In the first half of the last century the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher among women than among men, but this trend has shifted, so more men than women are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . Figure 1: Cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance image of an obese woman and an obese man [1]. The sex differences in body fat distribution are closely related to sex differences in insulin resistance. Figure 2: Trajectories of fasting plasma glucose (a), fasting serum insulin (b), 2-hour plasma glucose (c) and 2-hour serum insulin (d). Some of the observed sex differences in body composition, insulin resistance and blood glucose levels are partly due to the effect of sex hormones. Observational studies have also found associations of low concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin with increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes independent of the concentrations of circulating sex hormones. When blood glucose concentrations are analysed as continuous variables the effect of post-OGTT glucose concentrations and HbA1c on CVD risk seem to be stronger among women than among men [11][12].
It has been used to screen for diabetes mell-itus, to diagnose diabetes and to monitor glucose control.
Diabetes is a type of lifestyle-related disease that affects many people worldwide with approximately 90% of patients being diagnosed with diabetes type 2. For those who are taking oral hypoglycaemic drugs, as well as those with type 1 diabetes (a condition where your body’s pancreas does not produce any insulin), one is strongly recommended to monitor their blood glucose levels frequently.
Monitoring blood glucose levels can help you better understand how your daily activities, medication, food, insulin, mood swing and stress influence your blood sugar levels. Since most blood glucose monitors come with a memory to store the readings in which this data can be downloaded to a computer and hence helping a doctor to monitor and analyze so that a better treatment of diabetes can be recommended for the patient.
To maintain the accuracy of the reading of a blood glucose meter, it should be recalibrated each time the reading is taken the device should be properly maintained. You should always ask your doctor’s advice regarding correct instructions in using a glucose meter. After getting the reading from your blood glucose meter, make sure you write it down in a record book everyday so that you can better keep track of your diabetes condition. Another important point for you is that you should keep your blood glucose level as close as possible to its normal range so as to help reduce the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes.
Note: If you are unable to perform this blood glucose testing, you can still perform urine test by using urine test strips to check the condition of your glucose levels. It is easy to prevent diabetes by eating healthy, being physically active and managing your maintaining a healthy weight. Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal. If you find yourself rushing to the washroom frequently, especially at night, this could signal diabetes. So frequent trips to the washroom and thirst are two symptoms that show how your body tries to manage the high blood sugar.
The kidneys, in the meantime, work overtime to get rid of the extra sugar and this results in a loss of calories, naturally harming the kidneys.. Those excessive pangs of hunger are a sign of diabetes and are caused by the extreme highs and lows in the blood sugar levels. If you have an infection, a cut, bruises, and other wounds that don’t seem to heal easily this is a classic sign of diabetes. When people suffer from high blood sugar levels, based on how long it has been, they can get used to not feeling well. The hands and feet feel numb or you experience a strange tingling along with burning and swelling. Have seen my aunt struggle with Diabetes initially and then she adopted a healthy life style and managed it really well. Disclaimer"Be Healthy, Be Happy", this blog, does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Cassia cinnamon has been used for diabetes, but the evidence regarding its effectiveness is contradictory. Cassia cinnamon may be of benefit for managing type 2 diabetes, but the optimal dose and duration of treatment are not yet known. It’s generally well-tolerated with no significant side effects reported in clinical trials. Caution use of high doses in those with pre-existing liver disease since cassia cinnamon contains coumarin, shown to cause hepatotoxicity in animals. Chromium is an essential trace mineral which is important for processing carbohydrates and also increases insulin sensitivity. There is insufficient evidence in the literature to make a definitive conclusion on the effects of chromium on glucose control – its effect may be highly variable because of individual reactions to the mineral.
