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Published : 12.02.2014 | Author : admin | Categories : Vinyl Garden Shed
Lastly, surface storage can affect WATER QUALITY either by blending operations to increase quality or by degrading in-stream quality by diverting higher-quality water and thereby increasing constituent concentrations in watercourses. On-stream storage generally develops more operational flexibility in that large winter surplus flows can be captured whereas off-stream diversions are limited to pumping plant capacities.New on-stream reservoirs, that occur as the furthest downstream obstruction on a watercourse, can have a greater impact on anadromous fish by disrupting migration to upstream spawning habitat. Impacts to the area of origin stakeholders is a consideration in terms of who pays the costs, suffers the impacts and enjoys the benefits of such facilities.
Public trust can be a consideration in terms of who pays for and who benefits from (primarily in terms of socio-economic classes) surface storage as well as in terms of stewardship (development, management and conservation) of public resources. Facilitation of WATER TRANSFERS can be accomplished through the use of groundwater storage. The favorability of groundwater storage versus surface storage facilities must be evaluated on a project-level basis since costs, achievements and impacts can differ by several orders of magnitude per project. Groundwater storage operations are usually less flexible than on-stream surface storage in that groundwater recharge and extraction is limited to the conveyance facilities such as recharge pond percolation rates or extraction well design capacities, respectively. The coordinated operation of surface storage, conveyance and groundwater storage systems to maximize benefits.
Re-operation of surface storage can affect FLOOD MANAGEMENT in terms of operational rules that dictate the allocation of storage capacity between water supply storage and flood flow attenuation. Facilitation of WATER TRANSFERS can be accomplished by utilization of the additional capacity freed up by increased operational efficiency.
System Operational Efficiency can be achieved by orchestrating the movement, storage and usage of groundwater and surface water to the benefit of all water use sectors. Conveyance capacity is frequently developed in conjunction with new groundwater and surface water storage facilities. Conveyance infrastructure requirements for new surface storage vary between on-stream and off-stream configurations. Reservoir diversions for off-stream storage require aqueducts (open channels or pipelines), pumplifts and forebays (to regulate diversion and release operations). For on-stream storage, additional conveyance is generally not required for reservoir releases as they discharge directly into the diversion watercourse. INTEGRATED SURFACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT can result in surface storage operational modifications that affect flat-water opportunities which are largely a function of reservoir water surface elevations. New SURFACE STORAGE FACILITIES could increase flat water opportunities and perhaps develop additional supply for consumptive recreational uses.
Tailings storage operations embrace four main stages – design, construction, operation and decommissioning.
For the purpose of these guidelines, tailings are classified as contaminated if they contain, or are predicted to contain, concentrations of contaminants exceeding those levels specified in Definitions and Acronyms. It is also likely that Planning Permit or EES processes will require any project of significant scale to undertake consultation activities with local communities potentially affected by a proposed facility and other stakeholders. Risk management is about minimising safety, health, environmental and financial risks associated with the transportation and storage of tailings. It is incumbent upon the proponent or owner of a TSF to demonstrate that the immediate and long-term risks associated with tailings handling and storage are acceptable and to justify the design and operational decisions using conventional risk management techniques.

