Biochemistry Online by Henry Jakubowski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The body contains a large variety of ions, or electrolytes, which perform a variety of functions.
Electrolytes in living systems include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, and chromium. These six ions aid in nerve excitability, endocrine secretion, membrane permeability, buffering body fluids, and controlling the movement of fluids between compartments. Hyponatremia is a lower-than-normal concentration of sodium, usually associated with excess water accumulation in the body, which dilutes the sodium. A relative decrease in blood sodium can occur because of an imbalance of sodium in one of the body’s other fluid compartments, like IF, or from a dilution of sodium due to water retention related to edema or congestive heart failure. Some insulin-dependent diabetic patients experience a relative reduction of potassium in the blood from the redistribution of potassium. Hyperkalemia, an elevated potassium blood level, also can impair the function of skeletal muscles, the nervous system, and the heart.
Hypochloremia, or lower-than-normal blood chloride levels, can occur because of defective renal tubular absorption. Bicarbonate ions result from a chemical reaction that starts with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, two molecules that are produced at the end of aerobic metabolism. The bidirectional arrows indicate that the reactions can go in either direction, depending on the concentrations of the reactants and products. About two pounds of calcium in your body are bound up in bone, which provides hardness to the bone and serves as a mineral reserve for calcium and its salts for the rest of the tissues. Hypocalcemia, or abnormally low calcium blood levels, is seen in hypoparathyroidism, which may follow the removal of the thyroid gland, because the four nodules of the parathyroid gland are embedded in it.
Sodium is reabsorbed from the renal filtrate, and potassium is excreted into the filtrate in the renal collecting tubule. Recall that aldosterone increases the excretion of potassium and the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubule.
The Aldosterone Feedback Loop Aldosterone, which is released by the adrenal gland, facilitates reabsorption of Na+ and thus the reabsorption of water. In the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys, aldosterone stimulates the synthesis and activation of the sodium-potassium pump ([link]).
The Renin-Angiotensin System Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Calcium and phosphate are both regulated through the actions of three hormones: parathyroid hormone (PTH), dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), and calcitonin. Electrolytes serve various purposes, such as helping to conduct electrical impulses along cell membranes in neurons and muscles, stabilizing enzyme structures, and releasing hormones from endocrine glands. Drinking seawater dehydrates the body as the body must pass sodium through the kidneys, and water follows. Explain how the CO2 generated by cells and exhaled in the lungs is carried as bicarbonate in the blood. How can one have an imbalance in a substance, but not actually have elevated or deficient levels of that substance in the body?
Without having an absolute excess or deficiency of a substance, one can have too much or too little of that substance in a given compartment. Thu vi?n H?c li?u M? Vi?t Nam (VOER) du?c tai tr? b?i Vietnam Foundation va v?n hanh tren n?n t?ng Hanoi Spring. Much of the material on this page came from the University of Kansas Medical centre, with the kind permission of Prof George Helmcamp.
GSD II usually presents within the first months of life with severe muscle weakness and heart muscle involvement. Children with GSD III are often first diagnosed because they have been noticed to have a swollen abdomen due to a very large liver. GSD IV is a very severe but rare disorder that leads to cirrhosis of the liver and heart involvement. Chylomicrons are assembled in the intestinal mucosa as a means to transport dietary cholesterol and triacylglycerols to the rest of the body. In proceeding from LEFT to RIGHT among the six lipoproteins in this table, the trend is toward increasing protein, increasing density, and decreasing size. As the maturation of HDL continues, further lipid and apoprotein transfers occur and the apo-E- rich HDL now becomes a ligand for two receptors that are expressed on the surface of the hepatocyte. Mice, rats and pigs are commonly used in adiposity research because their metabolisms resemble those of humans.Wild rats never exceed 10% body fat, even when fed high fat diets. THESE ARE NEW RAT MODELS, F1 HYBRIDS OF THE F30 INBRED ZDF AND THE F20+ INBRED SHHF MODELS.Gmi has over three years of experimental data on the ZSF1.
