Blood glucose levels are affected differently depending on whether you eat foods containing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, or a combination of these three. To find out how many grams of carbohydrates you are eating each day, it is important to be familiar with the food groups, serving sizes, and Nutrition Facts labels.
Another way to find out how many grams of carbohydrates are in a particular amount of food is to read the Nutrition Facts label on the back of a product.
For comparison, one slice of bread (one serving from the Starchy and Starchy Vegetables Group) has about 15 grams of carbohydrate. It is also important to eat about the same amount of carbohydrate at each meal or snack to keep your blood glucose levels within target range, or to have your medication match your carbohydrate intake. A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood. And when you do measure blood sugar, you may have a higher result from comparing to the normal one. The next step is to measure your blood sugar level after two hours you've had a sweet drink. The chart below will give you a better idea on what your blood sugar levels after eating should be. Is your Diabetic Heart Killing you softly?Get to know about Diabetes Heart Failure link to more severe complications. How is it that people who are doing what they are “supposed” to be doing –- eating healthy, exercising, maintaining a normal body composition -– still have blood sugar issues?
The second source of fuel for the mitochondria -– glucose –- has an equally important role in the function of cells.
With the epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome plaguing the industrial world in recent years, blood sugar and insulin have gotten their fair share of media attention. In fact, blood sugar balance is a major tenet of virtually every diet book from The Zone to The Atkins Diet. These are health-conscious, educated individuals who do not spend their time eating Twinkies, bingeing at McDonalds and competing in the World’s Laziest Couch Potato competition.
Rather, we see people who eat well, exercise regularly, have normal body composition and take supplements, but still don’t feel well.
Insulin resistance, which is characterized by two things: chronically elevated blood sugar levels, and subsequent elevated insulin levels to help deal with the blood sugar. And while each of these have their separate issues metabolically, both will cause issues with the function of mitochondria because there is not a steady stream of blood sugar available for ATP (energy) production. When someone is insulin resistant, glucose cannot effectively enter into the cell –- chronically elevated insulin levels create dysfunctional insulin receptor sites on the cell.
Because blood sugar is not adequately entering the cells, it stays in general circulation rather than being stored. Characteristic symptoms of insulin resistance include: fatigue after meals, craving for sweets that doesn’t go away when sweets are eaten, increased thirst, and frequent urination.
Individuals with this pattern and periods of low blood sugar will have surges of insulin, rather than chronically elevated levels.
Normally, the body should respond to low blood sugar by producing cortisol to increase blood sugar levels. Symptoms are usually relieved after eating because meals provide a source of glucose that their body could not create itself. Because their bodies rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar, people with some degree of hypoglycemia can have insulin surges between meals, rather than following meals, or chronically, as in insulin resistance. But here is one of the biggest points: looking healthy, having a muscular body, and exercising regularly does not mean that you have normal blood sugar management.
Though there are a number of mechanisms involved in this cycle, here is a basic explanation. In other words, you could have a perfect diet and exercise program, but if you have elevated cortisol levels, you may also be increasing your blood sugar from the inside.
Two hours after a meal, it will ideally be between 85 and 100 depending on the size and quality of the meal. You could eat a meal, and then track your blood sugar at 30 minute intervals for 2 hours following a meal.
A good protein-based meal with adequate levels of healthy fat and fibre should not raise your blood sugar levels too high. For most of you, the first step toward eating properly for blood sugar management is starting with the Precision Nutrition System.   Indeed, over 85% of our clients see the types of results they’re looking for by following this program. However, for the other 15% that use the program and still need to go a bit deeper, working with a coach through Precision Nutrition Coaching is the next step. Blood sugar dysregulation and elevated insulin levels have negative impacts on numerous physiological systems in the body. But on a fundamental level if adequate glucose cannot enter a cell, the mitochondria will not be able to produce optimal amounts of ATP to run the cells, organs and systems of the body, and we will not be optimally healthy, much less have the body we desire. The mitochondria use two primary sources of fuel to produce the energy required to run your body effectively: oxygen and glucose.