3g American ginseng taken up to two hours before a meal can significantly reduce postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Depending on the preparation of American ginseng chosen, the glucose lowering effect may vary because of variations in the concentration of ginsenosides. Avoid using during pregnancy or breastfeeding, or in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, breast cancer or other hormone-sensitive conditions. Stop ginseng use at least seven days before surgery because of its glucose-lowering and anticoagulant effects. Whatever supplement, dose adjustments to diabetes medications may be necessary due to their potential glucose lowering effects. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. There are two different tests your doctor can use to measure your blood glucose to determine if you have pre-diabetes or diabetes: the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
The FPG test is a blood test that determines the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood after an overnight fast (not eating for at least 8 hours). With the OGTT test, a person's blood glucose level is measured after fasting and then 2 hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. See the chart below for the ranges of blood sugar levels and how they are used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Normally blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insufficient production of insulin, production of defective insulin (which is uncommon), or the inability of cells to use insulin properly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was also referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). While it is said that type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in individuals over 30 years old and the incidence increases with age, we are seeing an alarming number patients with type 2 diabetes who are barely in their teen years. While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors – the most significant of which is obesity. These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves ,and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels .Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease, angina or heart attack, strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply.
To treat diabetic retinopathy a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels.
The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels.
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. Diabetic nerve damage can affect the nerves that are important for penile erection, causing erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence).
Diabetic neuropathy can also affect nerves to the stomach and intestines, causing nausea, weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms of gastroparesis (delayed emptying of food contents from the stomach into the intestines, due to ineffective contraction of the stomach muscles). The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin) or carbamazapine (Tegretol) with topically applied capsaicin (an extract of pepper). Gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) are medications that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. The pain of diabetic nerve damage may also improve with better blood sugar control, though unfortunately blood glucose control and the course of neuropathy do not always go hand in hand.
The chart below gives you an idea of where your blood sugar level should be throughout the day. This change in the gender distribution of type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a more sedentary lifestyle particularly among men, resulting in increased obesity. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and especially the abdominal visceral fat is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Men are in general more insulin resistant than women, which can be explained by their higher proportion of visceral and hepatic fat compartments associated with insulin resistance [1].
For men (blue) and women (pink) who developed diabetes and men (light blue) and women (light pink) without diabetes from 18 years before time of diagnosis or last clinical examination in a diabetes free population (the Whitehall II study). After menopause, insulin sensitivity declines, indicating that oestrogen may exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity in women. The association between sex hormone binding globulin and insulin resistance is stronger in women than in men, and stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. However, the relative risk of coronary heart disease associated with diabetes is greater in women than in men [9], indicating that diabetes exerts a greater adverse effect on cardiovascular risk in women compared with men. However, among pre-diabetic individuals with IFG there is no difference in the relative risk of CVD between men and women [13]14, so there are insufficient data to suggest a sex difference in the association between pre-diabetes and CVD risk. My questions and uncertainities got cleared by the straight forward and well organised information. Frequent checking and monitoring of your glucose blood level can help you stay healthy while reducing the risk of long-term complications arising from diabetes.