Site adapted by Bronwyn Carlisle from a design by Jason Tagg, driven by a custom FileMaker Pro solution. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy.
The economic burden of T2D among South Asians makes this an important global clinical and public health challenge.
As reported in ScienceDaily, a diet high in fructose increases the risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension), according to a paper being presented at the American Society of Nephrology's 42nd Annual Meeting and Scientific Exposition in San Diego, California. Over the last 200 years, the rate of fructose intake has directly paralleled the increasing rate of obesity, which has increased sharply in the last 20 years since the introduction of HFCS. Diana Jalal, MD (University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center), and her colleagues studied the issue in a large representative population of US adults.
Additional studies are needed to see if low fructose diets can normalize blood pressure and prevent the development of hypertension.
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a liquid sweetener used in the manufacture of foods and beverages.
Despite the similarity, there is growing evidence that High Fructose Corn Syryp can disrupt the body's metabolism and bring about a syndrome called "insulin resistance" and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body does not effectively use the insulin it produces. American consumes nearly 70 lb (32 kg) of HFCS a year, marking HFCS as a major contributor to the rising rates of obesity in the last generation.
High fructose corn syrup has been linked in many clinical trials to the obesity epidemic in the U.S.
Although many factors contribute to the obesity epidemic in the United States, no other culprit has been as highly criticized as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
In fact, high fructose corn syrup has been linked in many clinical trials to the obesity epidemic in the U.S. However, part of what makes HFCS such an unhealthy additive to any diet is that it is metabolized into fat in the body far faster than any other type of sugar.
Since most high fructose corn syrup is consumed in liquid form (often in sugary sodas), its negative metabolic effects are significantly increased.
HFCS contains no enzymes, vitamins or minerals, and sucks all available micronutrients from the body. Bottom line: Stay away from high fructose corn syrup and the dangers that will inevitably follow. Natural sources of fructose include fruits, some vegetables, honey, sugar cane and sugar beets.
Pure fructose contains no enzymes, vitamins or minerals and robs the body of its micronutrient treasures in order to assimilate itself for physiological use.
While naturally occurring sugars, as well as sucrose, contain fructose bound to other sugars, high fructose corn syrup contains a good deal of "free" or unbound fructose. Lysl oxidase is a copper-dependent enzyme that participates in the formation of collagen and elastin. In humans, fructose feeding leads to mineral losses, especially higher fecal excretions of iron and magnesium, than did subjects fed sucrose. According to government health officials, not only do the American Indian and Alaska Native populations suffer have the highest diabetes rates among ethnic groups, but the disease is increasing in the young American Indian population. A program that has established diabetes prevention and treatment programs in Indian country is set to expire next year. A possible hint at culture or diet as a factor can be seen in the statistics for culturally diverse New York City. Even though commonly consumed sugars provide basically the same number of calories, they are metabolized and used by the body in different ways. According to the Unternational Food Information Council, "There is no scientific proof of cause and effect with respect to the consumption of HFCS rather than other sugars, such as sucrose, regarding obesity rates. Fructose is a simple sugar, unique in that it does not require the body to make insulin in order to use the sugar as fuel.
A look at the growing obese population in countries where HFCS is in "everything" seems to indicate that it does just that.
Some ions assist in the transmission of electrical impulses along cell membranes in neurons and muscles.
In terms of body functioning, six electrolytes are most important: sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate. In a clinical setting, sodium, potassium, and chloride are typically analyzed in a routine urine sample. It is responsible for one-half of the osmotic pressure gradient that exists between the interior of cells and their surrounding environment.
An absolute loss of sodium may be due to a decreased intake of the ion coupled with its continual excretion in the urine. At the cellular level, hyponatremia results in increased entry of water into cells by osmosis, because the concentration of solutes within the cell exceeds the concentration of solutes in the now-diluted ECF.


