Even if you’re able to get in a good workout with your ultra-lean figure, you’ll probably have difficulty getting much out of them. Between sucky workouts, poor muscle recovery, and super-low testosterone levels, muscle gain is all but impossible in guys with too-low body-fat percentages, Fear says. Too-low leptin and testosterone levels can result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or secondary hypogonadism, in which the reproductive system basically shuts down. When your body-fat percentage and weight drops too low, you interfere with your body’s ability to properly absorb and use calcium and vitamin D.
If the social isolation and all-consuming calorie-counting that comes with maintaining a low body-fat percentage doesn’t tick you off, the low levels of fats in your brain sure will. Low levels of essential fatty acids in the brain can also result in trouble concentrating and mental fatigue, says Campbell.
You’ll be pleased to hear that science has got your back if you want an excuse to get more sleep. Usually people are advised to get around seven to eight hours sleep a night (although that claim has been brought into question). Becoming aware of new information isn’t always a good thing in the world of eating disorders.
Some people learn new things about disordered eating and instead of using it to heal themselves, they add it to their destructive eating arsenal.
Nomadic foragers migrated from location to location and the biological capacity to suppress hunger may have offered an adaptive advantage. The premise was that the body’s needs were somehow immoral and sinful, and thus forcing the body to endure pain, extreme deprivation, and humiliation was a good thing.
This extreme food abstinence was linked to other forms of self-punishment in the name of religious devotion. The ordinary fasting cycles [of other religions such as Islam and Judaism] did not satisfy the needs of ascetics, who therefore created their own traditions… Manichaean monks won general admiration for the intensity of their fasting achievements. The modern-day equivalent, now that food is as close as the supermarket, is a cycle of extreme dieting followed by eating to excess. Humans have also known for millennia about forms of purging — methods of forcing the body to expel what it has consumed.
This was depicted in the novel and film The Road to Wellville, which satirized the 19th-century purging-oriented practices of Dr.
Because of the reluctance to associate obesity with disordered eating, it wasn’t until the early 1990s that binge eating was understood to be separate from bulimia. There are two recognized eating disorder diagnoses: anorexia nervosa (AN), which is self starvation, and bulimia nervosa (BN), which is binging and purging.
They do not encompass the countless individuals who struggle with other disordered eating patterns.
Health professionals can utilize a catchall diagnosis, “Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS).” Currently, binge eating disorder (BED) is simply a provisional diagnostic status under EDNOS.
Yet the National Institute of Mental Health spends less money on eating disorder research than any other condition it handles.
Since doctors have no requirement to report eating disorders to health agencies, and since most people who suffer disordered eating never seek treatment, it’s hard to get accurate statistics.
If we factor in the broad range of behaviors that make up disordered eating, the prevalence of disordered eating is thus probably quite high.
One estimate (see graphic below) indicates that only 1 in 10 people with eating disorders seek treatment. The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders states that approximately 8 million people in the U.S. Nearly 90% of those with eating disorders report onset of illness by the age of 20 and the primary age groups affected are the teens and twenties. All segments of society are affected by disordered eating: men and women, young and old, rich and poor, all ethnicities, and all socio-economic levels. However, research suggests that worldwide, it’s the upper social classes of industrialized countries, particularly in Western countries but increasingly in Asian countries such as Japan who are most affected by disorders of food restriction and extreme dieting. Studies have also found that even in regions and among ethnic groups that value plumpness, disordered eating is emerging. One of the groups newly affected by disordered eating, for example, appears to be young women of Arab and South Asian origin now living in Western countries. While there are some features that these behaviours and experiences may share, people’s individual situations can vary widely. Others argue that eating disorders might actually be due to underlying metabolic or digestive tract disorders. It’s been suggested that those with AN have serotonin overactivity, leading to exaggerated satiety. Strict dieting and the inability to adjust to environmental stressors are two critical initiators for developing an eating disorder. What seems clear is that disordered eating can have many, interlocking, causes and manifestations. Eaters may have disordered eating thoughts and behaviours daily, every few days, every few weeks, or even infrequently throughout their lives.