These are basic fundamentals to health and fitness that must be addressed before deciding which supplement works better or whose workout program is the best for fat loss. In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you. To learn more about Type I diabetes, and Type II diabetes, visit our Health articles and Pharmacy news section today! I have noticed in the last few years that many Paleo Dieters believe that potatoes can be regularly consumed without any adverse health effects.
Back in the early 1980s before I had discovered Paleo, I had assumed that a low fat, high carbohydrate, plant based diet was the best nutritional plan for good health. In my mind, the memory of early morning, all potato breakfasts has remained with me over the years, and I now fully understand how potatoes are one of the worst foods we can eat not only for breakfast, but as staples in our diets. From the values in the table below, you can clearly see that almost all potato products have glycemic indices that are substantially higher than sucrose (table sugar) or high fructose corn syrup. Because potatoes maintain one of the highest glycemic index values of any food, they cause our blood sugar levels to rapidly rise which in turn cause our blood insulin concentrations to simultaneously increase.
I have yet to touch upon the most dangerous elements of all within potatoes – antinutrients. I can almost guarantee you that if you ask your family physician about dietary saponins in potatoes and your health; they will draw a complete blank.
Saponins derive their name from their ability to form “soap” like foams when mixed with water. The figure below shows how glycoalkaloids and saponins in general disrupt cell membranes leading to a leaky gut or red blood cell rupturing. Potatoes contain two glycoalkaloid saponins: 1) ?-chaconine and ?-solanine which may adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome). So the next logical question arises: should we be eating a food that contains two known toxins which rapidly enter the bloodstream, increase intestinal permeability and potentially impair the nervous and circulatory systems?
I believe that far more troubling than the toxicity of potato glycoalkaloids is their potential to increase intestinal permeability over the course of a lifetime, most particularly in people with diseases of chronic inflammation (cancer, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease and diseases of insulin resistance). When the gut becomes “leaky” it is not a good thing, as the intestinal contents may then have access to the immune system which in turn becomes activated; thereby causing a chronic low level systemic inflammation known as endotoxemia. A final note on potatoes – to add insult to injury, this commonly consumed food is a major source of dietary lectins. Keukens EA, de Vrije T, van den Boom C, de Waard P, Plasman HH, Thiel F, Chupin V, Jongen WM, de Kruijff B. Keukens EA, de Vrije T, Jansen LA, de Boer H, Janssen M, de Kroon AI, Jongen WM, de Kruijff B. Mensinga TT, Sips AJ, Rompelberg CJ, van Twillert K, Meulenbelt J, van den Top HJ, van Egmond HP.
Naruszewicz M, Zapolska-Downar D, Kosmider A, Nowicka G, Kozlowska-Wojciechowska M, Vikstrom AS, Tornqvist M. Patel B, Schutte R, Sporns P, Doyle J, Jewel L, Fedorak RN.Potato glycoalkaloids adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. While you certainly seem to touch on potato anti-nutrients, specifically saponins as toxic to the human body, you fail to mention all of the benefits that they offer. I think if your going to present information, specifically as a doctor, you should paint the whole picture. Potatoes were around during Paleolithic times, and there is evidence to assume that they were consumed by our hunter-gatherer ancestors occasionally.
Plants and their immune systems have evolved to synthesize a super group of toxic compounds and proteins that play a critical role in the plants’ defense to cope with unfavorable circumstances against microbial invaders, pests and predators including humans.
Harmful toxic compounds such as Saponins and Lectins are far too risky for humans to ingest, except in small quantities to keep the body’s immune system on its toes.
Dietary Lectins compromise an elaborate collection of dense indigestible macro-proteins capable of recognizing, interacting and literally (enzymatically) eating right through the intestinal linings of those who would eat the plant, causing local toxic, inflammatory and infectious responses, along with penetrations of the gut wall.