It can result from water loss from the blood, resulting in the hemoconcentration of all blood constituents. It helps establish the resting membrane potential in neurons and muscle fibers after membrane depolarization and action potentials. Similar to the situation with hyponatremia, hypokalemia can occur because of either an absolute reduction of potassium in the body or a relative reduction of potassium in the blood due to the redistribution of potassium. When insulin is administered and glucose is taken up by cells, potassium passes through the cell membrane along with glucose, decreasing the amount of potassium in the blood and IF, which can cause hyperpolarization of the cell membranes of neurons, reducing their responses to stimuli.
Chloride is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure gradient between the ICF and ECF, and plays an important role in maintaining proper hydration. Its principal function is to maintain your body’s acid-base balance by being part of buffer systems. A deficiency of vitamin D leads to a decrease in absorbed calcium and, eventually, a depletion of calcium stores from the skeletal system, potentially leading to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, contributing to osteoporosis. Hypercalcemia, or abnormally high calcium blood levels, is seen in primary hyperparathyroidism.
Bone and teeth bind up 85 percent of the body’s phosphate as part of calcium-phosphate salts. Aldosterone is released if blood levels of potassium increase, if blood levels of sodium severely decrease, or if blood pressure decreases. This action increases the glomerular filtration rate, resulting in more material filtered out of the glomerular capillaries and into Bowman’s capsule. Sodium passes from the filtrate, into and through the cells of the tubules and ducts, into the ECF and then into capillaries. All three are released or synthesized in response to the blood levels of calcium.PTH is released from the parathyroid gland in response to a decrease in the concentration of blood calcium. The ions in plasma also contribute to the osmotic balance that controls the movement of water between cells and their environment. It is transformed into carbonic acid and then into bicarbonate in order to mix in plasma for transportation to the lungs, where it reverts back to its gaseous form. Such a relative increase or decrease is due to a redistribution of water or the ion in the body’s compartments.
Cac tai li?u d?u tuan th? gi?y phep Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 tr? khi ghi chu ro ngo?i l?. Unfortunately, no treatment has been found to prevent the progression of the most severe (infantile) form of this disorder and affected children die from heart failure, usually before the age of 18 months. Some children have problems with low blood sugars on fasting but this is not as common as in GSD I.
As this particle circulates in the blood it begins to acquire lipids (primarily cholesterol) and proteins from peripheral tissues and other lipoproteins, analogous to a dry sponge swelling after being placed in water.
The net result is a REVERSE flux of cholesterol from peripheral (extrahepatic) tissues to liver.
There is an elevation of chylomicrons (small droplets of fat made in the stomach or small intestine that carry food particles into the blood stream) in the blood. In ZDF fa-fa males hyperglycemia begins to develop at about seven weeks of age and glucose levels (fed) typically reach 500 mg % by 10 to 11 weeks of age. Obesity occurs in this model and related corpulent stains as a result of an autosomal recessive trait (cp) originally derived from the Kolesky rat. This allows sugar (glucose) levels to build up in the blood. Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and a major contributor to development of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and end-stage renal disease. The findings suggest that cutting back on processed foods and beverages that contain high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may help prevent hypertension.
Today, Americans consume 30% more fructose than 20 years ago and up to four times more than 100 years ago, when obesity rates were less than 5%. Jalal's team found that people who ate or drank more than 74 grams per day of fructose (2.5 sugary soft drinks per day) increased their risk of developing hypertension. The body compensates by producing greater amounts of insulin in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
The effects often result in diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, an increase in triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, and liver disease. Meira Fields and her coworkers at the US Department of Agriculture investigated the harmful effects of dietary sugar on rats. Fructose seems to interfere with copper metabolism to such an extent that collagen and elastin cannot form in growing animals--hence the hypertrophy of the heart and liver in young males. Iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc balances tended to be more negative during the fructose-feeding period as compared to balances during the sucrose-feeding period.According to a recent article in the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is the possible culprit for the obesity epidemic in America.
The disease increased 77 percent among young people younger than 15 during the same time frame. For instance, glucose from dietary sources is digested, absorbed, transported to the liver, and released into the general blood stream. Some studies suggest we are consuming more calories, but the imbalance of calories consumed and expended is what has caused the weight increase -- we consume more calories than we need."Is this true?
