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The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals.
The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. With some exceptions,[2][3] glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells,[not verified in body] and blood lipids (in the form of fats and oils) are primarily a compact energy store.
Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day (termed "the fasting level"), and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimolar. Despite widely variable intervals between meals or the occasional consumption of meals with a substantial carbohydrate load, human blood glucose levels tend to remain within the normal range. In general, ranges of blood sugar in common domestic ruminants are lower than in many monogastric mammals.[12] However this generalization does not extend to wild ruminants or camelids.
Fasting blood glucose levels may be higher than the post meal blood glucose in many of the healthy subjects. If blood sugar levels drop too low, a potentially fatal condition called hypoglycemia develops.
In a fasting individual, glucose levels are comparable in arterial, venous, and capillary blood. Collection of blood in clot tubes for serum chemistry analysis permits the metabolism of glucose in the sample by blood cells until separated by centrifugation. To prevent contamination of the sample with intravenous fluids, particular care should be given to drawing blood samples from the arm opposite the one in which an intravenous line is inserted. In either case, the chemical system is commonly contained on a test strip which is inserted into a meter, and then has a blood sample applied. The fasting blood glucose level, which is measured after a fast of 8 hours, is the most commonly used indication of overall glucose homeostasis, largely because disturbing events such as food intake are avoided. The metabolic response to a carbohydrate challenge is conveniently assessed by a postprandial glucose level drawn 2 hours after a meal or a glucose load.
Error rates for blood glucose measurements systems vary, depending on laboratories, and on the methods used. This section has no medical references for verification or relies exclusively on non-medical sources. In a physiological context, the term is a misnomer because it refers to glucose, yet other sugars besides glucose are always present. Type-1: It is definitely the far more serious and complicated, the simple reason being in this that the pancreatic beta cells are totally dead or defective, and hence no production of insulin. Children, young men, women and those whose sugar levels can't be controlled by tablets come under this category. It's also termed maturity-onset diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or NIDDM. Malnutrition-related diabetes: Millions, especially among the rural population, suffer from malnutrition-related diabetes.
The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.
Glucose is transported from the intestines or liver to body cells via the bloodstream, and is made available for cell absorption via the hormone insulin, produced by the body primarily in the pancreas.

It is composed of several interacting systems, of which hormone regulation is the most important.
Long-term hyperglycemia causes many of the long-term health problems including heart disease, eye, kidney, and nerve damage. When diabetes is the cause, physicians typically recommend an anti-diabetic medication as treatment.
Such individuals may be said to have physiological insulin resistance and may develop diabetes mellitus as long term complication. Without discounting the potentially quite serious conditions and risks due to or oftentimes accompanying hyperglycemia, especially in the long-term (diabetes or pre-diabetes, obesity or overweight, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, etc.), it is still generally more dangerous to have too little glucose- especially if levels are very low- in the blood than too much, at least temporarily, because glucose is so important for metabolism and nutrition and the proper functioning of the body's organs.
But following meals, capillary and arterial blood glucose levels can be significantly higher than venous levels. Historically, blood glucose values were given in terms of whole blood, but most laboratories now measure and report plasma or serum glucose levels. Alternatively, blood can be drawn from the same arm with an IV line after the IV has been turned off for at least 5 minutes, and the arm has been elevated to drain infused fluids away from the vein.
The first, still in use in some places, is a chemical method exploiting the nonspecific reducing property of glucose in a reaction with an indicator substance that changes color when reduced. Test-strip shapes and their exact chemical composition vary between meter systems and cannot be interchanged.
In properly functioning kidneys, glucose does not appear in urine until the renal threshold for glucose has been exceeded.
In addition, the glucose tolerance test, consisting of several timed measurements after a standardized amount of oral glucose intake, is used to aid in the diagnosis of diabetes. Infection, for instance, tends to change blood glucose levels, as does stress either physical or psychological. Therefore, regular, lifelong, insulin injections are required to maintain normal blood sugar. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia.
From the perspective the majority of patients, treatment with an old, well-understood diabetes drug such as metformin will be the safest, most effective, least expensive, most comfortable route to managing the condition.[18] Diet changes and exercise implementation may also be part of a treatment plan for diabetes. In clinical and laboratory practices, many of the time a healthy normal subject will present a fasting blood glucose value higher than the post meal blood glucose value.
This is especially the case for those organs that are metabolically active or that require a constant, regulated supply of blood sugar (the liver and brain are examples).
Higher than normal amounts of white or red blood cell counts can lead to excessive glycolysis in the sample, with substantial reduction of glucose level if the sample is not processed quickly. Formerly, some test strips were read (after timing and wiping away the blood sample) by visual comparison against a color chart printed on the vial label. This is substantially above any normal glucose level, and is evidence of an existing severe hyperglycemic condition. Abnormalities in these test results are due to problems in the multiple control mechanism of glucose regulation. Exercise, especially if prolonged or long after the most recent meal, will have an effect as well.
Most of them develop this type of diabetes when they are around 40 to 50 years of age, and if they follow proper diet and exercise, can live on tablets without ever having to take insulin.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. This creates confusion since there is a common perception that in blood, postprandial (PP) glucose level should be higher than fasting (F) glucose level. In healthy individuals, blood glucose-regulating mechanisms are generally quite effective, and symptomatic hypoglycemia is generally found only in diabetics using insulin or other pharmacological treatment, and in starvation or severe malnutrition or malabsorption (of various causes), and conditions such as anorexia[dubious a€“ discuss].
Remember that the actual concentration of glucose in blood is very low, even in the hyperglycemic. The more recent technique, using enzymes specific to glucose, is less susceptible to this kind of error.
Strips of this type are still used for urine glucose readings, but for blood glucose levels they are obsolete. However, as urine is stored in the bladder, any glucose in it might have been produced at any time since the last time the bladder was emptied. In the typical person, maintenance of blood glucose at near constant levels will nevertheless be quite effective. The table above reflects some of the more technical and closely defined terms used in the medical field.
But usually they don't take it seriously and they end up with insulin sometime in their lives. Intake of alcohol causes an initial surge in blood sugar, and later tends to cause levels to fall.
Hypoglycemic episodes can vary greatly between persons and from time to time, both in severity and swiftness of onset.
At refrigerator temperatures, glucose remains relatively stable for several hours in a blood sample.
Since metabolic conditions change rapidly, as a result of any of several factors, this is delayed news and gives no warning of a developing condition.
For severe cases, prompt medical assistance is essential, as damage to brain and other tissues and even death will result from sufficiently low blood-glucose levels. More precise blood glucose measurements are performed in a medical laboratory, using hexokinase, glucose oxidase, or glucose dehydrogenase enzymes. Blood glucose monitoring is far preferable, both clinically and for home monitoring by patients. In the US, home use blood test meters must be approved by the Federal Food and Drug Administration before they can be sold. However, these should only be used when blood will be transported from one hospital laboratory to another for glucose measurement.
Healthy urine glucose levels were first standardized and published in 1965[23] by Hans Renschler. Red-top serum separator tubes also preserve glucose in samples after being centrifuged isolating the serum from cells.

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