In the previous two Health Yourself columns Professor Victor Katch discussed proteins and lipids.
Most likely, the first use of sugarcane by humans was to chew it to obtain its “sweet juice.” Its use as a confectionary is legendary and widespread throughout history, as sugar has found its way  into almost every type of packaged and processed food we encounter today. Honey, in fact, has a long history in healing; its salutary effects stem primarily from its antimicrobial properties. Sugar’s many uses spread from northern India eastward to China and (along with the cultivation of sugarcane) westward into Persia, eventually reaching the east coast of the Mediterranean about 600 AD.
In subsequent centuries, sugar became intimately associated with European colonization of tropical portions of the New World. Profits from sugar sales were used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. Glucose, also called dextrose or blood sugar, is formed naturally in food or in the body through digestion of other carbohydrates. Galactose does not exist freely in nature; rather, it combines with glucose to form milk sugar in mammary glands of lactating animals. Oligosaccharides, another type of carbohydrate, form when 2-10 monosaccharides bond chemically. Monosaccharides and disaccharides collectively are called simple sugars, added sugars, or just sugar. Lactose (glucose + galactose), also a disaccharide, is notfound in plants, but exists in natural form only in milk, as milk sugar.
Maltose (glucose + glucose), the third disaccharide, occurs in beer, breakfast cereals, and germinating seeds. Polysaccharides represent another type of carbohydrate and are described by linkage of three or more (up to thousands) mono- and disaccharide molecules.
Starch, the storage form of carbohydrate in plants, occurs in seeds, corn, and various grains of bread, cereal, pasta, and pastries. Fiber, classified as a nonstarch, structural polysaccharide, includes cellulose, the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. Much of the interest in dietary fiber originates from studies that link high fiber intake with a lower occurrence of obesity, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, digestive disorders, elevated blood cholesterol, colorectal cancer, and heart disease. Americans consume about 12-15 g of fiber daily, far short of the recommended 38 g for men and 25 g for women up to age 50.
Glycogen, the storage carbohydrate within mammalian muscle and liver, is a large polysaccharide ranging from a few hundred to 30,000 glucose molecules linked together. Foods containing dietary fiber slow carbohydrate digestion, minimizing surges in blood glucose.
The average American currently consumes 22-28 teaspoons of added sugars daily (equivalent to 350-440 empty calories per day; and about 70 lbs. Consistently high intake of high-glycemic foods, including added sugars, reduces the body’s sensitivity to insulin, thus requiring progressively more insulin to optimize blood-sugar levels. While high-glycemic foods are OK in moderation, it is usually best to opt for low- or moderate-glycemic options whenever possible. Consistent light-to-moderate physical activity performed on a regular basis exerts a potent influence to improve insulin sensitivity, thereby reducing the insulin requirement for a given glucose uptake. The American Heart Association recommends limiting daily intake of added sugars to 5 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men. For more physically active people and those involved in exercise training, carbohydrates should equal about 60 percent of daily calories or 400-600 g, predominantly as unrefined, fiber-rich fruits, grains, and vegetables. During periods of intense exercise training, carbohydrate intake should increase to 70 percent of total calories, or approximately 8-10 g per kg of body weight. Sources of nutritious dietary carbohydrate consist of plant polysaccharides, including fruits, grains, and vegetables.
VICTOR KATCH has been active in the exercise, nutrition, and weight control arena for more than 40 years at the University of Michigan. How does xylitol from plant sources (often corn) compare to the sugars you have written about?