Again, bear in mind that these are collections of symptoms that have been given a clinical label. Many people will have a unique set of behaviours from all of these lists of symptoms, and the symptoms may change over time or with the situation.
In all cases, however, there are physical, psychological, behavioural, and lifestyle causes and consequences. Individuals who develop AN may have psychological and emotional characteristics that contribute to its development, including low self worth or obsessive compulsive personality traits. Anorexia athletica is the development of anorexia-like symptoms and behaviours in athletes.
AN has the highest death rate of any mental illness, with a mortality rate of between 6% and 20%.
Codependency can be present, which is a dysfunctional pattern of relating to one’s own feelings, focusing on others or on things outside of themselves.
Vomiting can lead to erosion of dental enamel, mucosal trauma from stomach acids, gingival recession, dental caries, dry mouth and salivary gland enlargement (a puffy face is common).
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances can occur, notably low blood potassium (which causes heart arrhythmias). Binge episodes increase gastric capacity, delay gastric emptying, blunt hormone release from the stomach and impair satiety response. Individuals with this disorder tend to be distressed by it, with depression being a common symptom. The physical outcomes of BED include diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and other health ailments.
Psychologically, bingers often experience depression, since many people are always struggling to reduce body weight. Thus, lifelong weight cycling and psychological distress are typical when the disorder is uncontrolled. Often, exercise in excessive amounts, especially exercise that is associated with weight loss (e.g. Exercise anorexia is a compulsive behaviour and many individuals do it to gain more control over their lives.
The health outcomes include dry hair, dry skin, hair loss, digestive difficulties, slowed heart rate, low blood pressure, dehydration, kidney problems, insomnia, joint weakness, suppressed immune function, and nutrient deficiencies. Athletic performance is eventually also affected, as athletes may suffer recurring injuries and illnesses, cognitive impairments, and poor recovery from training.
Generally, however, treatment should be multi-factorial and address physical, psychological, and lifestyle factors. As with other types of addictions, there’s not much anybody can do until the person with the disordered eating wants to change.
Direct statements or judgments about body size or eating habits will most likely elicit resistance. If you are concerned about your own eating patterns, and suspect they are disordered, we suggest seeking out resources to assist in recovery.
A 24 year old female with a history of BN and vomiting came to the emergency room with marked abdominal distension. Some data has indicated that vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than non-vegetarians.
In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you. However, in general, most university students have a reputation of being particularly sleep deprived, often complaining about their relative tiredness and comparing all-nighters. In order to get a sense of college students’ sleep habits, as well as its perceived and actual effects, The Tartan created and distributed an online survey. Fifty-one percent of respondents reported sleeping between five and six hours on weeknights (defined as Sunday through Thursday) while 41 percent reported sleeping between seven and eight hours during that time frame. On weekends, students appear to be catching up on their sleep, with 47 percent of responses reporting seven to eight hours of sleep, and 32 percent getting over nine hours of rest.
In terms of academic effects, 72 percent of students responded that they felt they had performed poorly on an exam or assignment because of inadequate sleep. In line with these responses, 63 percent of students reported getting less sleep than they think they need, 86 percent of these respondents believed that it is having a negative effect on their physical health, and 87 percent believed it is having a negative effect on their mental health.
Respondents ranked the importance of sleep on their physical health on a scale of one to five, ranging from not very important to very imporant. As documented by WebMD, chronic sleep loss and sleep disorders increase the risk of serious health ailments such as heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes, among other issues. Lack of sleep can upset one’s alertness, concentration, reasoning, and problem-solving abilities. Kurt Kumler, director of Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at Carnegie Mellon, spoke in detail on sleep’s effects for college students. Their past projects include sending dinosaur-shaped chocolates with messages on behalf of students at no cost. Sophomore chemical engineering major Angela Ng and first-year undeclared Dietrich student Elani Gitterman are two members of Project Smile. Gitterman said that she joined Project Smile because she “liked the idea of making people happy.

Outside of Project Smile, Ng is using a student grant awarded by Student Affairs for enhancing campus culture to build a “Happiness Room” in the West Wing dormitory.
