We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at time of review. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the severe endocrine disorder and an important health problem that has been increasing in most of the countries (Mbanya et al., 2010). A wide range of oral medicines are currently being used considering the major impact of the increasing global prevalence of diabetes due to the absence of efficient and affordable interventions (Inzucchi, 2002).
Among the numerous fruit yielding plants, that provide medicinal properties banana is a major fruit, contributing 16% of the world total fruit production (Reported by Food and Agricultural Research, Geneva, 2009).
1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox, ascorbic acid (AA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), 5,-5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), catechin, quercetin, streptozotocin (STZ) were obtained from Sigma Chemicals (St. The DPPH (1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effects of RE, SE, and IE of MB were determined by a standard method (Brand-Williams et al., 1995). Where the Acontrol is the absorbance of the control (DPPH solution without sample), the Asample is the absorbance of the test sample (DPPH solution plus test sample), and the Asample blank is the absorbance of the sample only (sample without DPPH solution). The radical scavenging activity of the samples against H2O2 was determined using the method of Ruch et al. Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was carried out as per the method of Sreejayan and Rao (1997). Lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+ ascorbate system in rat liver homogenate was estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by the method of Ohkawa et al. Total phenolic contents of all the three extracts were determined by Folin and Ciocalteu reagent using the method of Hagerman (2002) with slight modifications. A simple model system was used to evaluate effects of plant extracts on glucose movement in vitro. The GC – MS analysis was carried out using a GCMS-TQ8030 (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan).
Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines (acute toxic class method), albino mice (n = 6) of either sex selected by random sampling were used for acute toxicity study. Proteins play more roles, and a greater variety of roles, in humans and other organisms than any other class of compounds.
Aspartate (aspartic acid) and glutamate (glutamic acid) are the two amino acids with acidic side chains.
Lysine, arginine and histidine have basic side chains, the basic groups are very different from each other however.
Amino acids with nonpolar side chains tend to fold away from an aqueous environment, hence they are generally found in the interior part of a protein. More than three and less than about 50 amino acid residues joined together in a chain are often referred to as an oligopeptide. This movie from the San Diego State University College of Sciences tells it all, what more can we say?It all happens much faster than this in real life though. Proteins are cleaved into mono- di- and tripeptides by the action of pancreatic and intestinal proteases and peptidases prior to absorption in the small intestine. There is a dramatic difference in the relative amounts of available stored carbohydrate, protein and lipid in the body.
As was discussed above, there is no storage form of protein that is used simply as a fuel source at catabolic times. One common metabolite of nitrogen that is formed from many nitrogen-containing com-pounds, and is used as a source of nitrogen for biosynthesis, is ammonia. During starvation, after the utilization of hepatic glycogen, protein carbon becomes the major source for glucose homeostasis.
At early times of starvation, hepatic glycogenolysis is the major source of blood glucose, leading to glycogen depletion. Lipid is used as a source of energy under a variety of physiological situations; examples include during both mild and severe fasting, exercise, and at times of stress. As is shown above, there is elevation in blood glucose immediately following a meal, but this elevation is only temporary and, within two to three hours, plasma glucose levels are restored to the previous level. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. According to the report of World Health Organization [WHO], (2013) about 347 million people suffer from diabetes worldwide. In most of the cases, the antidiabetic medications prescribed by physicians are responsible for various side effects such as liver problems, lactic acidosis, diarrhea and high rates of secondary failures (Inzucchi, 2002). The plant was authenticated and reconfirmed in the Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Assam. The amount of glycogen, present primarily in muscle and liver, would not suffice for even a normal daily expenditure of energy. Likewise, although many components of the body contain nitrogen, there is no actual storage form for nitrogen. These processes are not 100 percent efficient, and, in consequence, there is always a net turnover and hence a net loss of nitrogen. The increased degradation of protein to supply amino acids for gluconeogenesis in tissues such as skeletal muscle occurs as a consequence of the decrease in plasma insulin levels and the elevation in glucocorticoids.
