Types of nutrients in plants,how to lose weight while breastfeeding a baby,weight loss during pregnancy if overweight,vitamins and minerals for hair - For Begninners

admin | Weight Loss Fitness Program | 13.04.2013
Thus the term nutrition includes the means by which an organism obtains its food and also the processes by which the nutrients in the food are broken down to simpler molecules for utilization by the body. Organisms which are incapable of photosynthesising, obtain certain organic compounds from other autotrophs and they are called heterotrophs and this type of nutrition is referred to as heterotrophic nutrition.
Neottia (Bird's nest plant) and Monotropa (Indian pipe) are flowering plants whose roots constitute a mycorrhizal association with fungal hyphae, which help in absorption.
Table 6.1 can be used as a guide to estimate the removal of nutrients from the farm and the addition of nutrients brought onto the farm.
Note that in this section we are only talking about the plant nutrients that end up in various pasture and animal components.
Table 6.2 provides some easy-to-use estimates for the amount of nutrients contained in a quantity of hay, grain and animal products. The nutrient contents of the plant categories in Table 6.2 have large ranges because of such factors as pasture composition, time of season sampled, nutrients applied, and soil type. Conversely, if the fodder is continually fed back in the same small area (for example, in a sacrifice paddock situation), nutrient build up is greatly enhanced from both the fodder and the return of dung and urine. Fertiliser applications in the following season on both these types of areas may need to be different from that on the rest of the farm. In addition to the loss of nutrients in fodder, grain, and animal products, a significant amount of nutrients can be lost off the farm in runoff from irrigation and rainfall. Other minor elements, such as sodium, silicon, cobalt, strontium and barium, do not seem to be universally essential, as are the sixteen nutrients listed in Table 6.3, although the soluble compounds of some may increase plant growth. A deficiency in any one of the 16 essential nutrients will reduce growth and production, even though the others may be abundantly available.
The first three major nutrients, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, are generally considered to come from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and from water. The remaining nutrients are found in the soil and are taken up through the root system of the plant. The macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, calcium and magnesium) are required in relatively large quantities by plants. Phosphorus(P) helps run the 'power station' inside every plant cell and has a key role in energy storage and transfer.
Phosphorus is a mobile nutrient within the plant and is moved to the actively growing tissue, such as root tips and growing points in the tops of plants. The phosphorus in the soil can be taken up by plants, then consumed by animals and returned to the soil. We do not have accurate figures as yet for this loss in most Victorian soils under a pasture situation, but leaching of phosphorus is known to be relatively low in most soils types. Imagine a fountain cascading down a series of steps with the steps indicating time and decreasing availability of P to plants. Potassium (K) is needed for a wide range of important processes within the plant, including cell wall development, flowering and seed set. Potassium is very mobile in the plant (in other words, rapidly transferred around the plant), and deficiency symptoms initially occur in the older leaves.
Potassium can be temporarily held in clay particles as exchangeable potassium and becomes available for plant uptake when it moves back into the soil solution.
In sandy soils low in clay, potassium largely remains in the soil solution and can be leached below the plant root zone and potentially into the ground water. Most sulphur in soils is held by the organic matter and must be mineralised (converted to the inorganic sulphate form, SO42-), before it can be used by the plants. Magnesium (Mg), like calcium, is usually present in sufficient quantities in the soil for plant growth; and pasture deficiencies are rare. Magnesium is mobile within the plant, and a deficiency presents itself in the older leaves first.


