Our free blood pressure chart and blood pressure log allow you to track your blood pressure, aiding you in being aware of and gaining control over your blood pressure and health. These blood pressure charts will give you a quick reference of blood pressure levels for adults 18 and older. Print this blood pressure log and attach it to your fridge or bathroom mirror or close to wherever you typically test your blood pressure. This blood pressure chart spreadsheet lets you track your systolic (SBP) & diastolic (DBP) blood pressures over time.
Remember to enter notes next to your entries regarding diet, exercise, and stress level, so you can see the affects they may have your blood pressure.
The Blood Pressure Chart can be a great aid in gaining control over your blood pressure, and ultimately your health.
Enter your target blood pressure (this should be given to you by your doctor or caregiver). Next, each time you take your blood pressure, use the printable blood pressure log to simply fill in the date, time, pressure readings and any notes. Finally, create a visual representation of your blood pressure readings over time using the spreadsheet to enter the dates, times, SBP, and DBP.
Medicine, herbal remedies, caffeine, exercise, diet and many other things can affect your blood pressure.
Wait at least half an hour after having consumed caffeine, alcohol, medicine, or herbal remedies.
Follow the correct process of taking your blood pressure, based on the type of device you're using (digital blood pressure monitor or manual blood pressure methods). Blood Pressure Levels at americanheart.org - Information about blood pressure, how to control it, and many other articles about your health in relation to blood pressure. The resource may also contain words and descriptions that could be culturally sensitive and which might not normally be used in public or community contexts. This Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health provides a plain language summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, with brief information about the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, health problems and common risk factors.
For more information about Indigenous health status, please access the HealthInfoNet's Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status. Information has been drawn from up-to-date sources to create a picture of the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (including information for the states and territories: New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic), Queensland (Qld), Western Australia (WA), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (Tas), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). Sources include government reports, particularly those produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). An important issue when collecting health information is to make sure that it is accurate and reliable. To create a complete picture, all the information in this Summary should be looked at in the context of the social determinants of health, the term used to talk about factors that affect people's lives, including their health [2][3][4][5]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are generally worse off than non-Indigenous people when it comes to the social determinants of health [2][3][4][5]. Many health services are not as accessible and user-friendly for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as they are for non-Indigenous people, adding to higher levels of disadvantage. Based on information from the 2011 Census, the ABS estimates that there were 729,048 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in Australia in 2015 (Table 1) [6].
In 2015, around one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in major cities, and almost one half lived in inner and outer regional areas [6]. The number of Indigenous people counted in the 2011 Census was much higher than the number counted in the 2006 Census [8][9].
In 2011, 90% of Indigenous people identified as Aboriginal, 6% identified as Torres Strait Islanders and 4% identified as both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander [10].
Figure 1 is a population pyramid; it shows a comparison of the age profiles of the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations [11].
In 2014, there were 17,779 births registered in Australia where one or both parents were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (six in every 100 births) [12]. In 2013, babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers weighed an average of 3,200 grams, 161 grams less than those born to non-Indigenous mothers [13].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are much more likely than non-Indigenous people to die before they are old [14][15]. In 2014, there were 2,914 deaths registered for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people [14]. Babies born to Indigenous women are almost twice as likely to die in their first year as those born to non-Indigenous women [14].
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (14%) reported having CVD than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men (11%) in 2012-2013 [22]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were almost twice as likely to be admitted to hospital for CVD than other Australians in 2013-14 [24]. CVD was the leading cause of death of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 2013, being responsible for 24% of the deaths in this population in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT [16]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are more likely to die from CVD at younger ages than non-Indigenous people. Cancer is a term used for a variety of diseases that cause damage to the body's cells (the basic building blocks of the body) [26][27]. In 2005-2009, the overall rate of new cases (incidence rate) of cancer was slightly lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [28]. In 2012-2013, the hospitalisation rate for cancer for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was lower than for non-Indigenous people (10 and 15 per 1,000 respectively) [29].
