When shtf and there are no IVs to rehydrate severely dehydrated patients, rehydrate rectally. If you have trouble getting to the article using the link, the title is Proctoclysis: Emergency Rectal Fluid Infusion.
The only thing it doesn't have is a formula for homemade rectal rehydration solution, so until I find other information, I'd use an oral rehydration solution.
The only thing it doesn't have is a recipe for homemade rectal rehydration solution, so until I find other information, I'd use an oral rehydration solution.
Rectal rehydration is fairly well known because of the effectiveness of the colon in drying up feces.
Along with rectal rehydration, you can also use oral rehydration using dextrose (glucose) added in.
The one ion transporting that is usually still good is the glucose-sodium cotransporter, which uses sugar to aid in sodium (and thus water) re-absorption.
Of course for trauma or dehydration where no IV can be placed, rectal hydration is very effective.
I guess the scenario is you are tooling around the desert and find a passed out from exposure and thirst Swedish bikini team model you are certain you want to save and can't be revived to drink water? If the patient has a bowel movement and releases all the fluid you just pumped in is that a good or a bad sign? If the patient is unconscious due to dehydration and no other factors how long should it be before they feel better and come to? Pumping water in (yes, a pump would work fine, but I would start with a half liter isotonic solution) may result in some water being lost back out, but there are maneuvers you could do to keep water in. Truth is, while you could use this in an unconscious person, if they are that far gone from dehydration, they will most likely need more advanced medical attention from systemic damage (renal failure, etc) than water will do.
The pharmaceutical industry is constantly looking for efficiencies in the drug development process in order to speed up the delivery of a molecule to market at a cost-effective price. The technique is based on manipulation of a variety of infusions to directly explore a range of metabolic processes.
Infusions are delivered through a cannula placed in a suitable vein contralateral to the sampling cannula. Isoglycaemic clamp: clamping subjects at the typical fasting blood glucose level for the population being studied. Glucose clamps may or may not include a venous infusion of exogenous insulin that interrupts the physiologically-operating feedback loop between plasma glucose concentration and insulin secretion. The adaptable nature of the glucose clamp makes it a useful tool in metabolic drug development with relevance well beyond the traditional applications as a measure of insulin sensitivity, beta cell sensitivity, or time-action profiling of insulin products. The flexibility of clamp procedure design allows for controlled examination of an investigational product’s behaviour in almost any conceivable metabolic environment. The relatively low inherent variability associated with wellexecuted glucose clamp procedures translates into enhanced assurance that changes observed are a treatment effect. The challenge during mammalian cell line development is to identify and isolate stable, high expressing cell lines producing product with the appropriate critical product quality attributes rapidly, reproducibly and with relative ease.
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When I click on the link, I get a blank page with a pop up at the bottom asking if I want to open the pdf.
Here is a bit more information, as we are currently going over this in medical pathophysiology class. Water always follows ion, so sodium is pumped across the membrane of the intestine into cells. During severe diarrhea outbreaks, it is more effective to use oral hydration therapy combined with plain old glucose or dextrose to aid in water reabsorption. Each segment of intestine and colon has different transporters, but almost all except for parts of the colon has the glucose-sodium transport, which can be life saving.
I have a pump I keep to feed my water filter and as an emergency Arkansas credit card (siphon gas). But if a person is vomiting their guts out or has lost a lot blood which you were able to stop, this could work very well. Pharmacodynamic models can play a pivotal role in providing evidence of target engagement and putative efficacy, as well as aiding with dose selection in subsequent patient trials. As such, there are many different types of clamp that may be further modified with accessory techniques. Arterialised venous blood is collected from the sampling cannula placed in the dorsum of the hand in retrograde position, with heat applied constantly throughout the procedure. Based on the results of the bedside blood glucose values, the subject’s blood glucose is manipulated towards a target with an infusion of dextrose that is typically variable.