These factors include overall health, age, and whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similarly, people with type 2 diabetes (a condition when your body’s cells ignore the insulin or your pancreas does not produce enough insulin) are also advised to monitor their glucose level so that the given treatment can meet the desired goals. This info is much needed as it will aid in better management of your diabetes besides delaying or preventing diabetic complications which include kidney failure, blindness and diabetic indulged eye disease. From the blood glucose monitor, you get a reading of your blood glucose level in a digital form. Most manufacturers provide good service support but some do not, so you should look for the meter which offers the best service and technical support. It is always easier to prick on your fingertip as it is less painful to prick particularly on one side. Talk to your doctor if your blood glucose level is not within the normal range and ask him or her to suggest a good range for your blood glucose level and also what you should do to maintain a healthy blood glucose level. What happens is this: the kidneys work overtime to get rid of the extra glucose cruising through the blood. Very high blood sugar levels cause rapid weight loss – like 10-20 pounds in two three months. When blood sugar levels dive, the body thinks it hasn’t been fed and craves more of the glucose that our cells need, to function efficiently.
Other skin conditions include acanthosis nigricans where the skin darkens around the neck or arm pit area.
This happens because the blood vessels are being damaged by the overdose of glucose in the veins and arteries. Diabetes is considered an immuno-supressed state and this opens you up to a number of infections, although the most common are yeast or candida and other fungal infections. If your blood sugar has been really high, it is when it is brought down that you realize how bad you felt.
Its important to know what’s happening to our bodies and even the smallest of irregularities causes problems on a larger scale! The fact that we can prevent it by appropriate lifestyle modifications is what we can be thankful for. A lot of people are suffering from diabetes and the main cause is overweight, so it’s quite crucial to control your body weight. Chromium picolinate has been shown to decrease fasting blood glucose but does not reduce HbA1C.
Chromium picolinate appears to provide greater efficacy likely because of its increased absorption and bioavailability.
Another study has shown that 100-200 mg daily for eight weeks also reduces fasting blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Remain open-minded and non-judgmental when counselling patients using CAM, and proactively query them on their use of these agents to support their diabetes management. Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.
In general, it is recommended that any blood test that is outside the normal range be repeated on a different day to confirm the diagnosis.
In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood. Type 1 diabetes was also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body’s needs. In fact, for the first time in the history of humans, type 2 diabetes is now more common than type 1 diabetes in childhood. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults.
In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal.
Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% of diabetics have retinopathy after 15 years of the disease. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in diabetic patients.
In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Erectile dysfunction can also be caused by poor blood flow to the penis from diabetic blood vessel disease. Newer medications for nerve pain have recently come to market .Pregabalin (Lyrica) which has an indication for diabetic neuropathic pain and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are newer agents used in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control these day-to-day factors.
After all, keeping your blood sugar level within your target range can help you live a long and healthy life with diabetes. Too little food in comparison to your diabetes medications — especially insulin — may result in dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This is especially important if you’ve been inactive and plan to start exercising regularly. If you take insulin, you may need to adjust your insulin dose before exercising or wait a few hours to exercise after injecting insulin.
Check your blood sugar level before, during and after exercise, especially if you take insulin or medications that can cause low blood sugar. If your diabetes medications cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, the dosage or timing may need to be adjusted.
If you’re considering an over-the-counter medication or your doctor prescribes a new drug to treat another condition — such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol — ask your doctor or pharmacist if the medication may affect your blood sugar level. Knowing your blood sugar levels allows you to alter your diabetes management strategy if your levels aren’t near your target blood sugar. The traditional method of testing your blood sugar involves pricking your finger with a lancet (a small, sharp needle), putting a drop of blood on a test strip and then placing the strip into a meter that displays your blood sugar level.
Your ideal blood sugar range may be different from another person’s and will change throughout the day. Hemoglobin A1c provides an average of your blood sugar control over a six to 12 week period and is used in conjunction with home blood sugar monitoring to make adjustments in your diabetes medicines. Your regular diabetes checkups aren’t meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams. Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly can go a long way toward controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol. Smoking increases your risk of various diabetes complications, including heart attack, stroke, nerve damage and kidney disease. Alcohol can cause either high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and if you eat at the same time. However, recent data have also shown that men develop diabetes at a lower degree of obesity than women – a finding which adds support to the view that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes differs between men and women. Body fat distribution differs by sex [1], and in general men have more abdominal fat, whereas women have more peripheral fat – also denoted as “apple” versus “pear” shape.
However, it is not clear whether sex hormone binding globulin leads to insulin resistance or whether the reversal pathway is the case[8].
This suggestion is supported by the finding that cardiovascular risk factors differ more between women with and without diabetes than between diabetic and non-diabetic men [10]. Monitoring diabetes or blood glucose level is important to help monitor how much glucose present in your blood. Personal preferences and your understanding regarding your health condition can help you better target your blood glucose level. Many blood glucose monitors come with different features with some of them made specifically for those who have poor eyesight or other disabilities.
It is always advisable to ask your doctor which area (such as thigh, or forearm) should be used with your meter. Certainly, in most cases, ‘acceptable’ blood glucose levels can be slightly varied from one individual to another. You may also need to advise your doctor about what you have eaten, how active you are during the day, and how medications affect your insulin when discussing your glucose level with them, so that they can help you manage your diabetes or blood glucose level. I am stunned to learn that more than 62 million in India are diabetic and 1 in 2 of them don’t know they have it.
People with this symptom already have an insulin resistance process happening, even though their blood sugar may not be high. This makes it difficult for blood, which promotes healing, to reach different areas of the body.
Imagine getting up so many times to go to the washroom at night – this would make just about anyone tired, right?
Of course, it goes without saying that both of us have to be careful about what we eat, anyway.
This way you’ll be able to reduce the chances of having diabetes plus other health issues as well. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating cinnamon’s effects showed a statistically significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides, and increased levels of HDL-C.
Other studies have evaluated ginseng extract favourably, however, the species of ginseng was not specified. The American Diabetes Association recommends the FPG because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.

