Examples of social marketing in pakistan,finance telecommuting jobs,work from home positions nyc - 2016 Feature

10.04.2015
The biggest change in formative research that social marketers are still learning how to do well is concept testing. The 3rd biannual World Social Marketing Conference is coming up 19-21 April 2015 in Sydney, Australia.
I find that there are five fundamental approaches to how people approach solving wicked social problems and pursuing social change. The opportunities for me to insert a marketing perspective into education discussions and arguments are few and far in-between.
As social marketers we often talk about programs, policies and behaviors to improve society and the need for partnerships to make them happen. The International Social Marketing Asoscation's (iSMA) webinar series continues with several of my colleagues from the Florida Prevention Research Center (FPRC) at the University of South Florida College of Public Health talking about the evolution of community-based prevention marketing practice and research. Keeping up with the evolution of social marketing research and practice can be a tough problem. One article that should be in the social marketing canon is the results of a comprehensive review of the literature by the US Community Preventive Services Task Force by Robinson et al. The positive results of this RCT indicate that church-based social marketing that addresses product, price, place and promotion with more convenient, lower-cost classes and messages about staying independent and building social relationships, can successfully motivate older adults to enroll in balance and strength classes for fall prevention. Over the past, periods that saw a rise in economic growth rates did not see substantial progress in the social sectors leading to neglecting of education; thus deteriorating social growth. That was the challenge given me by the Society of Nutrition Education and Behavior for a webinar I did this week. I start with Duncan Watts, a physicist and sociologist, who presents two problems that bedevil people faced with the challenges of large and complex puzzles. The second problem Watts (2011) discusses is the micro-macro problem: one that goes at the heart of the social marketing dilemma. To bring this problem back into the social marketing world, believing that social change will happen “one person at a time” does not conform to what we know about emergence in many other disciplines.
All social change efforts involve different actors known by various labels such as audiences, influencers, stakeholders, consumers, suppliers, partners and policymakers.
Many social change agents are familiar with the challenges of addressing other people’s cultural beliefs as they relate to health and social behaviors.
This is why many social marketers stress the need to base programs to improve health, social welfare and the environment on empirically-validated models and theories. Many social marketing programs, and most public health ones, have shied away from working with their customers or members of their priority groups. The internal orientation of the marketing mix in which the four elements are controlled by the producer of goods, services and behavioral offerings and has little involvement or interaction with customers. The rise in services as primary drivers of economic activity that have their own unique character not addressed by the traditional 4Ps - for example, People or Participants, Physical Evidence (of their value), Processes (of service delivery), the intangible nature of their offering and demonstrated value to customers, as well as unique legal and professional restrictions on providers of many services (licensure of health providers, lawyers and general building contractors being just a few examples).
Most of these debates have been on theoretical grounds rather than based on empirical studies; it is also true that most marketers continue to practice as they were taught in college marketing classes (Constantinides, 2006). The differences in the social marketing approach became even more pronounced in the international community where social marketing became synonymous with the marketing of products for family planning, HIV prevention and malaria control while various other groups organized themselves around concepts such as behavior change communication, health communication, development communication and community mobilization to name a few. A hybrid approach developed independently in North America to reunite community with social marketing was coined as community-based social marketing (CBSM; McKenzie-Mohr, 2000). Concept testing focuses social marketers on being close to people, audience-driven versus maintaining an expert role in which decisions are made and carried out without considering the POV and voice of people.
So increasing the cognitive demands of social change programs (cover more material, require more time spent in classes) may in fact be designing them to be less likely to succeed.
When the college advisor who was leading the project was asked how he came up with the idea, he said it was a project to improve the lives of these caregivers.The Harwood Institute teaches an idea of ‘turned outward’ - a straightforward approach that fits easily into a social marketing model. It also extends to organizations and companies that support and sponsor social marketing activities… We live in a world where trust is no longer a commodity that is acquired, but rather a value that we receive from the people we serve and our stakeholders.
CBPM provides community coalitions with a marketing driven, systematic planning framework and toolkit for selecting, tailoring, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based interventions. We are embedded in a network of social relationships, and those we come into contact with shape our actions. Some of the countries outside the US that were there included Canada, Columbia, Czech Republic, Spain, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Malta, Mexico, Pakistan, Romania, Somalia, Turkey and Uganda.
This theory has guided many marketers’ approach to discovering what the desired behavior might be, its possible determinants, the context in which it occurs - or not, and the consequences that people and society incur. This dilemma emanates from our desire to achieve macro outcomes, ones that involve changes among large numbers of people, among population segments, or in society as a whole.


