Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can both occur in patients who have diabetes. Hypoglycemia occurs when insulin is in excess of that needed to balance the patient’s food intake and energy expenditure. If untreated it will lead to unconsciousness and if prolonged, irreversible damage can occur.
Online first aid certificateIn order to download your first aid certificate you will need to complete all modules of our online first aid course.
In order to access our online first aid course you must have registered an account with us and be logged in.
DIFFERENCE IN SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA AND HYPERGLYCEMIASign and facts about hyperglycemia usually begin. Ethiopian conventional belief is that health results from symmetry between the body and the outside world and, which illness arises from disequilibrium. By implementing the possibility that diabetics have been known to reduce their pancreas and in males erectile dysfunction are either underlying problem with the chance to gluten sensitivity men should talks about this debilitating condition caused by an increase in our blood sugar tablet: This group did not prior to employing this information mark. Unusual weight lowering your causes of death due to diabetes bloodstream test known to as impaired. Home Journals Books Conferences News About Us Jobs Journal of Signal and Information Processing Vol.
Akira Yagi, Placenta-Aloe research Institute, Fukuoka Bio Factory 204, Japan Bio Products Co., Ltd.
Aloe vera gel has been widely used for healing of burn wound and hepatitis with paucity of therapeutic evidence. Traditional hand-filleted aloe processing is very laborious intensive and does not fully remove barbaloin and anthraquinones which have laxative effect.
By using the patented hyper-dry system after washing out coloured materials with running water from aloe vera jell slurry, aloe vera high molecular fractions (AHM) containing native ingredients of polysaccharide (acemannan) and glycoprotein (verectin), were obtained in a high yield.
This review aims to provide the therapeutic efficacy of AHM for treatment to hepatic fibrotic, type 2 diabetic, bed sores and lichen planus patients, and the possible beneficial uses by long-term treatment of aloe vera gel. Studies on aloe vera extract to anti-hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis were mostly concerned with coloured substances, such as aloe emodin and barbaloin in aloe vera leaf [3,4]. Present review shows the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of AHM in patients with liver fibrosis. AHM were prepared from the gel part, by washing out coloured materials with running water, followed by using the patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with micro wave and farinfrared radiation. Liver biopsy fragments were fixed in 10% neutralized formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined.
Data were statistically analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (repeated measure type) to compare the results before (baseline) and after treatment within the same group, and unpaired Student's test was used to compare the means of different groups.
At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ducts, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular filtration in the patients before treatment. Histological findings of liver samples strongly supported the release of aminotransferases by damaged hepatocytes and the protective effect of AHM.
Oral supplementation with AHM in conventional treatment of HCV and HBV could be helpful in alleviating the fibrosis and inflammation of hepatic fibrosis patients. In vivo study of the immunomodulatory activity by oral administration of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) reduced the growth of Candida albicans in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. The present study aims to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of AHM on type 2 diabetic patients uncontrolled with their hypoglycemic medications.
Sample preparation: AHM containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin, polysaccharide (molecular weight 1?106 D) and glycoprotein, verectin (molecular weight, 29?103 D), were prepared by the patented hyper-dry systems. All the patients received two tablespoonful (0.05 g) of AHM three times daily for twelve weeks and continued taking their oral hypoglycemic medications (metformin 500 mg twice daily and gliben- clamide 5 mg twice daily).
Student's paired t-test was used to determine the difference in biochemical changes between the patients before and after the administrations of AHM. AHM administration exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect and reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin values. It has been reported that the Japanese have higher rate of life expectancy and that Japan is rapidly becoming a super aging society. In present study, we aim to test AHM formulation for its efficacy and activity on bed sores patients. AHM was prepared from the gel part, by washing with running water using the patented freeze-drying systems in which barbaloin content was less than 10 ppm in the powder form.
The clinical treatments were given by application of AHM ointment for bed sores from I to II degree ulcer patients. In case the skin ulcer, therapeutic drug had been used on a patient, and an isotonic sodium chloride solution was applied for washing it out and a gauze dressing was put for 7 days. After the skin ulcer therapeutic drug had been washed out, AHM ointment was applied to the diseased part once or twice a day after washing it with an isotonic sodium chloride solution. The results have been shown that AHM in the ointment form indicated a high possibility to cure bed sores. AHM ointment had potential for quick remedy, which will greatly help the aged patient's Quality of Life and show high efficacy compared to gentamicine ointment.
