If I drank 1 beer on Sunday at 3:00 and had an etg urine test on Monday at 4:00, ( I am a female, weigh 180 lbs) will I pass? If I drank two beers on friday and finished at 4 pm and have an etg on sunday at anytime after noon will I pass if not can I do anything to speed up the process of eliminating the alcohol from my system please help?
If I drank 4 beers Saturday and I drank 4 on Monday will I pass a drug test that will get sent into the lab on Friday night. Answer- The digestion of carbohydrates involves hydrolysis to liberate oligosaccharides, disaccharides and finally monosaccharides.
The hydrolysis of starch is catalyzed by salivary and pancreatic amylases, which catalyze random hydrolysis of ? (1-›4) glycoside bonds, yielding dextrins, then a mixture of glucose, maltose, and isomaltose (from the branch points in amylopectin). The process of digestion starts in mouth by salivary alpha amylase, however due to shorter duration of stay of food in mouth, the digestion is left incomplete.
Gastric HCl causes hydrolysis of sucrose, while there is no hydrolytic enzyme present  in gastric juice for the digestion of carbohydrates.
Pancreatic amylase, an isoenzyme of salivary amylase, differs only in the optimum pH of action. The disaccharidases, maltase, sucrase-isomaltase (a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of sucrose and isomaltose), lactase, and trehalase are located on the brush border of the intestinal mucosal cell where the resultant monosaccharides and others arising from the diet are absorbed.
This type of co transport is also utilized to reabsorb glucose from kidney tubules, involving SGLT2 Transporter.
The absorbed glucose is transported to portal blood  from intestinal cell by specific GLUT-2 transporters (Facilitated diffusion).
Answer- Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of lactase enzyme, which is produced by the cells lining the small intestine. The osmotic load of the unabsorbed lactose causes secretion of fluid and electrolytes until osmotic equilibrium is reached. Primary lactase deficiency develops over time and begins after about age 2 when the body begins to produce less lactase.
Secondary, or acquired, lactase deficiency may develop in a person with a healthy small intestine during episodes of acute illness. It is a genetic disorder which prevents enzymatic production of lactase.  It is present at birth, and is diagnosed in early infancy. The person drinks a lactose-loaded beverage and then the breath is analyzed at regular intervals to measure the amount of hydrogen. The stool acidity test is used for infants and young children to measure the amount of acid in the stool.
Besides these tests, urine shows- positive test  with Benedict’s test, since lactose is a reducing sugar and a small amount of lactose is absorbed in the intestinal cell by pinocytosis and is rapidly eliminated through kidneys in to urine. Although the body’s ability to produce lactase cannot be changed, the symptoms of lactose intolerance can be managed with dietary changes. Figure-4-Insulin regulates glucose uptake into these cells(They are present in skeletal, cardiac muscles and adipose tissue) by recruiting membrane vesicles containing the GLUT4 glucose transporters from the interior of cells to the cell surface, where it allows glucose to enter cells by facilitative diffusion.  Once in the cytoplasm, the glucose is phosphorylated and thereby trapped inside cells. There is increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 transporters on the surface of cancer cells. Twenty-seven years ago today (May 9, 1989) was one of the saddest days in the history of country music: It was on this day that Keith Whitley passed away.