Depending on the actor and the objective of the program, social marketers and change agents may be trying to increase some behaviors (healthy eating, physical activity, recycling), decrease others (tobacco use, risky sexual behaviors, energy use), encourage participation in social change activities (citizen engagement, social mobilization) or gain support for environmental change (adopt policies, redesign physical entities such as automobile safety features or entertainment content).
Yet, agreeing on a common approach to thinking about and addressing wicked social and public health problems is a major point of contention when working with partners. Rather, we should view exchanges as mutual sharing of knowledge and resources among the social marketing agency, the priority group or customers and other actors or stakeholders (co-creation of value-in-use). Lefebvre & Flora (1988) laid out the defining features of the social marketing approach based on experiences they shared directing community interventions for cardiovascular disease reduction.
Responding to this fracturing of resources and talent, McKee (1991) wrote a book that he hoped would enhance the understanding of social mobilization, social marketing and community participation amongst communicators who sometimes set up unnecessary barriers between their various fields. Try design magazines and websites, marketing websites, and groups that feature campaign reviews and awards (see Warc prize for social strategy, PRSA anvil winners, Clios and Osocio).2. What makes scarcity an important idea for social marketers and other change agents is that it captures the mind; scarcity changes the way we think. I will be conducting a workshop ‘Exploring New Strategies and Tools for Social Marketing Research and Practice’ on the 19th and hope that some of you will join me. Top-down approaches are rarely swapped out for more bottom-up processes (see these examples from the BIF Student Experience Lab for some exceptions).
Without trust, social marketing risks slipping into coercion, liberal paternalism, propaganda and irrelevancy.
By understanding the different levels of systems, and then designing social marketing strategies based on those insights, social marketers can have greater impact. I do not consider papers published in our two journals, the Journal of Social Marketing and Social Marketing Quarterly, as I presume that people are looking at them already. And for those who are interested in an even more extensive documentation of the social marketing literature, consider the Sage Library in Marketing Series on Social Marketing as an institutional investment. The involvement of church leaders and informal member-to-member contacts, rather than reliance on brochures and posters, appears important to marketing program success.
Pakistan has the highest gender gap in labor force participation rates among the South, East and Southeast Asian countries (Arif 2008) despite large improvements over the past 2 decades in women employment (19% from 13%).
We believe in people, not platforms and the power of social insight to drive business value. In workshops that I facilitate, I use this slide to illustrate some of the main ideas from some usual, and not so typical, theories that I find are employed by many social change agents.
I offer that to fully develop the discipline of social marketing and its promise to be a positive force for social change, we must think about change as it occurs among groups of people (segments, social networks) and at different levels of society (organizations, communities, physical environments, markets, and public policies)…[Ed Note: See Transformative Social Marketing (pdf)]. Both of these problems highlight the need for social change programs to adopt theoretical perspectives that are broader than individual determinants.
Yet these outcomes are driven by the micro actions of individuals (for example, it is individuals whose voting behavior determines the outcome of policy options, individuals’ behavior that sets the tone for an organizational culture, and individuals who connect through social network sites to organize and plan social action).
Changes in complex social systems involve interactions between people and systems, just as neurons must be connected and interact with each other in systematic ways to create what we refer to as consciousness. For social marketers, social innovators and people who are working with social and mobile technologies for health and social change, the song should become a chant.
Constantinides (2006) summarized over 40 papers that have been critical of, or presented alternatives, to the 4Ps marketing mix framework. Yet, even by the early 1990s, we can recall where social marketing and community development components of Health Canada could not find common ground for collaboration. In the workshop we'll be talking about and working with innovative methods that, when combined, offer an entirely new approach to thinking about and planning social marketing programs. In over 4 decades of work in social marketing, I have seen few examples published in the literature that apply marketing ideas to solving some of these issues.
Trust also underlies important concepts including social capital formation as well as the development of effective partnerships.”The education system may not yet be ready to use social marketing as a tool to develop new products and services, promote innovative reforms and initiatives, or to build demand for more effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable programs.
Lessons learned from research and development of these frameworks will be shared to illustrate ‘upstream’ social marketing. I am also interested in how social marketing is presented outside our immediate orbit.One of my priorities in reviewing the work is how they help strengthen the evidence base for the discipline. Also note the concluding sentence of their abstract - that methods are not usually described in enough detail to allow for conclusions to be drawn about other social marketing practices - and be sure to download the entire report.
Intervention effects from a social marketing campaign to promote HPV vaccination in preteen boys.
This problem is embedded in definitions of social marketing as changing individual behaviors in order to achieve social good.