Ng described the Happiness Room as “a place with no technology, no homework, and a lot of comfy chairs.” She added that the room will have whiteboard walls and a lending library where people will be encouraged to donate books and write messages in them. When asked what advice he’d provide to students wishing to balance multiple tasks at Carnegie Mellon, Kumler responded, “You can’t do everything. An article published by Harvard Medical School discusses the role of sleep in determining mental health outcomes, writing that those with chronic insomnia have an increased risk of developing mood disorders such as depression or anxiety. Most weekends, I take on a lighter topic, as a way of taking a break from the deep physics, astronomy, and science we share during the week.
I am an astrophysicist, not a medical doctor, not a dentist, and not a professional in the medical sciences. My values on public health are that we, as a community, should maximize the good health of our citizens while minimizing any bad effects that may arise. In other words, if fluoridating our drinking water will result in better overall health for our citizenry than not fluoridating, I’ll be in favor of it.
The most effective use of fluoride is topically, along the teeth, and is a tremendous benefit for dental health. In Portland, because we don’t have fluoridated water, I am at a significantly higher risk for developing cavities. She wishes that we would fluoridate our drinking water, as even though toothpastes, modern dental hygiene and a fluoride rinse are great for dental health, fluoridating our drinking water at the recommended levels would help our city’s overall dental health tremendously. Water fluoridation continues to be effective in reducing tooth decay by 20 – 40%, even in an era with widespread availability of fluoride from other sources, such as fluoride toothpaste. Fluoridation is one public health program that actually saves money. An individual can have a lifetime of fluoridated water for less than the cost of one dental filling. Community water fluoridation is the single most effective public health measure to prevent tooth decay.
So fluoridating our drinking water at the recommended levels would definitely improve our dental health; the science is very clear on that.
So this is based on a few studies, like this big one in rural China, and this one from Iran.
People also pointed out a link to be between fluoridated drinking water and bone fractures. Again, there is a link between fluoride and fractures, but it isn’t nearly as scary as you might think. It turns out that fluoridated drinking water, on its own, at the recommended levels, will not cause moderate or severe fluorosis. There are a whole host of fluoride studies out there that were pointed out to me, and there are a few things that I do have mild reservations about. This was the subject of a heated discussion on scienceblogs a few years back, with an anti-fluoride post by Coby and a scientific takedown of that post by Orac. It’s very rare that we get an opportunity to actually make a large impact in our public health system. Public health issues are important, and I applaud you for researching this one to be an informed voter. One, the amount of water used for drinking, going to the tap for a glass of water, is a tiny percentage of water use. Next, the author acknowledges that there are possible negative health effects of added fluoride, but he says well, we should go ahead and fluoridate the water supply anyway.
Which brings us to a core issue: Fluoride added to a water supply is indiscriminate mass medication. The proper and most effective place to receive fluoride as a medication is in a dentist’s office.
From working in public health, I have seen the nasty consequences of not having access to fluoridation. Hell, what if the increase in Autism is due to birth defects from mothers who have all their lives have drunk flouridated water?
Especially since one result can be caused by many things, therefore we find one solid connection then keep looking to explain why the causative strength has to be that high to explain the correlation.
Since cavities are a non-infectious disease, and since some people have philosophical objections to being medicated, fluoridation should be left to the individual and not imposed on everyone.
Although we have regulations in the US limiting the amount of fluoride in our water, often the oversight or quality control is severely lacking.
Ethan’s cites show that people have been looking for negative effects, and not found any for cases of low flouride amounts, though they have been found for larger chronic doses.
Having said all that, if Portland wants to continue to not have it, that’s their choice. It’s important to recognize that just because something is natural doesn’t mean it’s good for you, and just because something’s artificial doesn’t mean it’s bad for you. About all I know about water treatment is where I am they seem to dump the entire months’ supply in one one day making ANYTHING made from that water taste effing HORRIBLE.