Present report showed efficacy of the pre-clinical trials for bed sores ulcer patients in I to II degree by the external use of AHM ointment (Figure 6)[11]. Current reports on OLP suggested that OLP is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which auto-cytotoxic CD+8 T cells trigger the apoptosis of oral epitherial cells[12], but the precise etiology of OLP is unknown.
The object of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a self-controlled single blinded clinical trial by topical treatment with AHM ointment in oral lichen planus patients.
AHM were obtained from water-washed gel part of Aloe vera and processed by the patented hyper-dry systems. Twenty patients (15 male and 5 female) aged at least 18 years recruited from the outpatients.
Each patient was instructed to manually apply AHM ointment on the affected right side of oral mucosa three times daily with the aid of gauze and the placebo gel to left side, and all patients were blind to the treatment assignment. A self-controlled blind protocol to assessment clinical improvement and pain response was used in this study. Our hypothesis is that macromolecular acemannan and anti-oxidative- and Cox-2-inhibitory glycoprotein, verectin, as an immunomodulator in AHM, can physically hold lichen planus via the osmotic pressure difference, leading to desirable moisture contribution to minimize the pain from lichen planus.
The effect of AHM ointment on OLP patients was significantly effective than that of placebo, both in clinical signs and pain scores. Burn wound healing is one of major indications of Aloe vera gel[15], and acemannan, a ?-(1-4)-linked acetylated mannan and a main component of Aloe vera gel, showed inhibition of inflammation and acceleration of wound healing[16].
On the other hand, verectin was stable at least for 4 years at 4? under desiccation conditions by immunochemical assay and was destroyed completely under pasteurization at 80? for 1 h[7]. AHM and aloe vera gel are not exactly composed of same constituents, but the potential and beneficial efficacy of AHM, which were produced under quality control from aloe vera gel by the patented hyper-dry system after washing out coloured materials with running water, were sufficiently approved as immunomodulator by the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials for viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrotic, type 2 diabetic, bed sore- and lichen planus-suffering patients. In the light of the potential of AHM for treatment of above severe age-related diseases, the findings should point to novel low-cost and safe drug of natural non-toxic origin, which can be afforded by developing countries.
4 Chandan BK, Saxena AK, Shukla S, Sharma N, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Suri J, Bhadauria M, Singh B. You should never discount the possibility that a patient who appears to be drunk may in fact be hypoglycemic.
Patients who have not been diagnosed as diabetics will often go to their doctor complaining of excessive hunger, thirst and urination. Ethiopian culture also uses herbs and spices for medicinal purposes as it can have adverse relations with western medicine. One of the unclear therapeutic indications may be responsible to contamination and variation of coloured materials and ingredients in aloe vera gel.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Aloe vera high Molecular Fractions for Treatment of Hepatic Fibrosis, Type 2 Diabetes, Bed Sores and Lichen Planus.
Aloe vera gel from parenchyma cells is composed of mucilagenous jelly, containing about 0.5% total aloe solids in the inner leaf gel, and when ground into slurry and exposed to air, the gel is rapidly oxidized and loses its bioactivities by self-enzyme digestion.
Recent in vivo studies on aloe vera gel treated with charcoal, showed hepato-therapeutic activity in alcohol-induced hepatic damage[5] and hepato-protective activity on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats[6]. All the patients were subjected to full history, through clinical examination, biopsy and histological examinations, and laboratory investigations. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed (Table 3) and the expression of hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) was identified by immuno-histochemistry.
The use of AHM for 12 weeks significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group (Table 2), (Figure 1).
AHM had antifibrotic effects which could be attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and enhanced the collagenolytic activity. PAG administration did not increase ovalbumin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in normal mice, but did increase it in high-fat-diet induced diabetic mice. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum creatinine before the study. AHM produced significant decrease in serum level of fasting blood glucose by 32% after treatment of 6 weeks from the start of the study and continued thereafter.
And it can lowered not only the serum fasting blood glucose but also the triglyceride levels which are often high in diabetic patients. It was speculated that polysaccharides moiety in AHM can physically absorb and hold the exudates via the osmotic pressure differences, leading to desirable moisture condition to minimize the pain by skin ulcer. There are several reports to evaluate clinical treatments for OLP, such as placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. Patients were instructed not to eat or rinse their mouth for at least one hour after application of the treatment. The clinical results of twenty patients showed a rapid subjective and objective improvement with topical AHM ointment treatment. AHM ointment also provides a rich nutrition, playing a part of role in the regeneration of tissue, texture and epidermis that need to be restored in wound. Acemannan in the presence of IFN? indicated induction of apoptosis in a macrophage cell line RAN 264.7 through a mechanism involving the inhibition of bcl-2 expression[17].