Shortly into the fast, gluconeogenesis from amino acids, glycerol and lactate becomes the only significant source. It may result from poverty, lack of a proper diet or disease, which prevents the body from absorbing nutrients. Only two tissues make triglycerides which may enter into the plasma; the intestine and liver. For the triglyceride in the adipocyte to become available for utilization in other tissues, it must first be hydrolyzed to fatty acid. There are several factors that influence the profile of blood glucose.The digestion of carbohydrate is very rapid and glucose levels increase in the plasma very shortly after dietary intake. After cancer and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes has become pandemic to mankind due to its high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality (Egede and Ellis, 2010).
So the traditional system of medicinal plants and practice has been a necessary resource in many countries to control various complications of DM as they are considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic molecules (Balaraman et al., 2010).
Various parts of the plant can be used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetic, diarrhea, scabies and inflammations as all parts of the plant exhibit different pharmaceutical properties (Rai et al., 2009). The solutions obtained were filtered with the muslin cloth and stored at -20°C until use. The mixture was then allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature and absorbance was measured at 765 nm. If mortality is observed as two out of three animals, then the dose administered is assigned as a toxic dose. Triglyceride from adipose tissue and protein from muscle serve as the principal energy stores, with lipid being in highest abundance.


When there is dietary intake of nitrogen in the form of protein, that nitrogen will be used for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds in response to signals directing that synthesisn. When dietary amino acids cease to be available, as in starvation, the continual synthesis and turnover of nitrogen-containing compounds will necessarily result in the loss of nitrogen, which is excreted in the form of urea andammonia. Gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate occurs at a constant rate, reflecting their constant production from red blood cells and muscle. Because it affects growth and development as well as physical functions, children are more vulnerable to malnutrition.
The rate of glucose appearance is determined by its alimentation, gastric motility and emptying, and intestinal absorption. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. According to a new report by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), American biopharmaceutical companies developed 180 new antidiabetic medicines. To get low-fat, low-sodium, and cholesterol-free diet, the banana is suitable for consumption making it particularly recommendable for people with cardiovascular and kidney problems, arthritis, gout, or gastrointestinal ulcers (Sumathy et al., 2011).
It was then mixed with 200 ml of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) for 30 min and remaining was filtered through muslin cloth and washed with boiling water until the complete removal of acid. Although there are glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and triglycerides in body fluids, the amount present would not support life even for an hour. Thus, during starvation, with no nitrogen intake but nitrogen excretion, the body will be in a state of negativenitrogen balance. In both cases, once the hydrolysis has been initiated, it proceeds to completion with the result that in either the lipoprotein complex or in the triglyceride stores there is little diglyceride and monoglyceride accumulated. Total hydrolysis of polysaccharides occurs within a few hours, accounting for the rapid restoration to previous levels. These drugs are under development, either in clinical trials or under review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Folklore studies revealed that root extract (RE), shoot extract (SE), and inflorescence extract (IE) of MB have high medicinal properties, and the RE is used for the treatment of diabetes (Tribal Healthcare Research Programme, April 2008–March 2012).
The scavenging effect expressed (%) was calculated using the following given Duan’s formula. After incubation, the reaction mixture was mixed with 1.0 ml of Griess reagent (1% naphthalenediamine dichloride and 2% phosphoric acid). The dialysis tube was sealed at each end and placed in a 50 ml centrifuge tube containing 45 ml of 0.15 M NaCl. Brain func-tions almost exclusively on glucose oxidation, with this oxidation occurring via acetyl CoA formation and active Krebs' cycle energy production.
A child has mild malnutrition when he weighs 80 to 89 per cent of the expected weight for his height, moderate malnutrition if his weight is 70 to 79 per cent, and severe malnutrition if he weighs less than 70 per cent of the expected weight in relation to his height. The total height of the glucose peak is characteristically only 30 to 50 percent above the fasting level. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound.
It includes 30 drugs for type 1 diabetes, 100 for type 2 and 52 for diabetes-related conditions.
However, no scientific study has been designed till date regarding the scientific validation of this traditional claim. The absorbance was measured at 546 nm and percentage of inhibition was calculated using the above formula.
The above solution was again filtered and washes with 25 ml of 1.25% H2SO4, three 50 ml portions of water and 25 ml alcohol.