In the early 80’s, my roomate and I used a good tape deck to slow David Grisman Quintet songs to half-speed and tried to pick out the notes. As a local Portlander I hadn’t even thought about the Fluroide issue at all until City Hall suddenly was taking about it behind closed doors and voting Fluoride in. Countries that do not fluoridate tap water include Japan, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Scotland, and Switzerland. Any analogy to chlorine is stunningly ignorant of the fundamental differences between it and fluoride: chlorine is a water treatment, not a human treatment, and it can be easily removed with a cheap filter (or even letting water stand for a few hours, as it will evaporate). The toxicity of fluoride is readily visible, as 40% of US children have some degree of dental fluorosis. Moreover, low income families are more vulnerable to the effects of toxins like fluoride given poor diet and environmental conditions.
For example, in one study published in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, when bodybuilders prepared for competition by lowering their body fat, their heart rate dropped to 27 beats per minute. What’s more, low levels of body fat are also linked with slow heart rates as well as drops in thyroid hormone production, which can further contribute to fatigue, Fear says.
If you have too little fat available for energy, your athletic performance will suffer significantly,” Campbell says. That’s because when your body-fat percentage is too low, so are your levels of glycogen, or stored carbohydrates in your muscles and liver. In that same International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, bodybuilders actually dropped strength and muscle mass in the months before competition. Meanwhile, generally low energy levels don’t help you plow through your office work any better.
What’s more, since people who are trying to look extra-lean often aren’t eating a lot of water-storing carbs, dehydration is common.
There are many health effects linked to a lack of sleep, both physical and psychological. Check out this infographic from Business Insider, showing eight of the negative effects a prolonged lack of sleep can have on your weary mind and body. By continuing to use our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our cookie policy. Yet it was not until the 20th century that extreme slenderness became a widespread cultural ideal. For them, extreme food restriction was part of a daily routine that also included other forms of self-punishment. 5th century CE to late 1500s), early Christian saints often practiced extreme asceticism, refraining from as many fleshly indulgences as possible, and engaging in fasts lasting several days or more. Among populations accustomed to frequent famines or food shortages, feasting days or times of abundance were undoubtedly a license to over-eat.
When the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is released in 2011 (or 2012), BED will have its own separate category. Not all patients are captured in a clinical setting, and the ones that do seek help don’t always fall into a specific category.
One study remarks that this group is now vulnerable because these girls simultaneously experience the conflicting and multiple pressures of Western body-shape ideals, traditional family and cultural expectations, and the challenges of fitting in to a new society.
It should be viewed as a set of behaviours and experiences rather than a specific, narrowly defined medical condition.
Those with a mother or sister who had AN are 12 times more likely than others with no family history of that disorder to develop it themselves. They might also have excess activity in the brain’s dopamine receptors, leading to a drive for weight loss, but no pleasure from shedding the weight. It’s a set of complex behaviours and experiences that can not and should not be over-simplified. Other consequences include anemia, lung problems, dehydration, bone loss and fractures, abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, amenorrhea, hypogonadism, constipation, nausea, electrolyte abnormalities and kidney problems. One is defined by the use of excessive exercise to maintain body weight; the other is defined by disordered eating among recreational and competitive athletes.
Sessions can be done over a 6 month period and the antidepressants can be helpful for long-term results.
Nucleus accumbens corticotrophin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress? Adolescent and Young Adult Vegetarianism: Better Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes but Increased Risk of Disordered Eating Behaviors.
A 2009 study published in the Journal of Adolescent Health found that more than 60 percent of college students demonstrate disturbed sleep-wake patterns and 20 percent reported pulling an all-nighter at least once per month.
There were 102 respondents, all of whom had registered college email addresses, and 54 of whom attended Carnegie Mellon. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported giving up sleep to socialize, 87 percent reported forgoing sleep to finish homework, and 58 percent reported giving up sleep to study for an exam. Carnegie Mellon’s stress culture has been frequently discussed in the public setting since fall 2012. Project Smile is a student-led group aiming to improve the student atmosphere at Carnegie Mellon. The best we can do is be informed about everything,” adding that everyone has a limited amount of time. Roxanne Prichard, a co-author of the Journal of Adolescent Health study, told Medical News Today, “Students underestimate the importance of sleep in their daily lives.