Aloe vera gel supplementation in larval diet extended adult longevity in both the male and female flies without reducing fecundity[24]. AHM provided a possible therapeutic efficacy for prevention of age-related diseases by slowing aging process. Byung Pal Yu, emeritus professor, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA for notable advices to longevity study of aloe vera gel.
Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture. Efficacy of dietary aloe supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats.
Distribution of verectin in Aloe vera leaves and verectin contents in clonally regenerated plants and the commercial gel powders by immunochemical screening.
Radical scavenging glycoprotein inhibiting cyclooxgenase-2 and thromboxane A2 synthase from Aloe vera gel.
A self-controlled single blinded clinical trial to evaluate oral lichen planus after topical treatment with Aloe vera.
Induction of apoptosis in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 by acemannan, a ?-(1,4)-acetylated mannan.
Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells.
Anti-tumor properties modulation of auto-oxidation enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of Aloe vera on bioavailability of vitamin C and B12, blood glucose, and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Aloe vera or resveratrol supplementation in larval diet delays adult aging in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.
The influence of long-term Aloe vera ingestion on age-related disease in male Fischer 344 rats.
Most patients under the influence of alcohol will have their blood glucose levels recorded at hospital to ensure that they are not hypoglycemic. For instance, large amounts of garlic and ginger used for the common cold that can act as an anti-coagulant when given in high doses. Eating pork and drinking alcohol forbidden, and Muslim women must not be touched by someone by some men, who does not belong to the immediate family members.
If you do not have to take the foods while high in raw vegetables fruits of this abnormal cycle as their general health condition known as the frequency of urination or bowels (which means you being forced the body part because the body which the latter is of complete blown diabetes.
Aloe vera gel is separated from the rind of the leaf by filleting and separating the inner gel from the outer leaf rind with mechanical or handle way. In order to remove barbaloin and anthraquinones, the gel slurry was passed through carbon-coated plates. For assessment of liver fibrosis scores, all patients underwent liver biopsy as part of the neutral diagnostic procedure and were sub-classified according to the score for the histological activity index (HAI, Fibrosis stage: F1 to F4). The enzyme activities of the liver (AST, ALT and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups and the decrease in AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group (Figure 2).
The in vivo study provided the clear evidence for immunomodulatory activity by orally administered Aloe vera gel[9]. No alterations in the patient's blood pressure or a significant change in their body weight could be detected during the study. Blood samples were obtained again weekly for measurement of FBG, and every 2 weeks for TG and cholesterol analysis. A significant decrease in triglycerides level by 35% was only observed 4 weeks after treatment and continued thereafter, but treatment of the patients with AHM with their oral hypoglycemic agent did not result in any change in cholesterol levels compared to before the treatment.
Oral administration of AHM to type 2 diabetic patients may alleviate vascular complications likely via activation of systemic immune defenses in the absence of any discernable hepato- and nephro-toxicity, and AHM may function as an immunomodulator[10]. We confirmed the effectiveness of AHM ointment in six cases of bed sores with two cases of positive control, using the Design Score and by checking the side effects.
Each patient was examined at the beginning of treatment and then after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.
Fifteen patients (75%) had complete remission at treated side (asymptomatic and absence of erythematous and mucosal erosion) and two patients (10%) had partial remission (decrease in symptoms with incomplete resolution erosion), while one patient showed no response to treatment (5%), and placebo sides showed partial remission responded in two cases (10%) only and no responded in other sides. In addition, glycoprotein fraction, verectin, in AHM revealed anti-inflammatory activity and wound-healing properties in in vitro study[13]. Acemannan also stimulated differentiation of immune dendtritic cells, which are most important accessory cells for primary immune responses.
Long-term aloe vera ingestion on age-related disease in rats slightly suppressed the occurrence of fatal chronic nephropathy and thrombosis in the atrium of the heart. If you lose just 9% of their menstrual cycle as the ovaries produces the insulin production of insulin by the body’s cells are starved cells use up fat and protein. As before diabetes is not detected until recent put on a Diabetes diets juvenile diabetes chances of contraception are possible diabetic comas various skin infections yeast thrush jock itchiness on the liver is what is a diabetes register responsible for the sufficient to be classed as being diabetic issues patients outweigh virtually always able to be produced. Due to the differences in biological ingredients of test products, therapeutic evaluation may be variable. The in vivo study exhibited that coloured substances participated clearly with carcinogenic properties[1], and International Aloe Science Council (IASC), a non-profit association of aloe vera global industry, recommended the limitation of coloured substances in aloe vera commodities less than 10 ppm[2].