Whitley was survived by his wife, Lorrie Morgan, and son Jessie, as well as a step-daughter, Morgan. Morgan was in Alaska on a promotional tour at the time of Whitley’s death, which she admits still pains her. Three more Whitley studio albums were released after his death, including I Wonder Do You Think of Me, which came out only three months after his passing.
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In most people, apart from those of northern European origin, lactase is gradually lost through adolescence, leading to lactose intolerance.
They are carried by the same transport protein (SGLT 1), and compete with each other for intestinal absorption. SGLT-1 are  present on the intestinal cells while SGLT-2 are  present on the proximal tubular cells. Because they are not actively transported, fructose and sugar alcohols are only absorbed down their concentration gradient, and after a moderately high intake, some may remain in the intestinal lumen, acting as a substrate for bacterial fermentation. Disaccharides cannot be absorbed through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream, so in the absence of lactase, lactose present in ingested dairy products remains uncleaved and passes intact into the colon.
Dilation of the intestine caused by the osmosis induces an acceleration of small intestinal transit, which increases the degree of maldigestion. Most children who have lactase deficiency do not experience symptoms of lactose intolerance until late adolescence or adulthood. This occurs because of mucosal damage or from medications resulting from certain gastrointestinal diseases, including exposure to intestinal parasites such as Giardia lamblia.
Normally, very little hydrogen is detectable in the breath, but undigested lactose produces high levels of hydrogen. Undigested lactose creates lactic acid and other short chain fatty acids that can be detected in a stool sample. GLUT1 and GLUT3, present in nearly all mammalian cells, are responsible for basal glucose uptake. GLUT2, present in liver and pancreatic beta cells, are distinctive in having a very high K m value for glucose (15 20 mM). GLUT5, present in the small intestine, testes, seminal vesicles and kidney, function  primarily as  fructose transporters. Cancer cells grow more rapidly than the blood vessels to nourish them; thus, as solid tumors grow, they are unable to obtain oxygen efficiently. Palmer had been with Whitley earlier that morning, when the two men had coffee and made plans for a day of golf and lunch.
The couple had been married less than three years when Whitley passed away, but his wife was acutely aware of his battle with alcohol.
Ricky Skaggs sang at the service, with Ralph Emery and David Frizzell among the pallbearers. Lactose remains in the intestinal lumen, where it is a substrate for bacterial fermentation to lactate, resulting in discomfort and diarrhea.
The operons of enteric bacteria quickly switch over to lactose metabolism, and the resulting in-vivo fermentation produces copious amounts of gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane).


The combined increase in fecal water, intestinal transit, and generated hydrogen gas accounts for the wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gradually introducing small amounts of milk or milk products may help some people adapt to them with fewer symptoms.
Hence, glucose enters these tissues at a biologically significant rate only when there is much glucose in the blood.
The presence of insulin, which signals the fed state, leads to a rapid increase in the number of GLUT4 transporters in the plasma membrane (Figure-4). The flow of sodium is down the concentration gradient, while glucose is transported against the concentration gradient. This, in turn, may cause a range of abdominal symptoms, including abdominal cramps, bloating, and flatulence. A very common cause of temporary lactose intolerance is gastroenteritis, particularly when the gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus. Hence, GLUT1 and GLUT3 continually transport glucose into cells at an essentially constant rate.
The pancreas can thereby sense the glucose level and accordingly adjust the rate of insulin secretion. Under these conditions, glycolysis leading to lactic acid fermentation becomes the primary source of ATP. His blood alcohol level was .47, and his cause of death was determined to be alcohol poisoning. In addition, as with other unabsorbed sugars (such as Sorbitol, Mannitol, and xylitol), the presence of lactose and its fermentation products raises the osmotic pressure of the colon contents.
Insulin signals the need to remove glucose from the blood for storage as glycogen or conversion into fat. The number of these transporters present in muscle membranes increase in response to endurance exercise training. Glycolysis is made more efficient in hypoxic tumors by the action of a transcription factor, hypoxia–inducible transcription factor (HIF-1). Secondary lactase deficiency also results from injury to the small intestine that occurs with celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, or chemotherapy.
Getting enough calcium is important for people with lactose intolerance when the intake of milk and milk products is limited. The high Km value of GLUT2 also ensures that glucose rapidly enters liver cells only in times of plenty. In the absence of oxygen, HIF-1 increases the expression of most glycolytic enzymes and the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3.
A balanced diet that provides an adequate amount of nutrients—including calcium and vitamin D—and minimizes discomfort is to be planned for the patients of lactose intolerance.



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