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HumaMeter A1cPage 21 Performing a Test A Few Easy Steps … plus fool-proof display-guidance Scan lot calibration, remove cartridge foil and insert into analyser. HumaMeter A1cPage 23 Performing a Test Preparing to Take a Blood Sample 1.Make sure your patient sits comfortably. HumaMeter A1cPage 24 Performing a Test Stimulating Blood Circulation 1.Lightly massage the fingers in order to stimulate the circulation. HumaMeter A1cPage 25 Performing a Test Lancing the Finger 1.Lance the finger on the side of the fingertip. HumaMeter A1cPage 26 Performing a Test Filling the Sample Stick 1.Hold the sample stick with the blood collector and lightly touch the pointed tip on the surface of the blood droplet. HumaMeter A1cPage 28 Performing a Test Calibration (Cont.) Each reagent lot is directly calibrated to IFCC standards received from the European Reference Laboratory. HumaMeter A1cPage 29 Performing a Test Measuring Procedure 1.Insert the blood collector end of the sample stick into the cartridge that is in the analyser. HumaMeter A1cPage 31 Basic Maintenance Cleaning Procedure Clean the analyser with a non-abrasive lint free cloth. HumaMeter A1cPage 32 Basic Maintenance Storage Turn off the analyser on a weekly basis for a minimum of 10 seconds so that when it is turned back on again, it will perform the internal self-checks. For an ever increasing number of people what is a normal glucose level is a really important question.
Glucose is a type of sugar that the body gets from carbohydrates, sugars, and fatty foods that are consumed. If you or someone you know is a diabetic the only way to keep from suffering from low blood glucose levels or high glucose levels is by staying on top of your glucose checks, keeping your diet right, and following your doctors recommendations.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder wherein there occurs a deficiency in the production of insulin hormone resulting in the increase of blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes may be caused due to the increase in blood pressure and blood triglyceride levels.
Insulin resistance in type 2 can be seen in conditions like obesity, pregnancy, infections and stress. The history of the patient to find any of the hereditary aspects of the disease is carefully analyzed at the first stage. The complications that correspond the diabetic condition include diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma and diabetic ketoacidosis. Keeping the body weight under control and maintaining a healthy lifestyle might prevent type 2 diabetes.
However, a regular check up of blood glucose level and taking right doses of medicine of insulin can reduce its severity.
Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes is a lifestyle related disease and a major risk factor for Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs). Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala and to identify the diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups.
Whereas rest of India is still grappling with communicable diseases and malnourishment, the state of Kerala stands out, with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) emerging as a major public health challenge. To estimate the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among adults (aged 30 years and above) residing in Neyyattinkara taluk of South Kerala. To study the fasting plasma glucose levels as an indicator of diabetes control in the community. Data Collection Tools: Structured questionnaire and Blood Sugar examination using Glucometer (DiabeCHECK- Jitron). Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethical Committee, Trivandrum Medical College.
Diabetes Case Detection Rates across different age groups were examined and was highest (76%) between 60 and 69 years. 81 (18%) persons had blood sugar values above 125 mg%.  Of these 42 were already diagnosed and was on treatment.
A national study9 to determine the prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in India done in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) showed that the weighted prevalence of Diabetes was 10.4% in Tamil Nadu, 8.
Studies from Kerala  also emphasized the need for life style modifications and community based programmes for early detection and preventive measures.1, 12  Diabetes Case Detection Rate in the present study was 50% in persons less than 50 years of age and more than 75% above the age of 50 years. Prediabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, micro vascular, and macro vascular disease. Diabetes is usually a chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Gestational Diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. Excessive thirst and frequent urination is one most commonly noticed symptom among diabetics.