However, high application rates of potassium fertilisers or dairy shed effluent can result in a luxury consumption of potassium (in other words, the plant takes up more soluble K than it requires and no yield increase occurs).
Although only required in small amounts, minor nutrients (micronutrients or trace elements) are essential for plant growth.
Many products in the market place extol the virtues of trace elements that are 'absolutely needed' by plants. These parasites maintain physical contacts with the host plant through haustoria (parasitic roots) These haustoria penetrate into host tissue and make connections with the conducting elements of host and draw nourishment. These must be in a form useable by the plants and in concentrations that allow optimum plant growth.
In fact, many are considered the oldest soils in the world; and the nutrients have been leached, which has resulted in soils of low fertility.
Fertiliser applications are required to overcome the soil's inherent nutrient deficiencies and to replace the nutrients that are lost or removed from the soil by pasture growth, fodder cropping or conservation, and animal products, such as milk or meat. A large quantity of nutrients is also required to 'drive' the system along, in other words, to produce plant growth and to cover leaching, nutrient transfer, soil fixation, and other parts of the nutrient cycles.
For example, at least the amount of nutrients removed in the silage or hay should be applied as a maintenance application to the cut paddocks, but a lesser amount of fertiliser may be required for maintenance in the sacrifice paddocks where large amounts of dung and urine were deposited and large amounts of fodder may have been fed.
Other elements required for animal health, such as selenium, fluorine and iodine, have no known value to plants. Optimum pasture production can only be obtained if all the requirements for plant growth are met. However, legumes (such as clovers, lucerne and medics) also have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a plant-available form. Chlorophyll converts sunlight energy into plant energy in the form of sugars and carbohydrates. Therefore, other forms of nitrogen need to be converted to either nitrate or ammonium before the plant can use them. If the soil environment is not ideal (for example, high acidity, lack of other nutrients, dry soils or salinity), these bacteria are adversely affected, which results in reduced nitrogen fixation and thus reduced pasture growth.
Although it may not always be necessary to inoculate when resowing an old pasture, it is advisable and is cheap insurance to give the young clover plants a better chance of survival. The phosphorus can also move about in the soil, changing in its chemical form and in its availability to plants.
In some soil types with a high fixing capacity, this may occur within hours; in other soils, the P may remain in the soluble form for several weeks. This soluble form is so small (virus size) that pastured or treed riparian (along the banks) buffer strips have very little effect in preventing this particular nutrient loss. Losses from phosphorus dissolved in soil moisture, especially following heavy rain, are dependent on the time since application of fertiliser, soil type, rainfall intensity, slope, etc. Therefore, the longer the P remains in the soil, the less soluble it is (in other words, the less available it becomes to plants). The soluble P, applied at the top, becomes much less available to plants over time due to an ever-increasing strength of 'fixing' the P to larger and larger compounds, such as iron, aluminium and manganese phosphate, from the top of the cascade to the bottom. Some clay soil types (for example, krasnozems, or red soils) adsorb more phosphorus than other clay soils because of the type of clay mineral in the topsoil. Potassium has a key role in regulating water uptake and the flow of nutrients in the sap stream of the plant.
The total amount of K present in each form will depend on the potassium content of the parent material, extent of weathering and leaching, redistribution by plants (fodder) and animals, and the amount of applied potassium. The major difference between sulphur deficiency and nitrogen deficiency is that sulphur is immobile within the plant, and deficiency symptoms appear first in the younger leaves, whereas nitrogen deficiency affects the older leaves first. Significant amounts of sulphur are removed through meat and plants harvested for fodder, but only small amounts are removed through milk see Table 6.2.


It is an essential component of chlorophyll and is required for the transport of phosphorus around the plant. This high concentration of plant potassium can often result in a lower proportion of other nutrient cations in the plant, such as calcium, sodium and, in particular, magnesium.
The ammonium and potassium ions both compete with the uptake of magnesium ions at the plant root, thus resulting in a lower magnesium concentration the plants. Particular trace element deficiencies are generally restricted to specific soil types or localities. Viscum, a partial stem parasite has green leaves and thus is capable of manufacturing food, but is dependent on host plant for water supply. Furthermore, the concentrations of the various soluble soil nutrients must be properly balanced.
Nutrient redistribution around the farm and the inherent ability of soils to 'retain' applied nutrients are other reasons for fertiliser applications. However, sulphur is immobile in plants, so sulphur deficiencies show up in the youngest plant tissues first. These nodules contain bacteria called rhizobia, which can 'fix', or convert, nitrogen from the air into a plant-available form. It is important that plants have an adequate supply of phosphorus to ensure recovery and regrowth after grazing.
Many chemical reactions take place when phosphorus is applied to the soil, and only a small proportion remains in solution and Available_phosphorusreadily available to the plants.
The amount of leaching that occurs in soils varies widely according to the type of nutrient, soil type, and amount of rainfall. The quantity of P lost by erosion is usually low but may be a significant contributor to the environmental problem of eutrophication (high levels of nutrients) caused by unwanted and large growth of water weeds or an algal bloom of, say, blue-green algae. It helps legumes fix nitrogen and also helps the plant to resist stress from weather, insects and diseases.
Potassium deficiencies may not appear if a combination of nutrient deficiencies, such as phosphorus and potassium together, are limiting growth.
Sulphate sulphur ( SO 4 2-) is readily available for plant uptake and more effective on very low sulphur soils. The rate at which elemental sulphur converts to sulphate sulphur depends on the type of sulphur applied, particle size of the material, soil temperature, soil moisture content and population levels of the sulphur-oxidising bacteria.
When high rates of potassium (for example, muriate of potash) and nitrogenous fertilisers that produce ammonium ions (for example, DAP) are used together, the potassium or ammonium ions compete at the plant root with the uptake of calcium, thereby raising the risk of inducing milk fever see Figure 6.6. Leaching is related to the amount of organic matter or the amount and types of clay minerals to which the phosphorus can adsorb (attach). This form becomes available rapidly and easily to plants when it exchanges with other cations and moves back into the soil solution. The elemental form (Se) must be converted (oxidised) to the sulphate form before it is readily available to the plant.
Plant tissue tests are far more reliable, but even these are not always correct and must be taken at the appropriate times of the year to increase their accuracy and reliability. The nitrogen becomes available to grasses when the nodules or clover plants (roots, stems and leaves) die. This is more of a problem in the sandy soil types (since they contain low amounts of organic matter and clay minerals), in areas of high rainfall, or when fertiliser is applied just before a heavy rainfall event.
In addition, recommendations should be based on research conducted in Australian soils or on Australian plants, not on overseas data.



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