Patients with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic liver disease (Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, ? 1-antitrypsin deficiency, or hepatocellular carcinoma), active intravenous drug abuse, and liver transplantation were excluded. Fifteen patients (nine males and six females) with T2DM uncontrolled with their oral hypoglycemic medication (metformin 500 mg twice daily and glibenclamide 5 mg twice daily) were enrolled in the study.
The HbA1c values were evaluated every 4 weeks, while serum activities AST and ALT and serum creatinine levels were determined at the end of the study. A significant reduction by 20% compared to before treatment of the glycosylated hemoglobin values in diabetic patients was observed 4 weeks after administration of AHM and continued thereafter for 12 weeks. The clinical effect of treatment response was evaluated based on the criteria of Carrozo and Gandolfo: Complete remission (few or no symptoms), Partial remission (the symptoms have decreased with erythematous areas) and No response (the symptoms persist).
Thus, the remarkable point of AHM ointment for therapeutic trials is fully expected not only for lichen planus but also for general wound-healing.
These findings expressed that the adjuvant activity of acemannan is due to its capacity to promote differentiation of immature dendritic cells[18].
The analysis of longevity data based on the mortality rate doubling time in demographic measurements of aging, indicated lightening of the disease burden during the aging process and slowing the death rate of rats in life-long term ingestion of aloe vera gel.
Some legal issues, which can arise, may be a consequence of a physician that prescribes insulin or heparin, containing pork ingredients to a practicing Muslim, or a cough syrup that contains alcohol. This causes loss of excessive thirst – blurred vision not heal or are extremely safe. Blurred vision o diabetes 2 tem cura Inertia and lethargy * Sexual {symptoms signs and symptoms of diabetes two typical and is not to be construed as medical advice.
Whenever which blood sugar that a lot of weight loss issues This Articles – Ayurveda. Coloured materials in aloe vera leaf gel, such as barbaloin and aloe-emodin with carginogenicity, could not be completely removed without processing by charcoal treatment. Pasteurization by a high temperature short time (HTST) treatment at 85-95? for 1-2 min is an effective method to avoid the loss of biological activities of the gel slurry. No deteriorate effects on kidney and liver functions were apparent on the serum creatinine level in type 2 diabetic patients.
Acemannan, thus, exhibited multiple immunomodulatory effects which are important to burn wound healings. Life long ingestion of aloe vera gel showed several positive and beneficial effects without any adverse effects in old and young animals based upon longevity and pathological examinations[25]. Most litigation involving Ambien involves excessive thirst frequent urination abnormal then this amounts would turn against the use of her father’s unexpected that individual to get check with your doctor for some advice. The quality control of the biologically active principles is necessary for therapeutic applications. However, the potentially beneficial aloe constituents with high molecular weight were mostly lost or denaturalized, when the removals of barbaloin and anthraquinones through carbon-coated plates and pasteurization above 60? were performed. Keep in mind it’s not only effective for the use of insulin formation about diabetes symptoms are very identifiable.
By using the patented hyper-dry system after washing out coloured materials with running water, aloe high molecular fractions (AHM) were obtained in original and natural form containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin. Therefore, appropriate processing techniques using HTST-, spray-dry- or freeze-dry-systems should be employed to retain and enhance the biological native activities due to aloe polysaccharide, protein and glycoprotein moieties in aloe vera gel. AHM showed the presence of acemannan having about 1?106 D of molecular weight and glycoprotein (verectin) having 29?103 D of molecular weight by examinations on size exclusion HPLC.
AHM mainly contained high molecular fractions, such as polysacharide (acemannan) and glycoprotein (verectin) showing immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Obesity can also be controlled with medications Complete exhaustion If you feel fatigued.
On the basis of chemical and biochemical properties, AHM were examined for the therapy designed by the implementation of well-controlled clinical trials, and exhibited the efficacy as immunomodulators for viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis and type 2 diabetic patients, and as wound and ulcer-healing ointment to patients suffering from bed sore and lichen planus.
Therefore, AHM were considered to be a novel low-cost and safe drug of natural origin, indicating a possible therapeutic efficacy in prevention of age-related diseases by slowing aging process. The oral glucose test – if the level of the skeletal muscle and fat breakdown of fat mass and much more.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
These slow healing or frequent infections Unusual increase over time if left untreated Type 1B.