Ingesting fructose does produce that "sugar rush" when the body is pumping insulin to the bloodstream.
More than 90 percent of the calcium and phosphate that enters the body is incorporated into bones and teeth, with bone serving as a mineral reserve for these ions.
In contrast, calcium and phosphate analysis requires a collection of urine across a 24-hour period, because the output of these ions can vary considerably over the course of a day. Hormonal imbalances involving ADH and aldosterone may also result in higher-than-normal sodium values. An absolute loss of potassium can arise from decreased intake, frequently related to starvation. In such a situation, potassium from the blood ends up in the ECF in abnormally high concentrations.
Chloride functions to balance cations in the ECF, maintaining the electrical neutrality of this fluid.
Hyperchloremia, or higher-than-normal blood chloride levels, can occur due to dehydration, excessive intake of dietary salt (NaCl) or swallowing of sea water, aspirin intoxication, congestive heart failure, and the hereditary, chronic lung disease, cystic fibrosis. Carbon dioxide is converted into bicarbonate in the cytoplasm of red blood cells through the action of an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase.
A little more than one-half of blood calcium is bound to proteins, leaving the rest in its ionized form. Phosphate is found in phospholipids, such as those that make up the cell membrane, and in ATP, nucleotides, and buffers.Hypophosphatemia, or abnormally low phosphate blood levels, occurs with heavy use of antacids, during alcohol withdrawal, and during malnourishment.
Its net effect is to conserve and increase water levels in the plasma by reducing the excretion of sodium, and thus water, from the kidneys. Angiotensin II also signals an increase in the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. The hormone activates osteoclasts to break down bone matrix and release inorganic calcium-phosphate salts. Imbalances of these ions can result in various problems in the body, and their concentrations are tightly regulated. This may be due to the loss of water in the blood, leading to a hemoconcentration or dilution of the ion in tissues due to edema. They become unwell in early childhood with sweating, irritability, poor growth and muscle weaknes s. There are however, milder forms of GSD II in which the heart is not affected and where symptoms do not develop until later in childhood or in adult life and the progression of the illness is slower. Growth may be delayed during childhood but the majority attain a normal final adult height. No treatment apart from liver transplantation has been found to prevent progression o f the disease. Treatment primarily consists of avoiding strenuous exercise which, as well as causing pain, may lead to kidney damage. There is usually no tendency to low blood sugar, the liver becomes smaller with age and children grow normally. The enzyme-catalyzed conversion of cholesterol to cholesteryl ester stabilizes the structure and generates the stable, long-lived HDL. Liver may now use this cholesterol for the synthesis of bile lipids and eventual excretion from the body. The chylomicrons are not broken down normally because of the deficiency of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme. Gmi has acquired this model and its companion homozygous lean relatives so as to provide our customers a basic model of obesity that is inbred and does not express diabetes, hypertension or heart failure. While this increase mirrors the dramatic rise in the prevalence of hypertension, studies have been inconsistent in linking excess fructose in the diet to hypertension. Fructose intake was calculated based on a dietary questionnaire, and foods such as fruit juices, soft drinks, bakery products, and candy were included. Insulin resistance -- along with obesity, hypertension, and blood lipid disorders -- is part of the metabolic syndrome.
The Corn Refiners Association has fought back against those claims by insisting that HFCS is no worse for the body than regular sugar. They discovered that when male rats are fed a diet deficient in copper, with sucrose as the carbohydrate, they develop severe pathologies of vital organs.
Fields repeated her experiments to determine whether it was the glucose or fructose moiety that caused the harmful effects. HFCS, which has been linked to diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer among others, is a prevalent ingredient in foods and beverages through-out the country. Many tissues take up glucose from the blood to use for energy; this process requires insulin.


Even with all the chemistry and processing, HFCS is still the cheapest way to sweeten food. This bodily sensation is often connected with your feeling of "satisfaction" or "fullness." After ingesting fructose you may not feel satisfied -- even though your caloric intake is the same as sucrose. Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006)," (TH-FC037) was presented as part of a Free Communications Session during the American Society of Nephrology's 42nd Annual Meeting and Scientific Exposition on Oct.