Xylitol is not a sugar, but a naturally occuring sugar alcohol that is digestable to humans and is sourced from hardwood trees (best) or some crops like corn (hazardous if grown with pesticide applications).
The Lapita, a maritime people, carried the sugar cane further eastward, into, and throughout the Pacific.
About the AuthorVICTOR KATCH has been active in the exercise, nutrition, and weight control arena for more than 40 years at the University of Michigan. Most of us easily cut out table sugar from our diets since it was so obvious to remove, but did you know there is hidden sugar in most packages foods.
It’s important to look for words ending in “ose,” like maltose or sucrose which are usually forms of added sugar.
Oligosaccharides [Greek oligo = few; sacchar = sugar] are carbohydrates composed of 3 to 9 monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides, except maltotriose, are indigestible, which means humans lack enzymes to break them down in the small intestine, so they reach the large intestine, where beneficial colonic bacteria break them down (ferment) to absorbable nutrients, which provide some energy–about 2 Calories (kilocalories) per gram in average [1]. Most oligosaccharides act as a soluble fiber, which may help prevent constipation. Ingestion of large amount of oligosaccharides can result in abdominal bloating and excessive gas (flatulence). Prebiotics are non-digestible nutrients that selectively promote the growth of normal intestinal bacteria that may have beneficial effects on the large intestinal lining.
The information on this site is for educational purposes only and should not be considered diagnostic or medical advice.
Ingredients : Milk, Milk Solids, Sugar, Edible Vegetable Oil, Cocoa Sodas, Liquid Glucose, Dextrose, Permitted Emulsifier (E471, E322) & Stabilizers (E407, E410, E412, E466), Contains Added Flavor.
Evidence of sugar as a healing agent appears as far back as 500 BC in Sanskrit texts from northern India.
Research documents honey’s function as an anti-inflammatory agent, reducing both swelling and pain.
By the 1700s the Caribbean emerged as the largest source of the world’s sugar supply. Fructose also serves as an energy source but rapidly moves from the digestive tract into the blood or liver to convert to fat, and also glucose. The major oligosaccharides, the disaccharides, or double sugars, form when 2 monosaccharide molecules combine. It occurs naturally in most carbohydrates foods, especially beet and cane sugar, brown sugar, sorghum, maple syrup, and honey.
The least sweet of the disaccharides, lactose when artificially processed often becomes an ingredient in carbohydrate-rich, high-calorie liquid meals.
The term complex carbohydrate describes dietary starch, and accounts for about 50 percent  of the typical individual’s total calorie intake. Fiber occurs exclusively in plants comprising the structure of leaves, stems, roots, seeds, and fruit coverings.
Water-soluble, mucilaginous fibers such as psyllium seed husk, ?-glucan, pectin, and guar gum, present in oats, beans, brown rice, peas, carrots, cornhusks, and many fruits. Of this, muscle glycogen accounts for the largest reserve (approximately 400 g), followed by 90-110 g as liver glycogen (highest concentration, representing 3-7 percent of the liver’s weight), with only about 2-3 g as blood glucose. Scientists classify foods into high- and low-glycemic index foods, determined by how quickly the food digests and raises blood-sugar levels, two hours after ingestion. In contrast, low-fiber processed starches (and most simple sugars) digest quickly and enter the blood at a relatively rapid rate (high glycemic index).
Type 2 diabetes results when the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin, or cells become insensitive to the effects of insulin to regulate blood glucose, causing it to rise.
And, it is a good idea to minimize sugary beverage intake, including fruit juices, to lower the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, gout, and dental cavities. For reference, one 12-ounce can of cola contains about 8 teaspoons of added sugar, for about 130 calories. But for a sedentary 70-kg (150-lb.) person, daily carbohydrate intake typically amounts to about 300 g or 40-50 percent of total calories. These “good sugars” come in a nutrient-dense package with none of the downsides of added sugars, and they perform valuable functions in the body.

Components of carbohydrate breakdown serve as “primer” substrate for fat breakdown. The lack of adequate carbohydrate intake produces incomplete fat breakdown with accumulation of ketone bodies. The central nervous system requires an uninterrupted stream of carbohydrate for proper function. Under normal conditions, the brain metabolizes blood glucose almost exclusively as its main fuel source. He earned his undergraduate degrees in international relations (political science) and physical education (kinesiology) from California State University at Northridge.
It is not digestable to the bacteria that live on your teeth and cause cavities, so this explains, in part, why it is protective for your teeth unlike sugars and sorbitol (the sweetener in most toothpastes). If you purchase a product through an affiliate link, your costs will be the same but Holistically Engineered will receive a small commission. Oligosaccharides currently considered as prebiotics include fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or oligofructose and trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS) [2].
Healers applied sugar paste to infections and wounds to draw out moisture, dehydrating and ultimately killing bacteria. Honey also has shown to be extraordinarily effective in treating wounds, burns, and surgical incisions, and is even known to reduce scarring. The trade of sugar, mostly in its liquid form of molasses, originated from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum.
Profits from the sale of slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe, etc.
Most people are in a perpetual state of confusion, and blame sugar for everything from their sagging abdomens to erratic mood swings. Each gram of either glycogen or glucose contains approximately 4 calories (kcal) of energy. Most of this sugar comes in the form of high-fructose corn syrup and ordinary table sugar (sucrose).
Most American women and men should eat or drink no more than 100 and 150 calories per day from added sugars, respectively. One fourth of Americans consume 200 or more calories daily from sugary soft drinks, and 5 percent slurp at least 567 liquid calories each day. Sufficient daily carbohydrate intake is needed to maintain the body’s relatively limited glycogen stores. In excess, ketones increase body fluid acidity and produce a potentially harmful acidic condition called acidosis or, specifically with regard to fat breakdown, ketosis.
Successful Treatment of Chronically Infected Wounds with Sugar Paste, Eur J Clin Microbiology Infectious Diseases, (7), 524-25. He also did undergraduate work in international relations at the prestigious University of Uppsala in Sweden. Another reason it is good for your teeth is that it can help keep your mouth slightly alkaline, which is a bad environment for the harmful bacteria to grow in, but good for your body. In addition, honey functions as a moisturizer, a treatment for sunburn, and an all-purpose skin softener. This means the average person stores about 2,000 kcal as carbohydrate — enough total energy to power a 20-mile continuous run at high intensity. However, once cells reach their maximum capacity for glycogen storage, excess sugars of any kind convert to and store as fat. The demand for labor that it created led to the transatlantic slave trade that carried millions of Africans to the Americas.
This interconversion of sugar to fat (and protein to fat) for energy storage explains how body fat can increase when intake of dietary carbohydrates exceed energy requirements, even if the diet contains little fat.
For caffeine junkies, those 1,460 sodas contain about the same amount of caffeine (some 55,000 mg) as 367 tall, 12-oz. He has three children and five grandchildren, and is an avid exerciser who enjoys year-round walking and jogging with his wife, Heather, and playing golf whenever possible, weather permitting.

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