A steady supply of iron is needed to form hemoglobin and healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). For one, fluorine is the most electronegative element, and is excellent at helping the transport of many positive ions, including calcium.
So in addition to brushing and flossing, I should be doing a fluoride rinse (like ACT) twice a day, and should not eat or drink anything (even water) for half an hour after rinsing. It makes sense, after all: if fluoride is good at transporting calcium, it can help strengthen your teeth. Well, no one wants discolored teeth, especially not the severe, brown stains that you can see in the last panel.
The teeth in this case are not just discolored, but also weaker than healthy teeth. So I looked up what causes those brown teeth. It turns out that the water there, naturally, has excessively high amounts of fluoride in it! It’s great for topical applications, but getting too much fluoride, especially all-at-once, can cause fluorosis in their permanent teeth. Breastfeeding a young child is ideal for a number of reasons, but not everyone does it for a variety of reasons.
Believe it or not, many types of tea leaves contain large amounts of fluoride, and there’s even a woman (linked here) who gave herself skeletal fluorosis as an adult by drinking 1-2 gallons of tea every day for decades, upping her average dose to over 5 ppm of fluoride.
Many doctors will prescribe fluoride drops for babies who live in areas with very low levels of fluoride.
This systematic review, of 77 different studies (from 2008) agrees, and says the following.
We might not have universal healthcare, we might not even have a society where everyone can afford to go to the dentist.
A municipality may be very diligent at keeping added fluoride at 1 ppm, but once the water is boiled the fluoride concentrates at varying and uncontrolled levels. The most effective way to have healthy teeth is: Good nutrition, diligent oral hygiene, regular dental care. We’d looked to better dental hygene with flouridation, but that colours where we expect some troublesome downsides. Sure, you get more widespread exposure, but there is nothing to be gained from drinking it once it’s past your teeth, and some potentially major problems from overdosing. It’s also important to realize that public health means doing what’s best both for most of us and for the least affluent among us. Tony lived and played here in Louisville during the 70’s, but I do not remember hearing him play live until he teamed up with my first mentor, David Grisman. It was then I started to pay attention and got involved in collecting signatures for a public vote — because I felt that due process was ignored, and if this fluroide in the water scheme is so good why such a shady introduction? There really are just as many studies for as against, but honeslty what I’m finding out is both the pro and against side have pretty bogus data. I am an MD but am certainly no expert, though I have looked at some of the primary literature and evaluated results myself.
Epidemiologic data from the WHO comparing countries that fluoridate to those that do not are not convincing.
Because it is not an essential nutrient, adding it to the water supply is tantamount to mass medication with uncontrolled dosage of a substance that accumulates in the body. Too low heart rates, called bradycardia, can lead to dizziness, passing out, and cardiac arrest.
Leptin receptors in the hypothalamus sense this drop and increase appetite so that you are hungry all of the time, Fear says. Having low levels of essential fatty acids that your brain badly needs for energy can result in irritability and severe mood swings,” Campbell says.
When you’re dehydrated, your body sucks water from your skin, rerouting it to your vital organs.
Now we know that disordered eating in the 21st century is a complex phenomenon with many causes and consequences.
Everything that could reduce sleep and make the resultant short period of rest as troublesome as possible was tried by Syrian ascetics.
However, it’s not clear whether genetics is responsible, or whether the disordered eater is simply mimicking the behaviour and attitudes of other family members (or both). On a lesser scale, there may be damage to the esophageal sphincter that regulates food transport between esophagus and stomach, which can lead to gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Binge eaters are also more prone to gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) and other GI disorders, due to the volume and speed of consumption. A large nasogastric tube was inserted and 9 liters of viscous gastric contents were drained out. The Tartan conducted a survey to determine the true amount of sleep that students were receiving, and their perceptions of the effects sleep has on their academic performance, as well as physical and mental well-being.
