Diabetes mellitus (DM) comprises a group of common metabolic disorders that share common phenotype of hyperglycemia. In conclusion, Serum free iron concentration was higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor control.
Understanding the pathogenesis and preventing long-term complications have been major goals of research in diabetes mellitus. IntroductionDiabetes mellitus (DM) is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. Also there was a positive correlation with serum free iron concentration and glycemic control. Emerging scientific evidences has disclosed unsuspected influence between iron metabolism and type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Sirajwala, Anusha Chacko, Serum Free Iron Concentration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Good and Poor Control and Its Correlation with Glycemic Control, International Journal of Diabetes Research, Vol. Present study was undertaken to assess level of serum free iron concentration in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with good and poor glycemic control and find out correlation between serum free iron concentrations with glycemic control.
Complications from diabetes, such as coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, renal failure and blindness are resulting in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy and enormous health costs for virtually every society. A cross sectional study consists of 150 patients out of them 50 patients having type 2 DM with good control (Group II), 50 patients with type 2 DM with poor control (Group III) and 50 normal healthy control (Group-I) were selected. It is a chronic, incurable, costly, and increasing but largely preventable non communicable disease which is responsible for millions of deaths annually, debilitating complications and incalculable human misery. Statistically significant increase in free iron concentration in group III cases compare to Group I and Group II. Diabetes is undoubtedly one of the most challenging health problems in 21st century[1].Diabetes mellitus (DM) comprises a group of common metabolic disorders that share common phenotype ofhyperglycemia[2].
There was a statically significant positive correlation between free iron concentration and FBS, PP2BS and Glycated Hemoglobin.


Hyperglycemia not only defines the disease but is the cause of its most characteristic symptoms and long-term complications[3].
Because the development of complications is linked to the accumulation of glycation adducts in tissue proteins. These suggest important role of iron in metabolic derangement in diabetic patients and its complications. Amongst the various markers of glycemic control, glycated hemoglobin has now been established as the most reliable[4]. Optimal monitoring of glycemic controlinvolves plasma glucose measurements and measurement of hemoglobin A1c. These measurements are complementary: the patient’s glucose measurements provide a picture of short-term glycemic control, whereas the A1c reflects average glycemic control over the previous 2 to 3months [2].
HbA1c should thus be kept to less than 7% for patients in general and to less than 6% for individual patients. A1c is the primary target for glycemic control[5].Iron is a major component of earth’s crust, but its own chemistry limit utilization and also sets basic for its toxicity. The central importance of iron in the pathophysiology of disease is derived from the ease with which iron is reversibly oxidized and reduced.
This property, while essential for its metabolic functions, makes iron potentially hazardous because of its ability to participate in the generation of powerful oxidant species such as hydroxyl radical[6].Emerging scientific evidences has disclosed unsuspected influence between iron metabolism and type 2 diabetes. The relationship is bi-directional – iron affects glucosemetabolism, and glucose metabolism impinges on several iron metabolic pathways.
Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines influences these relationships, amplifying and potentiating the initiated events.
The extent of these influences should be tested in large scale clinical trials, searching for the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic measurements that decrease iron toxicity.
The study of individual susceptibility and of the mechanism that influences tissue iron and damage are proposed to be valuable in anticipating and treating diabetic complications[7].There is considerable current interest in the relationship between insulin and iron pool in the body.


Insulininfluences the iron uptake and storage by increasing the cell surface transferrin receptors, reciprocally iron influences the insulin activity by interfering with glucose uptake and utilization.
Iron causes hyperinsulinemia by decreasing the insulin uptake and metabolism by hepatocytes. Study Design and SubjectsThis study was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted at shree sayajirao general hospital and medical college, Vadodara (India) between January 2009 to October 2010. A cross sectional study consists of 150 subjects out of them 50 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus with good control (Group II), 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor control (Group III) and 50 normal healthy control (Group-I) were selected. They were on life style modifications, oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulin orcombination of all three and associated with one or more chronic complication of diabetes mellitus for e.g. Ethical ConsiderationsThe Institution’s Ethical Committee approval was obtained prior to the enrolment of subjects. Informed written consent of all subjects included in the study was obtained for involvement in study groups and for venipuncture.
Questionnaire and Bio Data CollectionA questionnaire was specifically designed to obtain information which helps to select individuals according to the selection criteria of the study.
Blood Sample CollectionA 5 ml of venous blood was drawn from each volunteer using a disposable vacutainer system in fasting condition (Plain, EDTA and Fluoride). Analysis of SampleFasting and Post prandial (2 hour) blood sugar (FBS & PP2BS) estimated by Glucose Oxidase-Peroxidase(GOD-POD) enzymatic end point method.
The difference between mean serum free iron concentration between group 1 and group 3 as well as between group 2 and group 3 is statistically highly significant (with p value Table 1. The Group I patients had 6% cases with increased value of serum free iron concentration level.Table 5.



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