Likewise, when proteins are degraded because of catabolic signals, the nitrogen again is either used for some specific purpose or immediately eliminated. For acetyl CoA to be metabolized through the Krebs' cycle, a source of oxaloacetate is essential, and in the brain, this requirement is met by the carboxylation of pyruvate. However, if malnutrition is accompanied by oedema (accumulation of body fluids under the skin) it is classified as severe, regardless of the weight loss. If the total amount of glucose in a typical meal (50 to 100 grams) were to be put into the blood and not immediately used, total blood glucose would go up almost four-fold. DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and insufficiency in secretion and action of endogenous insulin and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism (Ansarullah et al., 2011).
The ripe pulp of the MB is widely used as baby food instead of commercially available food for children. Therefore an attempt has been made to investigate some pharmacological property of these three extracts of MB with special reference to antidiabetic, antilipidemic, and antioxidant property. The movement of glucose into the external solution was monitored at set time intervals, as illustrated in the figure. Hemoglobin, which carries oxygen, is an essential protein that gives blood its red color when oxygenated. When intake is high then there will be a balance between intake and excretion.The dietary amino acids serve as the major source of nitrogenfor the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds and anyof the other forms of nitrogen in the diet are of minimum usefor biosynthetic processes. Brain pyruvate carboxylase is limiting and therefore for efficient Krebs' cycle activity in brain, a considerable recycling of oxaloacetate is necessary.
Severe malnutrition causes two types of diseases, marasmus (calorie deficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).
Adipocytes will oxidize only a small part of the fatty acid as needed to produce energy to support triglyceride synthesis and typical maintenance of cellular integrity.
One reason why this does not occur is that the glucose being delivered into the plasma is rapidly taken up by the tissues. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. It is rapidly mobilized in the first 24 to 36 hours with little being mobilized after day four. The provision of nitrogen in the form of dietary amino acids, and the consequential nitrogen balance, should be considered in two ways.
In the presence of high levels of ammonia, the equilibrium for the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction lies in favor of glutamate, which will then lead to the formation of glutamine. Glutamine released by muscle has two fates: In periods of early starvation, the principal site of glutamine metabolism appears to be in the gut. Marasmus occurs when a child is starved for an extended time, resulting in wasting of the body.
It is also important to remember that, during fasting, blood glucose remains at a constant level not because there is a low utilization rate, but because its rapid utilization is directly compensated by a rapid formation.
Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. At the end of the experimental period, the concentrations of glucose within the dialysis tubing were measured.
Compound identification was involved comparison of the spectra with the databases (NIST-11) using a probability based algorithm. Hormones, some of which are made from amino acids (the building blocks of protein), regulate many systems in our bodies.


Protein degradation starts off initially at a low level, increases to a maximum by about day four, and then drops off to a level somewhat lower than that occurring initially. Of the 20 common amino acids in proteins, the body is able to readily synthesize eight of these, provided an appropriate nitrogen source is available. Both of these reactions diminish the level of the Krebs' cycle intermediates and oxaloacetate is not regenerated.
Similar to what occurs during dietary intake, the gut actively metabolizes glutamine with one of the products formed being alanine.
Apart from being short for his age and severely underweight, a child with marasmus will also have a wizened look and a pot-belly. With the influx of glucose following a meal, there is a rapid decrease in the rate of hepatic formation of glucose, whereas the rate of utilization by tissues dependent upon glucose for their integrity and function remains unchanged. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. These include the regulation of metabolism, digestion, and nutrient absorption, and the concentration of blood glucose.
Protein is not mobilized rapidly, and even at the maximum level only accounts for about 25 percent of fuel expenditure. Two others can be synthesized from other amino acids if the latter are provided in the diet (tyrosine from phenylalanine, cysteine from methionine).
The brain becomes de-prived of its source of ATP, leading to the symptoms of ammonia toxicity. The reason for the special role of glutamine in gut metabolism is because of the constant sloughing of intestinal cells. The consequence of all of these changes is that the spike of blood glucose following a meal is only a dampened reflection of the extra amount of glucose that is being added into the system via digestion and intestinal absorption.The rise in blood glucose is immediately followed by a rise in blood insulin. Proteins are also used by our cells to regulate the distribution of water and the movement of nutrients in and out of cells, particularly since proteins are one of the components of cell membranes. The body attempts to limit protein degradation to a minimum, to a large extent utilizing it solely for the maintenance of blood glucose. A further complication is that both glutamine and asparate, which can be readily formed from glutamate, have neurotransmitter functions. As a consequence, the gut has a high demand for cell growth and duplication, and glutamine is one of the major amino donors for this process. Insulin secretion is stimulated by several of the events associated with the glucose intake.