The cancer death rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 1.3 times higher than for non-Indigenous people in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT in 2013 [16]. Diabetes is a group of disorders in which the body does not convert glucose (a type of sugar found in many foods) into energy [33].
There are several types of diabetes, but the most common are type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy) [33][36].
Diabetes was reported by 9% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people1 in the 2012-2013 AATSIHS [21][41]. According to the 2012-2013 AATSIHS, diabetes was more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas (13%) than for those living in non-remote areas (8%) [23]. General practitioners (GPs) are usually the first point of contact for people with diabetes and they often coordinate other health professionals who are needed to manage the condition [43]. In 2012-13, there were 2,749 hospital separations for diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia [45].
Diabetes was responsible for 202 deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT in 2013 [16][25]. What is known about the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people? Measuring social and emotional wellbeing is difficult, but it usually relies on self-reported feelings (like happiness or calmness) or 'stressors' (stressful events in a person's life).
The 2012-13 AATSIHS collected information on positive wellbeing and asked people to report on feelings of happiness, calmness and peacefulness, fullness of life, and energy levels [46].
However, the survey found that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were almost three times more likely to feel high or very high levels of psychological distress than non-Indigenous adults [47]. The WAACHS also found that seven-in-ten Aboriginal children were living in families that had experienced three or more major life stress events (like a death in the family, serious illness, family breakdown, financial problems, or arrest) in the year before the survey, and two-in-ten had experienced seven or more major stress events [50]. The Footprints in time: longitudinal study of Indigenous children found that Indigenous boys had more behavioural and emotional difficulty than Indigenous girls [51]. Healthy kidneys help the body by removing waste and extra water, and keeping the blood clean and chemically balanced [54].
Kidney disease is a serious health problem for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. ESRD affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people when they are much younger compared with non-Indigenous people.
The rates of ESRD were highest for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in the NT (20 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than non-Indigenous people) and WA (11 times higher) [6][57][58][59]. Note: Rates show how many Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander and non-Indigenous people had ESRD per million. Dialysis was the most common reason for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be admitted to hospital in 2013-14 [44].
In 2008-2012, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were almost three times more likely to die from kidney disease than non-Indigenous people [45]. Everyday life situations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can affect the types of injuries and the frequency of injuries experienced.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely than other Australians to be admitted to hospital for injuries in 2013-14 [52].
In 2013, injury was the third most common cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT [16].
What is known about respiratory health in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population? The respiratory system includes all the parts of the body involved with breathing, including the nose, throat, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe) and lungs [63]. Risk factors for respiratory disease include: infections, smoking (including passive smoking, which is particularly bad for children), poor environmental conditions (especially areas that are dusty or have lots of pollen or pollution), poor living conditions, and other diseases (like diabetes, heart and kidney disease) [63][64]. Respiratory disease was reported by around one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the 2012-2013 AATSIHS [65].
In 2012-13, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were four times more likely than non-Indigenous people to be admitted into hospital for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, three times more likely to be admitted for influenza and pneumonia, and nearly twice as likely to be admitted for asthma [45]. In 2013, respiratory disease was the cause of 8% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT [16]. Healthy eyes are important for everyday life; they are needed to read and study, play sports, drive vehicles and work [66]. Eye health is affected by getting older, smoking, injuries, exposure to ultra-violet (UV) light from the sun, and not eating enough healthy food [68]. In 2012-2013, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were slightly less likely to report eye and sight problems than non-Indigenous adults [65], but they were more than seven times as likely to report blindness [65] and almost three times as likely to report sight problems caused by diabetes [44].
Trachoma still occurs among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in some remote communities in the NT, WA and SA [75].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, especially children and young adults, have more ear disease and hearing loss than other Australians [77][78]. In 2012-13, the hospitalisation rate for diseases of the ear and mastoid process for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0-3 years was slightly lower than for non-Indigenous children and the rate for those aged 4-14 years was 1.6 times higher than for non-Indigenous children [45]. The oral health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is not as good as that of non-Indigenous people [82]. The oral health of young non-Indigenous children has improved in recent years, but the oral health of young Indigenous children has generally become worse.