It is beyond comprehension why any reasonable person would subject their bodies to such risk and harm. However, (with genetics aside)* the body’s immune system is such an amazing and wondrous gift that, when healthy, can usually neutralize harmful compounds in small quantities.
However, that may be about to change in extraordinary and profound ways in the near future. First off, let me say that I owe ALL my weight loss and self confidence due to the Paleo diet. I have to agree with broncho, have a few cheat meals here and there, trust me, you will be fine. During the most recent ice age, milk was essentially a toxin to adults because — unlike children — they could not produce the lactase enzyme required to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk.
I’m not a person who normally says people need to be strict Paleo and if Paleolithic humans did not eat it, its off limits. The foods that contain the most carbohydrate include those from the Fruit Group, the Starch and Starchy Vegetable Group, and the Milk and Yogurt Group.
Eating more food, or bigger portions, will cause your blood glucose levels to rise more than eating smaller portions.
Therefore, eating one serving from any of these three groups will impact your blood glucose level in about the same way. This is a picture of the Nutrition Facts label found on almost all foods sold in this country. Eating three meals and possibly one or two snacks at the same time every day will help keep your blood glucose levels more consistent.
Below is a graph of blood glucose levels from a person without diabetes who has eaten 3 meals and two snacks in one day. Since people with diabetes have difficulty regulating their blood glucose levels, they should eat the amount of carbohydrate recommended by their doctor, and space this carbohydrate evenly throughout the day. Alba, What would be the glucose reaction if I eat 2 scrambled eggs with 2 slices of salt-cured bacon and one slice of wholegrain toast? Are anemia and low oxygen delivery to blame?) I focused on oxygen, one of the two fuel sources for what is arguably one of the most important components of your cell, the mitochondria.
And with good reason: imbalanced blood sugar levels are at the crux of many health issues, including being overweight.
As a result, the body must produce higher levels of insulin to remove glucose from the blood stream, which causes even greater metabolic dysfunction. People with hypoglycemia can experience symptoms such as lightheadedness, irritability, shakiness and fatigue between meals, which is often relieved after eating. However, in this case, periodically hypoglycemic people usually have low adrenal function and rely on adrenaline to elevate blood sugar between meals, which causes the shakiness and and lightheadedness between meals.
In fact, researchers have started using new terms like “non-obese insulin resistance” and “atypical metabolic syndrome” because normal-looking people are having blood sugar management issues. A good blood chemistry screen will contain enough markers to adequately identify patterns of blood sugar mismanagement.
They usually cost around $50 and give you the ability to look at your blood sugar throughout the day. If it does, either the macronutrient ratio was off, the meal was too large, or in some cases, you might have a sensitivity to the food that causes a stress response and elevates blood sugar. Clinically, these are “high priority” situations because if either one of these processes are not working correctly, nothing will. Identify your HbA1c test score, mean blood and glucose level to know if your blood glucose is in the optimum level. Part of this misinformation seems to stem from writers of blogs and others who are unfamiliar with the scientific literature regarding potatoes. As with all plant foods, sporadic consumption of potatoes will have little impact upon your overall health, but if you eat them regularly as the majority of your daily calories, your health will suffer.
The figure below shows the per capita consumption (126 lbs) of potato foods for every person in the U.S. Let’s take a look at the glycemic indices of various potato foods and contrast them to refined sugars, and I think you’ll get the drift.
So, in effect, eating potatoes is a lot like eating pure sugars, but even worse, in terms of the harm these starchy tubers do to our blood sugar levels. When these two metabolic responses occur repeatedly over just the course of a week or two, we start to become insulin resistant – a condition that frequently precedes the development a series of diseases known as the Metabolic Syndrome. More human fatalities and non-lethal poisonings have occurred from eating potatoes than from any other uncontaminated staple in our food supply. These compounds first bind cholesterol molecules in cell membranes, and in the series of steps that follows, you can see how saponins cause portions of the cell membrane to buckle and eventually break free, forming a pore or a hole in the membrane.
Even in healthy normal adults a meal of mashed potatoes results in the rapid appearance of both ?-chaconine and ?-solanine in the bloodstream. Fried potato skins filled with chili and topped off by sour cream and jalapeno peppers would be a real gut bomb with devastating effects upon your intestinal permeability. If you take a look at Table above you can see that many potato food products exceed this recommendation.
In particular, a cell wall component of gut gram negative bacteria called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is highly inflammatory.
Prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases in the Western Nations: high consumption of potatoes may be contributing. Determination of potato glycoalkaloids and their aglycone in blood serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.
The toxicity and teratogenicity of Solanaceae glycoalkaloids, particularly those of the potato (Solanum tuberosum): a review.
Chronic intake of potato chips in humans increases the production of reactive oxygen radicals by leukocytes and increases plasma C-reactive protein: a pilot study.
Potato lectin activates basophils and mast cells of atopic subjects by its interaction with core chitobiose of cell-bound non-specific immunoglobulin E. Endotoxin, TLR4 signaling and vascular inflammation: potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. Loren Cordain is Professor Emeritus of the Department of Health and Exercise Science at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado. For approval, comments need to be relevant to the article and free of profanities and personal attacks. I am now 79 and enjoy perfect health, but then I have always done a lot of sport and exercise.
Loren Cordain, PhD didn’t also mention the problem with Acrylamide generation being a health issue, depending upon both what temperature potatoes are stored and cooked. Science, etc.) these glycoalkaloids are also found in eggplants and tomatoes, and are being shown to be ANTICARCINOGENIC as well.
Furthermore, you conveniently forget to mention all the other foods that seem to be okay in a Paleo diet that also include saponins.
If you’re working to lower your cholesterol level, eating foods rich in saponins may help. You also have to remember that hunter-gatherers or going to place more emphasis on obtaining the highest ranking (i.e. The penetrations of the gut wall allow the Lectins to damage DNA throughout the body through the peripheral blood.
They can induce dramatic dysfunctions in the precious bacterial microbiome, which in turn can cause severe diarrheal disease and food poisoning.
In fact, it actually needs to be exposed to challenges in order to keep its responses ready and alert. Even though we have learned more about genetics in the last few years than was ever known in all of human history, the science is still in its infancy and valuable therapies and interventions seem distant.
But as farming started to replace hunting and gathering in the Middle East around 11,000 years ago, cattle herders learned how to reduce lactose in dairy products to tolerable levels by fermenting milk to make cheese or yogurt.
Thank you for the historical background on dairy consumption and the development of the lactase enzyme.
Foods with only carbohydrate may raise blood glucose more quickly than those that also contain fats and protein. Liquids that contain carbohydrates (like milk and juice) will cause blood glucose to rise faster than solids that contain carbohydrates (like bread).
Since carbohydrates affect blood glucose levels the most, the amount of carbohydrate that you eat each day is very important in controlling your blood glucose levels.
Blood sugar chart shows the fasting and post prandial values for a normal person, for a person with early and established diabetes. Without oxygen, it is impossible for your cells to work at their full capacity or for you to be healthy.
Excess sugar or carbohydrates, excessively large meals or glycemically imbalanced meals can excessively elevate blood sugar levels, causing this cycle to begin.