In January 2013, Dean of Student Affairs Gina Casalegno, Vice Provost for Education Amy Burkert, and Student Body Vice President Meela Dudley hosted a town hall regarding campus stress and welfare. So I’ve set out to try and separate the science facts from scams, polemics and fictions concerning fluoridated drinking water. In fact, it’s very important, developmentally, for infants to get the right amount of fluoride during the first few years of their life, as too little fluoride can result in weak bones and weak teeth. What’s interesting, though, is that if your fluoride concentration is too low, as in, below 0.5 ppm, your risks of fractures also increases!
If, for some reason, you use infant formula instead of breastfeeding, be aware that many infant formulas contain moderate-to-high levels of fluoride, and, if so, should only be reconstituted with distilled water, not with fluoridated tap water. Added fluoride is useless here, and for some industries, like computer chip manufacture, it’s a contaminant that has to be removed. Shouldn’t we understand the negative aspects of fluoridation first, say it’s effect on dialysis patients for instance, ~before~ we add this substance to our water?
I and all my sisters have moderate to severe fluoridosis from growing up in areas too heavily fluoridated.
A study from the Journal of Oral Science found that xylitol-enhanced fluoride toothpaste protects well against tooth decay. I still have $2000 more work left to get to, and by the time I get to that there will be more problems. It’s no surprise that Healthy Kids, Healthy Portland (a classic feel-good, meaningless PR agency-crafted name if I ever heard one) prominently displays logos of the ADA, AMA, WHO, etc.
Other known effects linked to fluoride include skeletal fluorosis and increased fracture risk, thyroid disease, kidney disease, and neurological problems. According to Pennsylvania State University, the average guy’s body fat is 15 to 20, 3 percent of which is “essential,” meaning you’d die without it. Meanwhile, other electrolyte imbalances due to too-low of a body fat percentage, not to mention caloric intake, can lead to “cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, he says.
In their monasteries Syrian monks tied ropes around their abdomens and were then hung in an awkward position, and some were tied to standing posts. Three months later she experienced paralysis on her right side and loss of language skills.
It’s true that chemicals can be toxic or poisonous, but when I think of chemicals, I immediately think of chemistry. I know someone with moderate dental fluorosis because her mother gave her these drops despite having fluoridated drinking water; listen to your doctor! In this case, the science says that fluoridation is safe, the side effects are pretty much solely cosmetic and minor, and the health benefits to society are tremendous. This May 21st, for everyone in Multnomah County, the evidence has convinced me: vote yes for public health; vote yes to fluoridation!
The author mentions that baby formula should be diluted with distilled water to avoid feeding overly high levels of fluoride to an infant.
We all have the distinctive chalky bands on our teeth, and I just had my one tooth with the big brown crater repaired at no small expense. I visited the website you referenced and a red flag went up when I saw the comparison chart. A dentist friend explained the benefits of both and the exact mechanisms of their functioning to me years ago. Certainly, we hope that authorities are right most of the time and are concerned only with the public’s best interests, but unfortunately that is not always the case.
But, if you’re trying to get your partner pregnant the old fashioned way, that might be irrelevant, since you’re probably suffering from trouble getting it up.
Which is not good because the 2012 Smile Study of Oregon doesn’t get to be part of this decision. Correlation most certainly does not equal causation, especially in such a case with innumerable other variables.
The fluoride ion is not filtered by standard carbon filters; only reverse osmosis and other expensive purification methods can effectively remove F-. In the 1940s, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, they discovered that fluoridating drinking water at certain levels actually strengthened tooth enamel, reduced cavities, and improved lifelong dental health, both in children and in adults. So yes, fluoridated water is linked to lower IQ, but not at the levels we fluoridate our water at.
The Oregonian just posted a story to say that our tooth decay has gone down in the last 5 years — this is without fluoride here in Portland mind you. But honestly most studies are being blocked or not allowed and data comparability isn’t so good.
Thus, the vast majority of Americans are subjected to a de facto mandate to consume this substance.
If we discover them, and those problems outweigh the health benefits associated with the improved dental health, I would change my mind, and advocate that fluoride be removed from the water. Before age 18, I probably only had 2-3 small cavatives — but I also always had to have sealants put on my teeth because my teeth are so grooved.

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