A common symptom of acute pericarditis is a sharp, stabbing chest pain, usually coming on quickly.
Two serious complications of pericarditis are cardiac tamponade and chronic constrictive pericarditis. A doctor diagnoses pericarditis based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. If you have chest pain, your doctor will ask you to describe how it feels, where it's located and whether it's worse when you lie down, breathe or cough.
Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This homepage is for the POEM, Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy, a new treatment for the achalasia with no incision.
Print PDFFamilial Mediterranean Fever –FMF is the commonest inherited fever syndrome. More rarely, (when the deletion of M694 mutation is present), FMF may be inherited by autosomal dominant inheritance. We see FMF most often among people of Mediterranean ancestry (Turks, Armenians, Arabs and Sephardi Jews) but FMF can occur in almost any ethnic group. Attacks of FMF may occur without apparent cause, or may be precipitated by stress, menstruation or diet. Some patients experience muscle pain on exertion between attacks, usually affecting the calves.
Doctors in countries where FMF is common may be familiar with this condition and quick to raise the possibility.
However, most doctors in the UK have seen few patients with FMF and it may take some time till the condition is diagnosed.
In some parts of the country there are large immigrant communities from countries where FMF is common. Sometimes patients know that there is a family history and recognise the symptoms themselves.
A serious complication of FMF is development of AA amyloidosis, which may lead to kidney failure.
Some FMF patients taking colchicine may have on-going auto-inflammation despite experiencing few attacks. Colchicine is usually effective in treatment of FMF patients who have already developed AA amyloidosis. Anyone with symptoms and laboratory findings suggestive of FMF should have genetic tests performed, even if they are not from an ethnic background where FMF is common, as  FMF can occur in any ethnic group. The consultants are happy to discuss genetic testing of siblings of FMF patients even if they do not report any symptoms. FAQs Read our FAQs – for answers to the most frequently asked questions about amyloidosis.
Patient Forum Visit our online forum – a place where patients with amyloidosis, family, friends and carers from all over the UK can connect, communicate and help each other.
Local Support Groups Some patients with amyloidosis are interested in organising local support group meetings. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach pushes up into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest.


In this type, the stomach intermittently slides up into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm.
They happen when a portion of the stomach pushes up into the chest adjacent to the esophagus. In danger of becoming strangulated (twisted in a way that cuts off blood supply to the stomach). Three major types of surgical procedures correct gastroesophageal reflux and repair the hernia in the process. In the human body, blood is carried from the heart and circulated by blood vessels called arteries. The plaque that forms on the walls of the arteries in atherosclerosis can behave in different ways.
The specialist providers at Arizona Vein & Vascular Center offer leading-edge methods to detect and diagnose atherosclerosis, even at early onset. Stenting and angiography: The most common procedure is cardiac catheterization with angiography. It's often is in the middle or left side of the chest, and there may be pain in one or both shoulders. A common sign is the pericardial rub, the sound of the pericardium rubbing against the outer layer of your heart.
This detects and records your heart's electrical activity, with certain EKG results suggesting pericarditis. With the POEM technique, we can access even to the muscle layer.We are also trying the SET, Submucosal Endoscopic Tumorectomy, based on the POEM technique.
It is caused by changes (mutations) in a gene called MEFV which lead to production of an abnormal form of a white blood cell protein called pyrin. This means that people with FMF have two abnormal copies of the MEFV gene and both parents are asymptomatic carriers of the condition. This means that one abnormal copy of the gene can cause the disease, and people with FMF may have one affected parent. In most cases the first attack of FMF occurs in childhood, but in 10% of patients the first attack occurs after age 40. The symptoms and severity vary between different patients, sometimes even amongst members of the same family.
Colchicine was originally derived from a flower called the autumn crocus or meadow saffron. Nowadays colchicine tablets are synthesised in the laboratory rather than being extracted from the flower. This can usually be avoided by increasing the dose slowly and in some individuals cutting out milk products for a period. As well as preventing FMF attacks, regular colchicine treatment is effective in preventing development of AA amyloidosis in most patients with FMF. SAA is a very sensitive marker of inflammation, so we monitor the SAA levels regularly in all our FMF patients.
A hiatal hernia results in retention of acid and other contents, since the stomach tends to get squeezed by this opening in the diaphragm. They may have a significant portion of their stomach or other abdominal organs push up into their chest.
Kolachalam to neutralize stomach acid, decrease acid production, or strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter. They can be performed by open laparotomy or with laparoscopic approaches, which currently are being employed more frequently.


This silent disease progressively worsens the patient’s health by blocking the arteries and making blood flow dangerously sluggish. Arteries have a thin inner coating known as an endothelium lining, which is a lining of cells that keeps the arteries healthy and promotes a smooth flow of blood. People at 40 years of age—even those in generally good health—have a 50% chance of developing atherosclerosis during their lifetime. When the plaque remains within the confines of the artery wall, it will grow to a certain size and then cease to grow further. After time these blockages will become significant enough to cause pain in the patient’s chest or legs after exercise or moderate exertion.
However, medicines are now available to slow or even stop plaque growth when the patient also follows a healthy living plan.
Severe cases of chronic pericarditis can lead to swelling in the stomach and legs and hypotension (low blood pressure).
The pictures can show whether you have an enlarged heart, which can be a sign of excess fluid in your pericardium.
It is effective at preventing attacks in the vast majority of patients, so long as sufficient doses are taken.
Colchicine is dangerous if taken as an overdose and should always be kept out of reach of children. This is the best way to ensure that they are receiving sufficient doses of colchicine to suppress inflammation and prevent development of AA amyloidosis.
For enquiries about your healthcare please ask your physicians to contact the physicians at the NAC. These acids and other substances can easily back up (reflux or regurgitate) into the esophagus. The esophageal sphincter is the muscle that prevents stomach acid from coming up into the esophagus.
Atherosclerosis begins when this delicate endothelium lining becomes damaged by various causes such as smoking or high blood pressure, and accumulated cholesterol hardens and forms plaque on the damaged lining, thereby narrowing the vessel walls.
The risk increases greatly with age; nearly all adults over age 60 will show some signs of the disease, even if symptoms are not severe. This type of plaque may go undetected as there is not sufficient growth to impede blood flow through the vessels. The restricted flow can lead to peripheral artery disease, which presents a number of risks including slow-healing wounds and potential loss of a limb. Blocked arteries are identified using an x-ray screen and are opened up using catheters in a process known as an angioplasty.
It is thought that pyrin may make white blood cells ‘overactive’ so that attacks of inflammation occur spontaneously. Surgery may also be needed in these cases to reduce the size of the hernia, or to prevent strangulation by closing the opening in the diaphragm.
Colchicine has been very widely used and more than 30 years of experience in FMF has shown it to be very safe at the usual doses of 0.5 to 2mg per day.
Children taking colchicine grow and develop completely normally. It is also safe during pregnancy.



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