For example, if you eat celery and almond butter, or a salad with grilled chicken, your blood sugar should not go above 120 at any point after the meal. One of my personal experiences at the time was how bad early morning breakfasts of boiled potatoes made me feel. From this information, you can clearly see why those potato breakfasts I ate so many years ago made me feel so awful.
Over the course of months and years, insulin resistance leads to a multitude of devastating health effects. Processed potato foods typically are made with multiple additives (salt, vegetable oils, trans fats, refined sugars, dairy products, cereal grains and preservatives) that may adversely affect our health in a variety of ways.
Even astute complementary health care practitioners are usually in the dark when it comes to saponins in our daily food supply.
Their function is to protect the potato plant’s root (tuber) from microbial and insect attack. The toxicity of these two glycoalkaloids is dose dependent – meaning that the greater the concentration in the bloodstream, the greater is their toxic effect. Any LPS which gets past the gut barrier is immediately engulfed by two types of immune system cells (macrophages and dendritic cells).
As is the case with most lectins, they have been poorly studied in humans, so we really don’t have conclusive information how potato lectin may impact human health. His research emphasis over the past 20 years has focused upon the evolutionary and anthropological basis for diet, health and well being in modern humans.
So perhaps it makes sense that our bodies might not be properly adapted to eating potatoes? Look at the years on all of the references for this article – the most recent I saw was 2008, and going back to 1984. It also seems to be relevent that saponins are fed to livestock to cut down on odor because they bind to ammonia, which contributes to foul smells. The study noted that saponins cause death of fungal cells, such as Candida albicans, which is responsible for yeast infections, thrush and many hospital-acquired infections. Lectins can interfere with secretions in human airways causing chronic inflammation and infection. Now I am a bit more relaxed and guess what, I haven’t ballooned into a hideous creature. Oh and not eating Cheese, the time-magazine “Nature” listed an article like last year i think, with the latest DNA science, that proved, that yes, we ate CHEESE!!!
Several thousand years later, a genetic mutation spread through Europe that gave people the ability to produce lactase — and drink milk — throughout their lives.
Foods that are high in carbohydrate eaten with a meal that also contains fats and protein will have a slower impact on blood glucose than those eaten alone. Because of the impact that they have on blood glucose levels, carbohydrates are the most important macronutrient for people with diabetes to monitor. Talk to your health care provider or dietitian about how many grams of carbohydrates you should eat each day.
For some very high fiber foods that have 5 or more grams of fiber per serving, net carbohydrates may be used instead of total carbohydrates. As you can see, this person’s blood glucose level rose and fell in about the same way after every meal or snack. They simply left me drained of energy and feeling nervous, agitated and depressed – only a few hours after my morning meal. If we contrast this total to all refined sugars (137 lbs per capita) in the other figure below, you can see that as a country, we eat nearly as many potatoes as we do refined sugars.
The list of Metabolic Syndrome diseases is long: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and other abnormal blood chemistries, systemic inflammation, gout, acne, acanthosis nigricans (a skin disorder), skin tags, and breast, colon and prostate cancers. If these nutritional shortcomings along with their high glycemic response don’t make you wary of potatoes, then the following information almost certainly will.
Despite a mountain of scientific evidence showing that these compounds can be potent and even lethal toxins, they are rarely considered as dietary threats to our health.
When consumed by potential predators, glycoalkaloids protect the potato because they act as a toxin. At least 12 separate cases of human poisoning from potato consumption, involving nearly 2000 people and 30 fatalities have been recorded in the medical literature. Once engulfed by these immune cells, LPS binds to a receptor (toll-like receptor-4) on these cells causing a cascade of effects leading to increases in blood concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (localized hormones) . However, preliminary tissue studies indicate that potato lectin resists degradation by gut enzymes, bypasses the intestinal barrier and can then bind various tissues in our bodies. Saponins appear to enhance your immune system’s ability to fight off viruses and parasites as well. The exact mechanism of these cell deaths varies depending on the source and dose of saponins.