In the event that calcium and phosphate are needed for other functions, bone tissue can be broken down to supply the blood and other tissues with these minerals. This excess sodium appears to be a major factor in hypertension (high blood pressure) in some people. The low levels of potassium in blood and CSF are due to the sodium-potassium pumps in cell membranes, which maintain the normal potassium concentration gradients between the ICF and ECF.
This can result in a partial depolarization (excitation) of the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibers, neurons, and cardiac cells of the heart, and can also lead to an inability of cells to repolarize. The paths of secretion and reabsorption of chloride ions in the renal system follow the paths of sodium ions. In people who have cystic fibrosis, chloride levels in sweat are two to five times those of normal levels, and analysis of sweat is often used in the diagnosis of the disease. Calcium ions, Ca2+, are necessary for muscle contraction, enzyme activity, and blood coagulation.
In the face of phosphate depletion, the kidneys usually conserve phosphate, but during starvation, this conservation is impaired greatly. In a negative feedback loop, increased osmolality of the ECF (which follows aldosterone-stimulated sodium absorption) inhibits the release of the hormone ([link]). PTH also increases the gastrointestinal absorption of dietary calcium by converting vitamin D into dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol), an active form of vitamin D that intestinal epithelial cells require to absorb calcium.PTH raises blood calcium levels by inhibiting the loss of calcium through the kidneys.
Aldosterone and angiotensin II control the exchange of sodium and potassium between the renal filtrate and the renal collecting tubule. Although some older individuals develop problems with muscle weakness (which may also affect the heart) the outcome for most is good with the liver returning t o a normal size with age. The apolipoproteins that predominate before the chylomicrons enter the circulation include apoB-48 and apoA-I, -A-II and IV. These strains become obese even when restricted by pair-feeding to the caloric intake of lean littermates. However, by 19 weeks of age insulin's drop to about the level of lean control litter mates. It also provides a line of inbred normotensive lean rats.The inbred obese rats exhibit impairments in thyroidal and neuronal components of energy expenditure early in life, similar to those thought to occur in humans. The most common form in the American food supply is HFCS-55, which contains 55% fructose and 45% glucose. Today, the inclusion of fructose in virtually every food product dramatically increases the proportion of fructose in our diet. Liver, heart and testes exhibit extreme swelling, while the pancreas atrophies, invariably leading to death of the rats before maturity. In studies with rats, fructose consistently produces higher kidney calcium concentrations than glucose. Fructose is predominantly metabolized in the liver, but unlike glucose it does not require insulin to be used by the body. It's also said to extend the shelf-life of products and easier to mix because it's a liquid.
All of the ions in plasma contribute to the osmotic balance that controls the movement of water between cells and their environment. Once in the lungs, the reactions reverse direction, and CO2 is regenerated from bicarbonate to be exhaled as metabolic waste. In addition, calcium helps to stabilize cell membranes and is essential for the release of neurotransmitters from neurons and of hormones from endocrine glands.
Hyperphosphatemia, or abnormally increased levels of phosphates in the blood, occurs if there is decreased renal function or in cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. PTH also increases the loss of phosphate through the kidneys.Calcitonin is released from the thyroid gland in response to elevated blood levels of calcium.
In addition to these problems, children with GSD I can develop frequent mouth ulcers and are at increased risk of infection. ApoB-48 combines only with chylomicrons.Chylomicrons leave the intestine via the lymphatic system and enter the circulation at the left subclavian vein. Skin lesions called xanthomas form as a result of deposits of these chylomicrons in the skin.
In addition to marked adiposity, the obese phenotype, fed a normal diet, expresses moderate hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance and an impaired glucose tolerance when compared to lean litter mates. Some researchers have suspected that the health problems linked to HFCS stems from the unusually high consumption of fructose, the main ingredient in HFCS. On a copper-deficient diet, the male rats showed some signs of copper deficiency, but not the gross abnormalities of vital organs that occur in rats on the sucrose diet. Fructose generally induces greater urinary concentrations of phosphorus and magnesium and lowered urinary pH compared with glucose. Whites who are not Hispanic have the lowest rate -- 5 percent -- and Asians are second to last, with 6.8 percent. Over the past 20 years, as methods for producing HFCS improved, food and beverage companies have all replaced other sweeteners with HFCS.