In this post, and the following one, I extend the S-D Logic to social marketing (and thank Bob Lusch for his review and comments on an earlier draft). As more practitioners appropriated social marketing as the basis for the development of ‘new’ health communication campaigns, the term became associated (and in some quarters still is) with mass media campaigns that segmented their audience, pretested materials and considered the 4Ps only in the context of communication planning, not marketing. That is not a new idea for social marketers; trust is one of the pillars of the Value Space I proposed in Transformative Social Marketing [pdf]. Just collecting more stories, or case studies, about social marketing needs to end; we need a stronger focus on research with better descriptions of methods, collection and analysis of relevant data - not convenient ones, and the use of experimental designs.
This is the type of evidence your departmental colleagues and chairs, senior managers and policy makers are looking for.The other paper in this section by Wilhelm-Reichmann et al is a market analysis using a social marketing framework to assess how conservation plans can be integrated into land-use planning in South Africa. Consequently, it is then difficult to selectively focus on only certain ones and ignore the others, to look for example at only psychological determinants or to consider only solutions that employ persuasive communications. Although the intentions are commendable, the actual process of moving from individual behavior change to changes at the societal level is ignored, as if this transition will occur automatically - that it is simply a matter of increasing the numbers of people practicing the behavior. Too many ‘pretests’ are in reality ‘disaster checks,’ and while the participants in these tests are often kind to us in their responses, lukewarm receptions do not bode well for effective behavioral, organizational or social change. In work I have done with STEM education initiatives and school readiness, my involvement seems to start and end with the ‘planning’ meetings (“We’d like to have a social marketer’s POV”).
I liked their use of a marketing framework to approach the issue and that it also extends social marketing into the conservation and policy arena (and in full disclosure, I was an advisor in the early stages of their process).The next section includes two papers that focus on improved cookstoves to address many health and environmental issues. Social marketing and communication activities were carried out as per the strategy developed. Unfortunately, as many of you have no doubt discovered, all of the health and social puzzles we tackle rarely conform to one theoretical model.
What the frame problem poses to social marketers is that we cannot know for certain whether we have selected the right set of variables when we choose a theory, or frame, to guide us in thinking about our puzzle. Rather, social marketing can be thought about as facilitating customer experiences or discoveries of value when using the product, trying the service or practicing the behavior. I have, and was stunned by the lack of citations to research studies about the effectiveness of social marketing (my highest count was 10 - about as many as are in this post, and was something I deliberately set out to change with my book). While this sector has more frequently been the province of engineers and so-called marketing programs that were often little more than mass exhortation campaigns, as Shankar et al note, the problem is now being defined as how to create campaigns that are consumer-focused.
A primary source of failure of interventions is the use of the wrong theory to understand and address the puzzle.Behavioral economics is one domain that has captured the interest of policy-makers and social marketers alike.
Since the early years of social  marketing, many people have struggled with how to apply the logic of economic exchanges to social marketing ones - usually without much success.
I have heard from colleagues that they wouldn’t, or couldn’t, teach a course in social marketing in their department using available textbooks because there was a lack of ‘scientific rigor’ in them (or words to that effect).
Their seven considerations for future efforts are ones that any social marketing program, regardless of its topic or behavioral focus, would do well to adopt. The 3- month intervention was based on four principles of social marketing: to promote (with radio public service announcements, posters, brochures, doctor’s recommendation) the product (HPV vaccine), while considering the price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), and place (healthcare providers’ office). Practitioners can carry on about the ‘art’ of social marketing (I do it as well), but if social marketing is to be taken seriously by others (leading academic institutions and policy makers to name two) it needs data, not stories, to demonstrate its value.Two controlled trials caught my attention.
Randomization by organizational unit, in this instance churches, was an especially strong experimental approach employed by DiGuiseppi et al to investigate how social marketing can increase recruitment and retention of older adults into balance classes in order to reduce fall-related injuries. As social marketers, these results should remind us that we need to be thinking about larger ‘place’ questions and solutions to them. In a classic social marketing approach, the first task would be to understand from the potential customers’ perspective, and there may be several segments of them with different perspectives, what benefits and barriers they perceive in quitting smoking.
Yes, the Bhagwat piece is two case studies, but I can take a story that is sprinkled with data and demonstrates a new application of social marketing - to food fortification programs in India.
Conclusions: This study is the first to use a social marketing intervention to boost HPV vaccination among preteen males.
Church-based social marketing to motivate older adults to take balance classes for fall prevention: Cluster randomized controlled trial. The program highlighted benefits of class participation (staying independent, building relationships), reduced potential barriers (providing convenient, subsidized classes), and communicated marketing messages through church leaders, trained “messengers,” printed materials and church-based communication channels. Compared to 25 control churches, 26 churches receiving the social marketing program had a higher median proportion (9.8% vs.




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