The safety of tailings storage operations can be enhanced through the sharing of experiences and knowledge about accidents and incidents.
The proponent for a TSF should consider potential waste minimisation programs and reuse opportunities as an integral part of a submission for a tailings storage proposal. Where sub-aerial deposition (in which final rehabilitation requires drying of the tailings mass) is proposed in a large TSF, the design should include decant or water recovery facilities to minimise the amount of supernatant water in the dam at any one time. Alternatively, the proponent should demonstrate why a decant or water recovery facility is not required and that risks have been adequately addressed.
Where sub-aerial deposition is proposed in a large TSF, the design should include decant or water recovery facilities. Various pages within this website present a brief overview of the various surface and offshore tailings storage methods used today. Site selection is the most important aspect in affecting the tailings storage facility design.
Primarily the site selection is dependent on the storage capacity required of the facility, the site availability, the construction, operating and closure costs, geotechnical and geological conditions, the hydrology of the area, and the ease of the day to day operations.
Tailings are either pumped or gravity fed through pipelines or open flumes from the processing plant to their final storage location (ICOLD and UNEP 2001). The distance to the tailings storage facility from the plant and the difference in elevation between these two locations can have a significant effect on the capital expenditure and the operating costs of tailings storage. The elevation of the tailings storage area in respect to the mill can influence cost of construction or operation.
The layout of a surface tailings storage facility is dependent on both natural land forms as well as manmade engineered features (Ritcey 1989). A raised ring dyke using the upstream method requires the least amount of embankment fill material but on each raise the storage volume decreases. Valley bottom impoundments are considered where the span of a valley is too large and high water runoff presents challenges for cross valley storage.
For example, the footprint of a large reservoir can be thousands of acres, similarly a direct groundwater recharge facility can require thousand of acres of percolation ponds to achieve a few hundred cubic feet per second long-term recharge rate.
In addition, new storage could increase flow-based opportunities depending on release flow rates and timing. Appendix I summarises the guidelines, Appendix II outlines the administrative process for obtaining a Work Authority and Appendix III lists the main documentation required by the department for the approval and operation of a Tailings Storage Facility (TSF). The assessment should be reviewed regularly, based on the performance of the facility against its design parameters and the outcome of the annual Audit Report. However independent certification of the design, by a person fulfilling all the criteria of the above definition, will be required.
The relevant details of the planned operation should also be entered on the Tailings Storage Facility Data Sheet (Appendix IV), which should be presented with the design. However independent certification of the design, by a person, fulfilling all the criteria of the above definition will be required. Conventional impoundment storage is the most common and normally has higher embankments than thickened, paste and dry stack storage facilities.

The tailings flow is normally thickened at the plant to recover water for reuse in the mineral processing stage and to prevent unnecessary discharge and water management at the storage facility. The tailings and reclaim water pipelines can cost up to $500,000 per mile (Vick 1990) which puts a substantial cost burden on a more distant tailings storage site (figure 2). The only considerations are costs associated with starter dyke and subsequent raised construction, the volume of material required to establish a particular height, the tailings properties and the water storage requirements of the facility. This means the rates of rise of the embankments increase to generate the same storage volume after each lift. A copy should also be forwarded to each of the emergency services likely to attend the facility. This should include planning for the systematic deposition of tailings, water and process chemicals in the facility. Embankments for conventional storage facilities are designed to retain tailings and water (Vick 1990) whereas thickened, paste and dry stack facilities have embankments designed to retain runoff, bleed water and fines rather than the weight of the tailings mass itself.
The tailings characteristics will have an effect on the type of storage impoundment area, and therefore the site location (EC 2004). For thickened and paste storage it is not uncommon to have the thickener(s) at or near the point of discharge to prevent high pumping costs and the need for positive displacement pumps (Fourie 2003). Ideally the tailings impoundment should be located within four to five kilometres from the processing plant, but this will vary for special cases that require disposal of large volumes of tailings, or where site factors prevent the construction of a facility.
Ideally topographical depressions are more advantageous for tailings storage as the volume of fill material required and the subsequent embankment heights are reduced. The embankments of a ring dyke impoundment require large volumes of fill material in relation to the storage volume produced. The cross valley design is similar to the layout of a conventional water storage reservoir in that an embankment is placed across the valley to dam a drainage area (Vick 1990). Valley bottom impoundments are actually a compromise between a cross valley and a sidehill design and are normally built in multiple formation similar to sidehill facilities (EPA 1994). For dry stack facilities the final moisture content of the tailings prevents pumping and so truck or conveyors are used. The main advantage to this layout is that surface runoff cannot inundate the tailings storage area (EPA 1994) making the contained water within being entirely process or precipitation derived. The sidehill design is best suited for slopes of less than 10% as the steeper the slope the more fill volume is required in the embankments in relation to the storage volume achievable (Vick 1990).
This method of tailings storage is most suitable to the backfilling of voids (underground and open pit), the covering of conventional tailings storage methods and the construction of elevated waste heaps (providing a water containment system is in place)(DME 1999). If using the downstream and centreline embankment raising techniques the embankment fill volumes increase compared to upstream raises and can occupy potential storage space.

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