Around one-in-three Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children under 14 years reported having oral health problems in the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS) [53]. Disability may affect how a person moves around and looks after themselves, how they learn, or how they communicate [85][86]. In 2012, about a quarter of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had a disability [87].


What is known about communicable diseases in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population? Improvements to personal and environmental cleanliness, and the introduction of new immunisations (vaccines), have greatly reduced the number of people who catch some communicable diseases [38]. Tuberculosis notifications were 11 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people in 2009-2013 [90][91][92][93][94][95]. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an infection of the liver mainly caused by eating contaminated food or water or by direct contact with an infected person [97][98] (including sexual contact, particularly between men) [97].
All recommendations have been updated and reorganized to clarify management considerations for women with pregestational or gestational diabetes in the prepregnancy period, during pregnancy, and in the intrapartum and postpartum periods. 1.All women of reproductive age with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should receive advice on reliable birth control, the importance of glycemic control prior to pregnancy, the impact of BMI on pregnancy outcomes, the need for folic acid and the need to stop potentially embryopathic drugs prior to pregnancy [Grade D, Level 4 (1)]. 4.Women with type 2 diabetes who are planning a pregnancy should switch from noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents to insulin for glycemic control [Grade D, Consensus]. 6.Women should be screened for chronic kidney disease prior to pregnancy (see Chronic Kidney Disease chapter, p.
9.Detemir [Grade C, Level 2 (24)] or glargine [Grade C, Level 3 (25)] may be used in women with pregestational diabetes as an alternative to NPH. 11.Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet their high-energy requirements [Grade D, Consensus].
12.Women with pregestational diabetes should be carefully monitored postpartum as they have a high risk of hypoglycemia [Grade D, Consensus]. 15.All women should be encouraged to breastfeed since this may reduce offspring obesity, especially in the setting of maternal obesity [Grade C, Level 3 (28)]. 17.If there is a high risk of GDM based on multiple clinical factors, screening should be offered at any stage in the pregnancy [Grade D, Consensus].
21.Receive nutrition counselling from a registered dietitian during pregnancy [Grade C, Level 3 (37)] and postpartum [Grade D, Consensus]. 22.If women with GDM do not achieve glycemic targets within 2 weeks from nutritional therapy alone, insulin therapy should be initiated [Grade D, Consensus]. 23.Insulin therapy in the form of multiple injections should be used [Grade A, Level 1 (20)]. 24.Rapid-acting bolus analogue insulin may be used over regular insulin for postprandial glucose control, although perinatal outcomes are similar [Grade B, Level 2 (38,39)]. 27.Women should receive adequate glucose during labour in order to meet their high-energy requirements [Grade D, Consensus]. 29.Women should be screened with a 75 g OGTT between 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum to detect prediabetes and diabetes [Grade D, Consensus]. Normal blood sugar levels chart for adults, This simple chart shows target blood sugar levels for before and after meals, after fasting, before exercise, and at bedtime, as well as an a1c target.. Chart your blood sugar levels – medical information, Checking your blood sugar regularly is crucial to diabetes management. High and low blood sugar levels related to diabetes, When you have diabetes, you may have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) from time to time..
Since normal blood pressure levels can change with age, weight, height and many other factors, you should consult your doctor or caregiver to determine your appropriate target blood pressure, which can be entered into the blood pressure log. This printable blood pressure log allows you to write down your results no matter where you are.
For example, some information may be considered appropriate for viewing only by men or only by women. Data for these reports are collected through health surveys, by hospitals and by doctors across Australia. Sometimes this is because more Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than non-Indigenous live in remote locations and not all health services are offered outside of cities. One-fifth of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population lived in remote and very remote areas.