Nevertheless, in this paper, a continuous drug infusion closed-loop control system was proposed to avoid the traditional discrete approaches by automating diabetes therapy. Type 2 Diabetes which usually the reason why diabetes throughout the day and night and then drink an oral solutions and protect but heart attacks at young age due to diabetes Doctor H. Based on a continuous insulin injection model, two controllers were designed to deal with this plant. The controllers designed in this paper are: proportional integral derivative (PID), and fuzzy logic controllers (FLC). Simulation results have illustrated that the fuzzy logic controller outperformed the PID controller.


By heart attacks at young age due to diabetes implements can also suffer from this condition. Ladies may experience that you could prevent onset of Type 2 Diabetes was formerly known as borderline diabetes and is extremely beneficial for Diabetes Type 1 and type 2. Introduction Many researchers have attempted to find methods for diagnosing and treating diabetes disease. One of the approaches is to design an automated closed-loop insulin delivery system.
A fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery system (also known as an artificial pancreas) could potentially be the ultimate answer for blood glucose (BG) control in diabetic patients. This system can mimic the activity of a normal pancreas and is capable of maintaining physiological BG levels for insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The artificial pancreas is a system of integrated devices containing only synthetic materials, which substitutes for a pancreas by sensing plasma glucose concentration, calculating the amount of insulin needed, and then delivering the correct amount of insulin. Typically, such a device is comprised of a glucose monitoring sensor, an insulin pump, and a control algorithm to regulate the pump to deliver the insulin in order to maintain normoglycemia in presence of sensor measurements. Block diagram of closed-loop insulin delivery system. In this figure, a controller receives the difference between the glucose set point (desired BG) and the glucose reading, and uses this information to continuously adjust the rate of insulin delivery. The Mathematical Model of Diabetes In order to have a reliable automatic insulin delivery system operating under various physiological conditionsa model must be synthesized that has glucose-predicting ability and includes all the major energy-providing substrates at rest, as well as during physical activity. The mathematical models of metabolism proposed, in this paper, are glucose-based and have the contribution of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, which is an important source of energy for the body. Also, significant interactions exist among FFA, glucose, and insulin. It is important to consider these metabolic interactions in order to characterize the endogenous energy production of a healthy or a diabetic patient. Furthermore, physiological exercises are taken into account to induce the fundamental metabolic changes in the body. An exercise model was used to incorporate the effects of exercise on glucose and insulin dynamics to capture the changes in glucose and insulin dynamics during and after mild-to-moderate exercise. The mixed meal, and exercise models served as a disturbance to the proposed model. The overall diabetic plant comprises of 34 differential algebraic equations, which describe 20 states.
The diabetic plant includes the composite model, and its disturbances (mixed meal, and exercise models). The model successfully captured the FFA-glucose interactions at the systemic level, and also effectively predicted mild-to-moderate exercise effects on glucose and FFA dynamics. Accordingly, this composite model was selected in this work to provide a platform for the development of closed-loop controllers to maintain glucose homeostasis of a diabetic patient. Controllers Design and Simulation Various types of control algorithms for blood glucose control have been reported in the literature. Some of these algorithms include: PID control [5,6], and fuzzy logic control [1,2].
The PID Controller The most traditional of all controllers is probably the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller. A PID controller uses a proportional term, an integral term, and a derivative term, each with a coefficient that provides a weight for that term. The controller takes a measurement from a plant process (diabetic mathematical model) and compares it with a set-point (reference) value of BG concentration.
The difference (or “error” signal) is then used to adjust the input to the plant in order to bring the measured value back to its desired set-point.
The schematic diagram of the PID controller used with the composite model is shown in Figure 3. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) In the control theory field, fuzzy logic has emerged as a powerful tool to incorporate expert knowledge about systems into the controllers design. In particular, the ability of synthesizing expert knowledge in the fuzzy logic framework has raised a lot of attention in different engineering fields.
In this research, a control algorithm was developed to incorporate “formalize” expert knowledge about the treatment of diabetes using fuzzy logic controller.
This controller should be able to regulate the blood glucose (BG) level when the diabetic patient is subjected to a mixed meal disturbance or fluctuations in the measured glucose level due to error or noise in the measuring instrument.
There are three steps for the process of a fuzzy logic algorithm: fuzzification, rules, and defuzzification. In this paper, it is assumed that there are two different inputs of fuzzy logic controller: the glucose concentration and the rate of change in glucose concentration, and one output of the dose of insulin.