Furthermore, proteins are involved in blood clotting, acid-base balance, and visual pigmentation.
As is clearly evident at all times, even starting postprandially (after eating), it is lipid oxidation which accounts for the bulk of fuel utilized for metabolic energy. To be dietarily essential means that the body can either synthesize none or an insufficient amount to meet the demands of the body for maintenance and growth. Children with kwashiorkor, if it is not accompanied by marasmus, do not look as thin but have weak and wasted muscles, accompanied by thin, peeling skin. Considering we need protein to help our bodies carry out and sustain essential physiological functions, a diet very low in protein is obviously not a good idea, and here's why. As fasting progresses, there is a slow drop off in the total calories utilized, as would reflect the decreasing energy utilization of a person so fasting, but lipid at all times continues to be the major energy source.
If your diet is insufficient in protein, you could also be deficient in many important vitamins and minerals found in protein-rich foods. Dietary protein serves as the source of amino acids, which may be converted into other amino acids, into protein, and into other nitrogen-containing compounds. For example, if no tyrosine is provided, the amount of phenylalanine must meet the needs for both tyrosine and phenylalanine. Deficiencies could occur in niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, B-12, B-6, iron, zinc, and calcium, among others, depending on what foods are missing from your diet. If tyrosine is available, the requirement for phenylalanine is diminished but not abolished.
It increases in the plasma from three- to ten-fold with a time course that only slightly follows that of the blood glucose.The first important site of ingested glucose metabolism is the liver.
The effects of prolonged low protein in the diet would eventually manifest themselves as impaired immune function, and irregularities in other bodily functions and systems Alice has already described.
The requirement for essential amino acids will depend on the gamut of hormonal factors modulating protein synthesis. The liver, which is freely permeable to glucose, quite typically extracts 50 percent or so of the carbohydrate load.The glucose which is not sequestered in the liver is distributed to other tissue. However, over and above the need to provide the essential amino acids, it is also necessary to provide nitrogen.
In addition, young children exposed to long periods of malnutrition will suffer from lower IQs, poorer ability to think and greater behavioural problems which may last till adolescence. The body can make the nonessential amino acids from other dietary constituents, such as glucose, but it must have a source of nitrogen to do so.
How long a child is able to survive semi-starvation depends on his physical condition before starvation. This requirement for nitrogen is met by the intake of the nonessential and essential amino acids in excess of the amount of each that is individually needed.
Animal sources, such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, contain complete proteins -- all the amino acids our bodies require to form the proteins we need. Glucose taken up by the muscle will be used to replenish the muscle stores of glycogen by re-action mechanisms similar to these shown for liver in Figure 15 (with the exception that glucagon does not regulate muscle metabolism). Vegetable sources, such as nuts, seeds, legumes (beans, peas, lentils, and soy products), grains (breads and cereals), and green leafy vegetables, contain incomplete proteins. However, the younger the child is, the more susceptible he is to malnutrition and its effects. Excess glucose can also be used for protein synthesis, replenishing those proteins that might have been degraded for gluconeogenesis during the period of fasting; the signal for elevated protein synthesis is insulin.
With the exception of brain, liver, and blood cells, insulin directly stimulates both the entrance of glucose into most cells of the body and its use as a substrate for anabolic processes.The glucose which is not sequestered in the liver is distributed to other tissue. Rice and beans, which together have all  the essential amino acids, form a complete protein. This glucose is rapidly metabolized , insulin directly stimulates the up-take of glucose into muscle and most other tissues. This is an example of a way vegetarians can make sure they get complete proteins from their diet. With the exception of brain, liver, and blood cells, insulin directly stimulates both the entrance of glucose into most cells of the body and its use as a substrate for anabolic processes.In humans, the liver plays a major role in converting excess glucose into triglycerides, packaging the triglycerides into VLDL and exporting the VLDL to adipose tissue. As a consequence, much of the glucose in excess of that needed to restore glycogen levels ends up as triglyceride stored in the adipocyte.



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