In fact, that need is critical for survival, and may be seen as a bit of an evolutionary flaw. In this sense, we can say that muscle tissue is becoming somewhat insulin resistant, because it is using more free fatty acids and ketones for energy, and thus less glucose.
In the short term, particularly while it is being conducted, exercise nearly always increases blood glucose levels. LPL works mainly and triglycerides, and HL works on both TG and HDL.EL secretion is activated by inflammation which results in increased catabolism of HDL and thus lower HDL levels. The remaining lactate goes into circulation, reaching the liver and being used as fuel for gluconeogenesis.An analogy would be a car using carbon dioxide emissions as fuel, and creating more fuel in the process!
Blood glucose level should be low in such a state as evident from frequent fainting spells. Gluconeogenesis becomes the main mechanism for maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis during prolonged fasting (Figure). When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy.
However, exercise can also cause blood glucose levels to increase if too much stored glucose gets released when a person exercises and it is not used up while exercising. Some dietitians and nutritionists also work to educate people about good food choices so they can cook and eat their own healthy meals. That is, exercise, while it is happening, leads to an increase in circulating blood glucose. But, still, the elevation was fairly small in the participants, which were all normoglycemic. Another way of looking at this, however, which is favored by Wilmore and colleagues (2007), is that muscle tissue is becoming more insulin sensitive, because it is still taking up glucose, even though insulin levels are dropping. It is also used by the liver for production of glucose through gluconeogenesis, which significantly elevates blood glucose levels. Even in the first few months after the beginning of an exercise program, blood glucose levels may increase. Two of my main areas of research are nonlinear variance-based structural equation modeling, and evolutionary biology as it applies to the study of human-technology interaction. Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people. If there is not enough insulin around, the glucose in the blood will not get stored again, and will remain in the blood (which can cause hyperglycemia).
In normoglycemic individuals, that increase is fairly small compared to the increase caused by consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods, particularly foods rich in refined carbohydrates and sugars.
Low insulin levels, during exercise, will do the opposite, leading to low glucose uptake by the liver and an increase in body fat catabolism.
That hepatic glucose is then used by muscle tissues to replenish their depleted glycogen stores. If a person who was on a low carbohydrate diet started a 3-month exercise program, it is quite possible that the person’s average blood glucose would go up a bit. Similarly, an inflammatory diet (high carb, omega-6) diet will reduce HDL and increase TG, while an anti-inflammatory diet does the opposite.Much of this information came from PMID 16980590. For people with diabetes, this can be addressed by taking an insulin shot after exercising.
Once you have a clear idea of the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, you will try to diminish the changes by eating food, or by changing the intensity of the exercise or the exercise time. I am interested in the application of science, statistics, and technology to the understanding of human health and behavior. By eating a paleo diet and lifting twice a week I have lost 60 pounds and droped my BG from 135+ to 87 in 6 months. Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person has insulin resistance, which means the person's body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin.
Type 2 diabetes is managed by increasing exercise, changing diet, and possibly by taking medications such as insulin.



Blood sugar testing with iphone
Signs of hypoglycemia in 3 year old boy


Comments

  1. 05.03.2015 at 21:12:11


    Suppress hepatic glucose production), peripheral insulin resistance (which impairs with.

    Author: PaTRoN
  2. 05.03.2015 at 19:53:13


    Carbohydrate diet, including cutting your risk control is poor, the excess glucose can enter or cross the.

    Author: YUJNI_SEVER
  3. 05.03.2015 at 18:26:16


    A1c measurement and goals for improvement: from the 16-carbon fatty acyl-chain (palmitic acid.

    Author: zeri
  4. 05.03.2015 at 22:30:12


    Their own blood glucose levels were obtained after the overnight fast.

    Author: Koketka