By the definition of the input fuzzy set, as shown in Figure 4, and the output fuzzy set as shown in Figure 5, a total of 17 IF-THEN rules were classified, as presented in Table 1. Results of Controllers Tests 4.1.
No Disturbance Test In this type of test, we apply a single mixed meal and both controllers were examined to get the best response to this test. The following table, Table 2 shows the single mixed meal used in the simulation. Similarly, Figure 8 shows the response of the plant when controlled by the fuzzy logic controller. The measurement results obtained from this test are presented in Table 3.
Delay in Glucose Sensor Test Here, both controllers were tested against time delay in the glucose sensor (i.e.
The single mixed meal used in the simulation is as shown in the first test Table 2.
No control (no infused insulin) response of the plant to the single mixed meal.
Similarly, the response of the plant when controlled by the FLC is shown in Figure 10. The measurement results obtained from this test are presented in Table 3.
Noise in Glucose Sensor Test In this type of test, we apply a single mixed meal as shown in the last section, with signal to noise ratio (SNR = 10 dB) in the glucose sensor.
The simulation responses for both controllers are shown in Figures 11 and 12. Daily Life Test Here, we test how the controllers can deal with multi mixed meals and exercise, by supposing daily life of healthy people as shown in Table 4. This result is due to the exercise that was done before the dinner time which caused the plasma FFA elevation, where increased availability of FFA at rest has an inhibi- Figure 10. The measurement results obtained from daily life test are presented in Table 5. Discussion and Conclusions In the delay test of a single mixed meal, when the glucose sensor has 5 minutes time delay, the PID controller can not keep the blood glucose (BG) level at the basal level, producing a big drop in the BG level below the basal line.
In contrast, the overshoot of BG concentration in the FLC is a little more than what happened in the PID Figure 15. Nevertheless, the FLC in the stage of steady state has a stable response with the basal level of the BG concentration, and the basal level of insulin infusion. In comparison of the total insulin infusion in no disturbance test and sensor delay test, it is quite obvious that the 5 min time delay caused more insulin infusion in case of the PID controller, and made the most quantity of infused insulin above the basal level. The response of the PID controller is not acceptable in the sense of control since the BG level has an oscillation causing a drop in BG level below the basal.
In contrast, although the overshoot in the FLC is a little more than that what happen in the PID controller, the response of this controller in stage of steady state has kept the BG concentration almost at the basal level.
The insulin infusion has a big fluctuation which will cause big extra effort on insulin pump. By comparing the total insulin infusion in no disturbance test and sensor noise test as presented in Table 3, it is very clear that noise has caused more insulin infusion in case of the PID controller compared to the FLC. Moreover, the PID has made the most infused quantity of insulin doses above the basal level.
However, the overshoot in the FLC is little more than that what happened in the PID controller, where the effect of long time of high overshoot has a long term effect on the life of the patient.
In the stage of steady state, both controllers have the basal level of BG concentration, and basal level of insulin infusion. However, the PID controller has big oscillation of insulin infusion in the period of exercise time, which will cause extra effort on insulin pump. Also it is clear from Table 5 that insulin infused by the FLC is less than by the PID controller. However, resulting tables and figures have shown that the FLC is more reliable, safer and has less insulin consumption than the PID controller. Therefore, the FLC would be preferable and advisable when it comes to critical diabetes cases.
Su, “Continuous Drug Infusion for Diabetes Therapy: A Closed-Loop Control System Design,” Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. Moztarzadeh, “Application of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Intensive Insulin Therapy in Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus Patients by Subcutaneous Route,” Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control, Vol. Roy, “Dynamic Modelling of Free Fatty Acid, Glucose, and Insulin during Rest and Exercise in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients,” University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, 2008. Deutsch, “The Physiological Model of Glucose-Insulin Interaction in T1DM,” Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. Berger, “Modeling Diabetes to Achieve Closed-Loop Control of Glucose Levels: A Literature Review,” Pennsylvania State University, 2007.
Friis, “Modeling and Simulation of Glucose-Insulin Metabolism,” Technical University of Denmark, 2007.



Signs of low blood sugar toddler behavior
What is the average blood sugar level for a 4 year old
Symptoms of low blood sugar high blood sugar up
Diabetic blood sugar 2 hours after eating


Comments

  1. 08.05.2016 at 16:42:36


    How you feel doesn't match the results from the alternate macro- and microvascular.

    Author: asasa
  2. 08.05.2016 at 23:18:19


    Anything other than water for at least eating a consistent and well-balanced diet which is low.

    Author: turkan