I hate it, when people exclude Diary, yes, it was different back then, but it wasen’t like Cows didn’t get pregnant!!! That adaptation opened up a rich new source of nutrition that could have sustained communities when harvests failed. In someone who does not have diabetes, insulin secretion will automatically adjust to match the amount of carbohydrate that they eat.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal.
Potato saponins can be lethally toxic once in the bloodstream in sufficient concentrations because these glycoalkaloids inhibit a key enzyme (acetyl cholinesterase) required for nerve impulse conduction. Two recent human studies have shown that high potato diets increase the blood inflammatory marker IL-6. Potato lectins have been found to irritate the immune system and produce symptoms of food hypersensitivity in allergenic and non-allergenic patients. Cordain’s scientific publications have examined the nutritional characteristics of worldwide hunter-gatherer diets as well as the nutrient composition of wild plant and animal foods consumed by foraging humans. Rice too, but being born in India I have eaten rice since birth, as with all these diets the human body adapts its digestive and circulatory systems to environment and habit, I mean starting something new can often lead to problems, If it works why change it? The detergent qualities of saponins allow them to bind to bile and prevent its reabsorption.
Pharmaceutical manufacturers often include saponins in vaccines to increase their effectiveness. Some are: celiac disease, peptic ulcer, IgA, nephropathy, insulin resistance and diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. They still use Raw Milk, in for instance African cultures, mixed with Blood for more Protein!!! Net carbohydrates are used when considering very high fiber foods, because the body cannot digest carbohydrates from fiber and therefore they do not raise blood glucose levels.
But later, after poring through the medical literature, I discovered a novel idea which could explain my symptoms.
When rodents and larger animals, including humans, eat glycoalkaloid containing tubers such as potatoes, these substances frequently create holes in the gut lining, thereby increasing intestinal permeability. The levels of both ?-chaconine and ?-solanine in a variety of potato foods are listed in the table below. Without chronic low level systemic inflammation, it is unlikely that few of the classic diseases of civilization (cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases and diseases of insulin resistance) would have an opportunity to take hold and inflict their fatal effects.
He is the world’s leading expert on Paleolithic diets and has lectured extensively on the Paleolithic nutrition worldwide. Additionally, the potatoes that we consume today from the supermarket were nothing like wild tubers from the past.
I hate, when people say, that Bacon and Salt aren’t Paleo, cause it is, it just depends on how it is made, and what Salt is used, ever heard of the Ocean!?
If glycoalkaloids enter our bloodstream in sufficient concentrations, they cause hemolysis (destruction of the cell membrane) of our red blood cells. More research would provide a better picture of the potential role saponins play in cancer treatment and prevention. And before some idiot, try to tell me off, keep also the bigger things in mind, if you think about Paleo, they walked or ran to work, they didn’t get their lazy ass into a car!!! Many of those with autoimmune conditions cannot tolerate any amount of potato or other plant foods from the nightshade family.
It showed us that certain food such as potatoes caused our blood sugar levels to precipitously rise and then dramatically fall.
I ate potatoes for breakfast, and they caused my blood sugar levels to spike – only to fall drastically below their original levels shortly thereafter.

Blood glucose monitor reviews consumer reports 135i
How does insulin control blood sugar level
Glucose screening pregnancy fasting


  1. 10.04.2015 at 21:38:51

    Given safely in awake and managing glucose levels and reading last week. Usually have low blood.

    Author: SKANDAL
  2. 10.04.2015 at 13:22:40

    Levels to rise more than eating does not rule out cause that was 26% higher than.

    Author: LEZGI_RUSH
  3. 10.04.2015 at 12:29:54

    And symptoms of low blood sugar may include don't have to fast during the day.

    Author: Princessa_Girl