Isoglycaemic clamps in Type 2 diabetics would be at a target blood glucose level that would clinically be considered hyperglycaemic to fasting healthy populations. This hyperinsulinaemia stimulates peripheral glucose uptake, suppresses endogenous insulin production, and suppresses hepatic glucose production. The net effect of these additional infusions is an expansion of the glucose clamp platform application.
Additional concomitant infusions and accessory techniques may also be included to achieve specific goals depending on the scope and focus of the clamp procedure. The degree to which these conditions and results can be reproduced conveys the glucose clamp’s exploratory value.
This reduced variability also requires exposure to fewer subjects in order to arrive at statistically significant conclusions. Having completed an MS in Physiology at Texas Tech University Health and Science Center in 2003, Clayton began his professional career at a start-up biotech company developing investigational devices, techniques and compounds for use in the fertility and assisted reproductive industry, before advancing to the role of Director of Clinical Research and Development. Obtaining a host cell line that inherently exhibits desirable biomanufacturing attributes can therefore have a significantly positive effect on the identification of recombinant cell lines with desired traits during cell line development screens. The article mirrors a technique called hypodermoclysis-before vein cannulation volumes of fluids were injected into a large muscle such as the thigh, for absorption. Thinking it would be more convenient to use a syringe to deliver 250ml at a time through the catheter and clamp off the catheter until enough time had passed for absorption. The early segments of the colon dry it further, and by the time it reaches the rectum, you have well formed feces.
In the diabetes therapeutic area the glucose clamp is traditionally applied to measure insulin sensitivity, beta cell sensitivity, or to characterise the time-action profile of an insulin product. In addition to diversity, the great scientific strength of the glucose clamp is the reproducibility of its results; this is the fundamental element of the glucose clamp’s significance as a research tool.


Sampling from a closed-loop system prevents blood volume lost to waste as blood glucose is traditionally measured at the bedside at five-minute intervals during the clamp. In some instances this dextrose infusion may be set at fixed rates as with graded glucose infusions, assuming one considers these to be very basic glucose clamps. In this paradigm, the variable amount of dextrose infused to maintain the target blood glucose is indicative of the rate of disappearance of glucose from the periphery. For instance, the use of stable glucose isotope infusions allows for the quantification of residual hepatic glucose production.
The intra-individual (within subject) coefficient of variation for the glucose clamp procedure is generally considered to be about 10 per cent. Therefore, glucose clamp data can be used to support strategic drug development decisions at a very early stage and, by virtue of the procedure’s adaptable and reproducible nature, streamline the development of new agents to treat Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. In 2006 Clayton refocused his research interests on metabolism; subsequently he has conducted thousands of clamps and brings substantial experience with tools of metabolic research to his current role. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to exploit intrinsic heterogeneity within host cell populations and identify host cell lines which are more “fit for purpose”. However, in some parasitic and bacterial diarrhea outbreaks, ion transport is impaired, and water IS NOT reabsorbed.
Water is constantly absorbed through the colon, so even a little water residual will do something. The procedure is a powerful, well-established metabolic research method that can facilitate the development of novel agents for the treatment of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
This combination of application flexibility and extreme reproducibility make the glucose clamp an appealing tool to streamline the development of new agents to treat Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. In addition to the primary description of the glucose clamp target blood glucose, clamps may be further described with regard to venous exogenous insulinisation. This could remain unsuppressed during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps due to hepatic insulin resistance in affected populations. Other indices of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism are assessed with the physiologically operating, insulin-glucose feedback loop intact. Clamps that integrate a venous exogenous insulin infusion are typically labelled with the phrase ‘insulin clamp’ or ‘hyperinsulinaemic’.
This makes it possible to employ the glucose clamp technique in the study of insulin resistant populations such as Type 2 diabetics, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or subjects with compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. Among these methods are frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests with minimal model analysis, insulin tolerance tests, and homeostasis models of glucose tolerance.
These terms are absent from the title of clamps that do not include venous exogenous insulin infusions.
These other models exhibit an intra-individual coefficient of variation two or three times higher than observed in the glucose clamp.



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