High levels of glucose damages blood vessels and pulls fluid from the lenses of eyes and affect the ability to see and if ignored for a long time can even cause blindness.
Vegetables such as Bitter Gourd, string beans, cucumber, onion and garlic, fruits such as Indian Gooseberry, Jambul Fruit and Grapes and grains like Bengal gram and black gram should be included in the diet.
Raw vegetables & herbs play a part in stimulating the pancreas and enhancing insulin production.
Besides HDL, the other lipid level that can lead to diabetes is having lots of triglycerides in your blood. You need to know about these 13 risk factors -- even those you can’t change -- so that you can concentrate on the ones you can change. Identify your HbA1c test score, mean blood and glucose level to know if your blood glucose is in the optimum level.
N terminal valine of hemoglobin alpha chain is available for irreversible glycation: Hemoglobin Hb HbA1c Hb glycation level (= HbA1c level) is proportional to glucose concentration in plasma !
Cartridge lot calibration is entered into the instrument by scanning the bar code on the box of reagents.
If the instrument is stored when not in use, ensure that the mains cord is not liable to damage or kinking.
The number of people diagnosed with heart disease, hypertension, and many forms of cancer, has been fairly steady or even slightly declining in recent years, but the number of people with diabetes continues to skyrocket. Glucose is important because it is used by each cell of the body as a source of fuel, and when glucose levels fall the body begins to shut down just as surely as a car shutting down when the fuel tank is empty. You surely don’t want to be on a long trip when your car runs out of gas, and you don’t want to allow your body to suffer from lack of fuel or from an overload of glucose. Diabetes mellitus type-2 is one such disease relating to high blood glucose due to insulin resistance. Consumption of fatty foods and alcohol intake at a higher level would also result in such disease.
Insulin treatment with a syringe of insulin pump and oral medicines decrease the levels of blood sugar. Long term complications include coronary artery disease, diabetic neuropathy, hypertension, skin infections, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and atherosclerosis. Low alcohol consumption and quit smoking would ideally be suggested as the best preventive measures. A very limited number of published studies indicate high prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in the state of Kerala. Ltd).  Calibration was done daily to ensure reliability and new pairs of DC cells were used every day.
All Prediabetic were educated regarding lifestyle modifications for Diabetes prevention and motivated to follow up in local Primary Health Centres. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial. Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus.
Evaluation of non communicable disease control pilot programme of National Rural Health Mission in Thiruvananthapuram district.
High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders in rural Central Kerala. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in a community-based study in North India: the Chandigarh Urban Diabetes Study (CUDS).
Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program. Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabainein meaning siphon- to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet.
Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose. Due to high secretion of fluids by the kidney, the body becomes dehydrated and starts craving for the essential amount of fluid to function properly. As the body is not producing insulin it will seek out another energy source (the cells aren’t getting glucose).
The most serious eye condition associated with diabetes involves the network of blood vessels supplying the retina. Hence, the cuts or bruises on the skin take longer than usual to heal or in some cases they don’t heal properly.
This leads to a loss of sensation in the hands and feet, as well as a burning pain in the arms, hands, legs and feet due to loss of motor nerve fiber. More than half of American adults had either diabetes or prediabetes in 2012, a study in JAMA says.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute defines it as more than 140 (your systolic number) over 90 (your diastolic number). A study in JAMA of 65,173 female American nurses concluded that a this diet appears to be a diabetes risk factor in women.
If you are 45 or older, it’s a good idea to get tested to see if you have prediabetes or already have diabetes. Always turn off the analyser by unplugging the power supply before performing any cleaning operation. For most diabetics there is a fine line between too much and too little glucose, and they must check their glucose several times a day in order to balance their medication dosage and diet to keep glucose within healthy levels. Food products which contains zinc are split peas, egg yolk, beef liver, lima beans, almonds, walnuts and buckwheat. This study was done in the Neyyattinkara taluk of south Kerala by including coastal, mid land and high land regions to make it representative of the geographical profile of the state. This could be due to lack of the hormone insulin (which helps the glucose get into one’s cells to give them energy) or because the insulin that is available is not working effectively. People usually develop Type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels.
The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. If insulin is nonexistent or ineffective, the kidneys can’t filter glucose back to the blood.
Being active uses up glucose as energy, the Mayo Clinic says, and that makes your cells more sensitive to insulin. Likewise, a study in Diabetes Care of 42,759 male health professionals showed that it increased the risk for men. The risks include (1) having a baby who weighs more than nine pounds at birth, (2) having been diagnosed with gestational diabetes, and (3) having polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS. Type 2 diabetes (Non-insulin dependent diabetes): Results from insulin resistance (cells fail to use insulin properly). Diabetes is the number one cause of abnormal blood glucose levels due to the way it affects the way the body is able to metabolize the glucose that is taken in as food.
All it takes is one misjudgment in insulin dosage, or one forgotten meal or snack to cause blood glucose levels to plummet to the point that the diabetic will lose consciousness and could even die without prompt treatment. Type 2 diabetes is popularly called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin- dependent diabetes. Apart from medications reducing obesity and following a diabetic food plan is also suggested for such disease.
Washing the feet and checking blisters or infection on the feet would be some of the methods of prevention.
However, Type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease, it gradually gets worse and the patient will probably end up taking insulin.
Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose controlling medications.
They become overwhelmed and try to draw extra water out of the blood to dilute the glucose. As Type 1 is of a more sudden start and Type 2 is much more gradual, weight loss is more noticeable with Type 1. Patients with Type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. When I wrote about the risk factors for diabetes in 1998 for The Dallas Morning News, 16 million of us had it.
If broken or lost, the following parts can be exchanged by the user: Barcode scanner HumaMeter A1c (Ref. 5.If necessary, press the finger gently again to get a second drop of blood which is large enough to fill the capillary. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
In some cases emotional disturbance might cause increase in blood pressure leading to the disease ultimately. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians as is evident from their literature.

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  1. 23.03.2015 at 15:25:40

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    Author: GuneshLI_YeK
  2. 23.03.2015 at 12:42:41

    Diabetes by increasing a person's tendency and small foot problems may turn hepatitis and cirrhosis, as well.

    Author: Koshka