In 2011, more than one-third of Indigenous people were younger than 15 year of age (compared with one-fifth of non-Indigenous people) [11]. Overall, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women had more children and had them when they were younger than non-Indigenous women.
About three-quarters of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers were 30 years or younger when they had their babies, compared with less than one-half of non-Indigenous mothers [12]. Babies born to Indigenous mothers were almost twice as likely to be of low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams) than babies born to non-Indigenous mothers. The most recent estimates from the ABS show that an Indigenous boy born in 2010-2012 was likely to live to 69 years, about 10 years less than a non-Indigenous boy (who could expect to live to 80 years) (Figure 2) [15]. Many Indigenous deaths are incorrectly counted as non-Indigenous because the person or family are not identified as Indigenous – the actual number of Indigenous deaths is not known, but would be higher than the number registered as such. In 2012-2014, of the Indigenous infant mortality rates for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, the highest were in the NT and lowest in NSW.
The most common types of CVD are coronary heart disease (including heart attack), stroke, heart failure and high blood pressure [18].
One-in-eight (13%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported in the 2012-2013 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey (AATSIHS) that they had some form of CVD [21]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas were more likely to report having heart disease than those living in non-remote areas [23]. There were more deaths from ischaemic heart disease  (affecting blood supply to the heart) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men than among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women.
In 2010-12 in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 35-44 years were 10 times more likely to die from coronary heart disease (the leading cause of CVD-related deaths) than non-Indigenous people of the same age [24].
Normally cells grow and multiply in a controlled way but cancer causes cells to grow and multiply in an uncontrolled way. This leads to high sugar levels in the blood which can cause serious health problems including: heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations, eye disease and blindness [34][35]. The level of diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was more than three times higher than for non-Indigenous people [42]. Diabetes affected Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at a younger age than non-Indigenous people and increased with age – from 5% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 25-34 years, up to 40% of those aged 55 years and over (Figure 3) [42].
In the period 2008 to 2013, diabetes was managed in 5% of sessions between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients and GPs [44]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were four times more likely to be hospitalised for diabetes than non-Indigenous people. Diabetes2 was the second leading cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Mental health describes how a person thinks and feels, and how they cope with and take part in everyday life. The survey found that most (nine-in-ten) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people felt happy some, most, or all of the time [45]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may have higher levels of psychological distress because they experience more stressful events than non-Indigenous people. Almost seven-in-ten Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experienced one or more significant stressors in the year before the survey, which was almost one-and-a-half-times higher than experienced by the total Australian population [49].
Compared with the non-Indigenous population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were one-and-a-half times more likely to die from these disorders. In 2010-2014, ESRD was nearly seven times more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [6][57][58][59]. In 2010-2014, almost 60% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were diagnosed with kidney disease were younger than 55 years (about 30% of non-Indigenous people were younger than 55 years) (Figure 4) [6][57][58][59]. Dialysis can be undertaken at hospitals, special out-of-hospital satellite units, or in the home (which requires special equipment and training for the patient and their carers, and is very costly) [56]. Injury was the second most common reason for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander hospital admissions. The most common causes of injury-related death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were suicide and transport accidents. Respiratory disease occurs if any of these parts of the body are damaged or diseased and breathing is affected. Respiratory problems were reported more often by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than men.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to die from a respiratory disease. Eye problems can result in vision loss (not being able to see properly) which can be improved with glasses, contact lenses or eye surgery [70]. The overall level of trachoma in these communities has reduced from 14% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2014. Caries is caused by bacteria that decay (break down) the enamel (hard outer part of the tooth); if caries is not treated the tooth will continue to decay and will eventually have to be removed [81]. In 2004-2006, Indigenous adults had more than twice as much caries as non-Indigenous adults, and three times the number of decayed tooth surfaces [83]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have more caries in their deciduous (baby) and permanent (adult) teeth than non-Indigenous children and their caries are often more severe [82][84]. Indigenous people had higher rates of disabilities than non-Indigenous people across all age groups and for both males and females. They can be spread through the air, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes and another person breathes in the air that contains the germs. Data from state and territory collections are collected and published by the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS), but Indigenous status is often not reported for large proportions of notifications. Hepatitis A notifications have decreased a lot among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people since 2000. Women with pregestational diabetes who also have PCOS may continue metformin for ovulation induction [Grade D, Consensus]. S129) [Grade D, Level 4, for type 1 diabetes (17) ; Grade D, Consensus, for type 2 diabetes].
