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admin | Healthy Vegetables List | 29.03.2014
Vitamins and minerals (when not consumed in food form) are classified by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) as dietary supplements. Athletes have increased energy needs, which allows for more opportunities to obtain the nutrients they need through a balanced diet composed of a variety of natural foods. Natural foods contain a matrix of various nutrients that researchers are continuing to discover and learn more about. Self-prescribed supplement users should heed overdose warnings and look for symptoms of toxic levels of supplementation, such as diarrhea, skin rashes that do not fade, and unexplained joint pain.
Athletes searching for a competitive edge often look to a supplement or a special combination of nutrients to find it. For athletes subject to sport drug testing, taking nutritional or dietary supplements may cause a positive test for a prohibited substance that may not be disclosed on the product label. Some trade associations and other businesses have programs that include analytical testing and quality assessment of dietary supplements, culminating in a “stamp of approval’ or a “guarantee” that the supplement is safe for use in sport. Background: Dietary supplements are defined as products containing “dietary ingredients” intended to supplement the diet.
The increased visibility of many vitamins, minerals, herbals, as well as other dietary supplements, some argue, can be attributed to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994. Most Americans are unaware that designer steroids and other dangerous drugs are intentionally being sold as dietary supplements and that current law makes it too easy for these products to get to the market. Given the overall possibility of supplement contamination, the risk of taking a mislabeled supplement is a real threat to the careers of American athletes and the health of all consumers.
The experimental groups took a daily vitamin and mineral supplementation tablets. The controls received a placebo. No significant effects of performance were measured in the swimmers, gymnasts or rowers. There was another significant improvement in vertical jump in the supplement group of basketball players. The diets in these athletes reached the recommended dietary intake (RDIs) for vitamins and minerals).
Supplementation in athletes already reaching RDIs of vitamins and minerals does not improve performance. No matter if achieving RDIs of vitamins and minerals occurs, coaches should strive for adequate nutrition for each of their swimmers. Amino acids, botanicals, herbs, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues and glandulars, and metabolites, are also classified as dietary supplements. Most sports medicine professionals agree that unless an individual has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve athletic performance.
An athlete should consult with his or her physician, or other health care professional, to determine whether vitamin and mineral supplementation is needed to maintain optimal health.

The body needs more than 40 nutrients every day and supplements do not contain all the nutrients that are found in food. Often individual nutrients don’t work as effectively when isolated in a pill or supplement form. In accordance with all applicable rules for a positive test result within a sport, a sanction may be imposed.
These programs may reduce the risk that a supplement is contaminated, or contains an undisclosed ingredient.
These include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, botanicals, herbs, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues and glandulars, metabolites, etc.
Under DSHEA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) DOES NOT approve any supplements including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbals, and other botanical preparations for safety or efficacy (whether they work).
The Act classifies a number of prohormones or steroid precursors, previously manufactured as dietary supplements, as controlled substances, making their distribution illegal without a medical prescription. One major issue is that unscrupulous companies are marketing supplements spiked with these dangerous substances, taking advantage of many consumers’ desires for maximized sport performance or aesthetic improvements, and advertising them as healthy and safe products when they’re not. Best estimates suggest that there are hundreds of supplement products currently available that contain one or more of approximately 20 to 25 designer steroids alone.
In the United States, high-profile athletes who test positive from contaminated or intentionally spiked supplements containing undisclosed prohibited substances can be made ineligible for competition. The consumption of these dangerous hidden drugs, such as designer steroids, has been a known cause of liver injury, stroke, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. Anti-Doping AgencyUSADA's innovative anti-doping technologies are helping improve anti-doping services and effectiveness. The basketball players had a significant increase in body weight for the experimental protocol. This implementation may not improve performance, but can increase health and weight management for a lifetime!
Many athletes believe they do not get enough vitamins and minerals in their diet and wonder if they should start taking some sort of supplement; while other athletes are on a constant quest to find the latest diet or supplement that will give them a competitive edge. Unlike water soluble vitamins in which excess amounts are excreted in the urine, fat soluble vitamins are stored in body fat and remain in the body. Consuming a wide variety of foods and staying well hydrated are the basic cornerstones to reaching athletic potential.
Additionally, the passing of DSHEA allowed manufacturers to publish only limited information about the benefits of dietary supplements. For example, in a 2004 study funded by the International Olympic Committee, 18.8 percent of the 245 supplements analyzed from the United States were found positive for steroids.

While there certainly are supplements that are safe and pure, it is possible for one batch of a product, for example, to become contaminated with a dangerous or sport-prohibited substance when manufacturing equipment isn’t cleaned properly and contains remnants of ingredients from a previous product. The inclusion of stimulants in supplement products also has the potential for harmful effects. There was also a significant increase in skinfold for the supplement group of basketball players. The weight gain in the basketball players is surprising, potentially by increasing the B6 status and increasing power development. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately.
The reality is that making wise food and beverage choices are crucial for peak performance and contribute to endurance and repair of injured tissues. Athletes who take dietary or nutritional supplements, even if claiming to be “approved” or “verified,” do so at their own risk of committing an anti-doping rule violation, or suffering from negative health side-effects.
It is easy for products to get to the marketplace without pre-market controls, and if necessary, they are extremely difficult to remove, even when serious health concerns are raised about their safety. This is similar to what can happen in a factory that manufactures nut products, as well as other products like cereals and breads. In the world of anti-doping, strict liability applies and athletes are responsible for what is in their systems at the time of a drug test.
Also, many will agree the nutrient profile has greatly changed for swimmers (and the general population since 1992). Too often teams ignore nutrition, especially during travel, impairing their nutrition for an entire life! A good working knowledge and understanding of foods that provide essential nutrients will aid in an athlete reaching their greatest potential. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)usada.orgTechnology is an important part of anti-doping and USADA is leading the field in implementing innovative technologies to strengthen anti-doping efforts. It is up to the athlete or consumer to research reliable sources of information that can point out the many substances that are known to be included in supplements and that may, in fact, damage one’s health or an athletic career.

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