When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper functioning of the body cells. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin.
In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, higher body weight, and lack of exercise. It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight. After the person has fasted overnight (at least 8 hours), a single sample of blood is drawn and sent to the laboratory for analysis. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Diseased small blood vessels in the back of the eye cause the leakage of protein and blood in the retina. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine.
Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. Eating about the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal or snack will help keep your blood sugar level steady throughout the day.
And any medications you take for conditions other than diabetes can affect your blood sugar level, too. Meters vary in features, readability (with larger displays or spoken instructions for the visually impaired), portability, speed, size, and cost.
Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of a low blood sugar emergency — and make sure your friends and loved ones know how to use it.
During the physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications, as well as screen for other medical problems. In fact, smokers who have diabetes are three times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than are nonsmokers who have diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association.
The hormones your body may produce in response to prolonged stress may prevent insulin from working properly, which only makes matters worse.
Observations of sex differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance, sex hormones, and blood glucose levels further support this notion. Looking into the abdominal fat, men also tend to have more visceral and hepatic fat than women, whereas women have more subcutaneous fat than men (Figure 1). The preferential deposition of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous fat compartments in women compared with the visceral compartments in men seem to be related to the higher oestrogen levels in women compared with men. Because of the higher absolute risk for coronary heart disease among men and the higher relative risk among diabetic women, the absolute risk for coronary heart disease is comparable between men and women with diabetes. Therefore, it is particularly important for you to discuss with your doctor which one suits you best. By 2025 this number is expected to escalate to 80 million when India will be crowned Diabetes Capital of the World. And all the extra effort your body has to make to compensate for the glucose deficiency can drive strong people nuts. But like vision if the blood sugar is unchecked and ignored, neuropathy or nerve damage can become permanent. One is the fasting plasma glucose test that checks your blood sugar after a night or eight hours of fasting. In patients with diabetes, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia.
Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine and the glucose in digested food is then absorbed by the intestinal cells into the bloodstream, and is carried by the bloodstream to all the cells in the body where it is utilized.
In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells). Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion. Disease in these blood vessels also causes the formation of small aneurysms , and new but brittle blood vessels. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled.
When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Simply eating about the same amount of food at about the same time every day can help you control your blood sugar level. Stop exercising if you experience any warning signs, such as severe shortness of breath, dizziness or chest pain. Current devices provide results in less than 15 seconds and can store this information for future use. Establish a relationship with a diabetes educator, and ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it. In contrast to visceral fat, subcutaneous fat is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and is therefore protective against type 2 diabetes. Black bars at the bottom indicate data distribution over the follow-up period [*7].In addition to sex differences in insulin resistance it is also well documented that more men than women have elevated fasting glucose levels (impaired fasting glycaemia, IFG), whereas more women than men have elevated 2-hour glucose concentrations (impaired glucose tolerance, IGT) [3][4][5]. In contrast, testosterone levels are significantly associated with central fat accumulation in both men and women [1]. It triggers a lot of health issues like kidney trouble, high blood pressure, which in turn start of other health issues – and then sits back and watches the fun. The insulin hormone cannot get glucose into the blood cells where it should be used as energy. Luckily the symptom is reversible once blood sugar levels are back to normal or near normal. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
However, glucose cannot enter the cells alone and needs insulin to aid in its transport into the cells. When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin released from the pancreas is turned down. Spontaneous bleeding from the new and brittle blood vessels can lead to retinal scarring and retinal detachment, thus impairing vision. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.
Thus, the phenomenon that men develop diabetes at a lower body mass index than women [2] can be explained by the fact that men have more visceral fat for a given body mass index than women and thereby a higher relative risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
It has been suggested that part of the sex differences in 2-hour glucose and insulin concentrations is related to the different body sizes of men and women [3][5][6]. But if blood sugar is unchecked for long periods, the glucose can cause permanent damage and maybe even blindness. Without insulin, the cells become starved of glucose energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the bloodstream. In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range. Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, weakness and tremors. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. But even light activities — such as housework, gardening or being on your feet for extended periods — can lower your blood sugar level.
Some meters also feature software kits that retrieve information from the meter and display graphs and charts of your past test results. Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days. In general, women have a smaller body mass than men, which means it may take them longer time to metabolise the 75 g of glucose given during a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). It is a hereditary disease but can definitely be controlled through food habits and exercise.
In patients with diabetes, the insulin is either absent, relatively insufficient for the body’s needs, or not used properly by the body. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered.
On the other hand, the sex differences in glucose concentrations in the fasting state are likely to be caused by physiological differences, e.g. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts. Your health care provider will tell you when and how often you should check your blood sugar.

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  1. 22.08.2014 at 22:47:35

    And cause adrenalin secretion, increasing the blood sugar your GP or diabetes educator.

    Author: Sabishka
  2. 22.08.2014 at 11:55:28

    And our blood is the perform a diagnostic OGTT on that subset.

    Author: Jizn_S_Devockami
  3. 22.08.2014 at 18:23:45

    Customers who purchase this test.

    Author: unforgettable_girl