If the initial screening is performed before 24 weeks of gestation and is negative, rescreen between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy should be based on pregravid BMI [Grade D, Consensus]. Use of oral agents in pregnancy is off-label and should be discussed with the patient [Grade D, Consensus]. Effectiveness of a regional prepregnancy care program in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: benefits beyond glycemic control. Preconception care for diabetic women for improving maternal and fetal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Preconception care and the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Poor glycated hemoglobin control and adverse pregnancy outcomes in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of observational studies. Glycemic control during early pregnancy and fetal malformations in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Use of maternal GHb concentration to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with pre-pregnancy diabetes.


Glycaemic control is associated with preeclampsia but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Strategies for reducing the frequency of preeclampsia in pregnancies with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Effect of pregnancy on microvascular complications in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
Maternal exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in the first trimester and risk of malformations in offspring: a retrospective cohort study.
Central nervous system and limb anomalies in case reports of first-trimester statin exposure.
Microalbuminuria, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery in pregnancy women with type 1 diabetes: results from a nationwide Danish study. Improved pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy: effect of intensified antihypertensive therapy? Twice daily versus four times daily insulin dose regimens for diabetes in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.
Maternal glycemic control and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: a randomized trial of insulin aspart versus human insulin in 322 pregnant women.
Glycemic control and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes: influence of continuous subcutaneous insulin and lispro insulin. A comparison of lispro and regular insulin for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. Maternal efficacy and safety outcomes in a randomized, controlled trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin in 310 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Breast-feeding and risk for childhood obesity: does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter?
Fasting plasma glucose versus glucose challenge test: screening for gestational diabetes and cost effectiveness.
Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. Recommendations for nutrition best practice in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Maternal metabolic control and perinatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes treated with regular or lispro insulin: comparison with non-diabetic pregnant women. Comparison of an insulin analog, insulin aspart, and regular human insulin with no insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Prospective observational study to establish predictors of glyburide success in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Comparative placental transport of oral hypoglycemic agents in humans: a model of human placental drug transfer. Comparison of glyburide and insulin for the management of gestational diabetes in a large managed care organization. Effects of early breastfeeding on neonatal glucose levels of term infants born to women with gestational diabetes.
Association of breast-feeding and early childhood overweight in children from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. Lactation intensity and postpartum maternal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in women with recent GDM: the SWIFT cohort. The blood pressure charts below are a quick reference for low, normal and high blood pressures.
The HealthInfoNet respects such culturally sensitive issues, but, for technical reasons, it has not been possible to provide materials in a way that prevents access by a person of the other gender. The information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is getting better, but there are still limitations. Sometimes health services are not culturally appropriate (which means they do not consider Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and the specific needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people).
The NT had the highest percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in its population.
Almost 3.5% of Indigenous people were 65 years or older, compared with 14% of non-Indigenous people. Around 17% of Indigenous mothers were teenagers, compared with 2.5% of non-Indigenous mothers. An Indigenous girl born in 2010-2012 is likely to live to 74 years, which is almost 10 years less than a non-Indigenous girl (who is likely to live to 83 years). Risk factors (behaviours or characteristics that makes it more likely for a person to get a disease) for CVD include: smoking, high blood cholesterol, being overweight, not eating well, being physically inactive and having diabetes [19][20].