Sodium is freely filtered through the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys, and although much of the filtered sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule, some remains in the filtrate and urine, and is normally excreted.
Potassium is excreted, both actively and passively, through the renal tubules, especially the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts.
Because of such effects on the nervous system, a person with hyperkalemia may also exhibit mental confusion, numbness, and weakened respiratory muscles. Additionally, because phosphate is a major constituent of the ICF, any significant destruction of cells can result in dumping of phosphate into the ECF. The hormone increases the activity of osteoblasts, which remove calcium from the blood and incorporate calcium into the bony matrix. Treatment primarily consists of giving glucose drinks frequently during the day and, in most cases, continuously overnight through a tube passed down the nose into the stomach (a nasogastric tube). SUMMARY OF STRAIN CHARACTERISTICS: Syndrome X Extreme hyperlipidemia Hyperinsulinemia Insulin resistance Hyperphagia Hypertension (moderate to high, male and female) NIDDM (male only varies with diet) Model exhibits a great sensitivity to diet change. Potassium participates in the exchange with sodium in the renal tubules under the influence of aldosterone, which also relies on basolateral sodium-potassium pumps.
As children get older, treatment with cornstarch, which releases glucose slowly into the gut, may be very effective. In the capillaries of adipose tissue and muscle, the fatty acids of chylomicrons are removed from the triacylglycerols by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is found on the surface of the endothelial cells of the capillaries.
Risk factors are a family history of high triglycerides in the blood, a previous history of pancreatitis, and failure to thrive in infancy. Tubby mice also have imparied insulin metabolism.Nitrogen balance studies have shown that the obese Zucker rat tends to deposit amino acid carbon skeletons in the form of fat, rather than muscle protein. They appear in many ways to be similar to outbred Zucker fatty males and females when fed a regular lower fat rat chow.
Adjustments in respiratory and renal functions allow the body to regulate the levels of these ions in the ECF.
With such intensive treatment most children do well and their symptoms improve as they reach adulthood.
The free fatty acids are then absorbed by the tissues and the glycerol backbone of the triacylglycerols is returned, via the blood, to the liver and kidneys.
The obese rat also has less lean body mass, a reduced rate of protein deposition, and a reduced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle; the decreased rate of protein synthesis is already present in the obese rat before weaning. During the removal of fatty acids, a substantial portion of phospholipid, apoA and apoC is transferred to HDLs. Zucker rats can survive in the cold, yet they attain the obese state with normal diet and exercise.
These obese female rats become hyperglycemic and develop NIDDM when fed Gmi diabetogenic diet. No hard data are currently available which demonstrate phenotypic differences from other typical control rats. Chylomicrons function to deliver dietary triacylglycerols to adipose tissue and muscle and dietary cholesterol to the liver. It is thought to be the initiated by a single gene defect (fa) the nature of which remains totally unknown.
A 25- fold increase in the amounts of the enzyme adipose tissue Fatty Acid Synthetase (FAS) apparently causes this obesity.
Mature adipocytes from genetically obese Zucker rats maintain their hyperactive lipid storage capacity when withdrawn from their in vivo environment, indicating an intrinsic alteration in these cells.High protein requirements could provide a partial explanation for the hyperphagia of genetically-obese Zucker rats. These mutants oxidize amino acids in preference to fats and therefore growth of lean body mass is limited.
In order to obtain sufficient protein for normal growth the Zucker overeats, and the excess energy ends up as fat. It is claimed that the hyperphagia is almost completely abolished when these animals are fed very high protein diets, and weight gain is then diminished. Results obtained with obese rats are more relevant to obese humans than results obtained with Wistar or Sprague-Dawley (genetically thin) rats.



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