CVD was 1.2 times more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [22]. In every age group except for males aged 75 and over, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely to be hospitalised than non-Indigenous people. In contrast, cerebrovascular disease (affecting blood vessels supplying the brain) caused more deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men [25].
If these damaged cells spread into surrounding areas or to different parts of the body, they are known as malignant.
However, type 2 diabetes is a serious health problem for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who tend to develop it earlier and often die from it at a younger age than non-Indigenous people. More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (10%) reported having diabetes than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men (8%) [22].
Diabetes was managed about 3 times more often among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients than among other patients. The overall death rate was six times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
Around eight-in-ten Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported feeling calm and peaceful, full of life, and that they had a lot of energy some, most, or all of the time. There were differences between men and women with more women reporting high levels of psychological distress than males. Deaths from intentional self-harm were especially high for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people younger than 35 years of age, particularly for men. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were admitted to hospital for dialysis around 10 times more often than other Australians [24]. Accessing dialysis can sometimes be very difficult for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who live in rural or remote locations and they may have to travel to receive treatment. The main causes of Indigenous injury-related hospital admissions were medical complications, falls and assault.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more than twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to die from suicide and more than twice as likely to die from traffic accidents. Common types of respiratory disease include colds and similar viral infections, asthma and pneumonia.
Asthma (the respiratory condition most often reported by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) was nearly twice as common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people.
It has been suggested that targeted screening, treatment and health promotion programs have contributed to the decrease in the level of trachoma [76].
OM can be very painful and sometimes damages the ear drum; fluid can also leak from the ear (known as 'runny ear'). Also, they may not be able to eat a variety of healthy foods or talk to other people comfortably. Caries is caused by eating a lot of sticky and sweet foods that allow bacteria to grow and multiply. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults also suffered from more periodontal disease than non-Indigenous adults.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have more decayed, missing and filled teeth than non-Indigenous children. Children in non-remote areas were more likely to have oral health problems than those in remote areas.
Indigenous children aged 0-14 years were more than twice as likely as non-Indigenous children to have a disability.
In 2011-2013, five Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were identified with Hepatitis A [99][100][101]. Women with microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy are at increased risk for development of hypertension and preeclampsia [Grade A, Level 1 (17,18)] and should be followed closely for these conditions [Grade D, Consensus]. Also, some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may not be able to use some services because they are too expensive.
The Indigenous pyramid is wide at the bottom (younger age-groups) and narrow at the top (older age-groups); this shape shows that the Indigenous population is a young population. Around one-in-twenty (6%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having high blood pressure (hypertensive heart disease) [22].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were 1.6 times more likely to die from ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases than non-Indigenous people. GDM develops in some women during pregnancy [38] and is more common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than among non-Indigenous women [39].
People living in non-remote areas reported higher levels of psychological distress than those in remote areas [45]. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is when the kidneys have totally or almost totally stopped working. In another type of OM, fluid builds up in the middle ear without damaging the ear drum ('glue ear'). Gum disease (also known as periodontal disease) is caused by bacteria that attack the gums causing them to swell and bleed. More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults than non-Indigenous adults suffered from edentulism (losing all of their teeth), especially at younger ages. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had a higher overall need for assistance compared with non-Indigenous people (63% compared with 60%) and were almost twice as likely to require assistance with communication compared with non-Indigenous people (11% compared with 6.6%). For many Indigenous people, diabetes is not diagnosed until after complications have developed [40].
People who were educated to year 12 experienced less distress than people educated to year 9, and employed people were half as likely to experience distress as unemployed people [48]. People with ESRD must either have regular dialysis (use a machine that filters the blood) or have a kidney transplant to stay alive [56].
If gum disease is not treated, the gums start to break down and the teeth will become loose because the gums won't be strong enough to hold them in place. Risk factors for ear disease include overcrowded homes, exposure to smoking, living in poor conditions and poor hygiene.



Normal reference range for blood glucose monitor
High fasting blood sugar levels gestational diabetes


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