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In my previous article on skin-to-skin care after a C-section, I wrote that skin-to-skin care after a C-section has many benefits for moms and babies. Separation of human mothers and newborns is unique to the 20-21st centuries and has been a complete break from natural human history. Furthermore, in the past 30 years, an abundance of research evidence has shown that when mothers and babies are kept close and skin-to-skin after birth, outcomes improve (Moore, Anderson et al.
It is very important for you to understand that when researchers study human mother-newborn contact, keeping mothers and babies together is always considered the “experimental” intervention. Although most mothers now are capable of taking care of their babies after birth, and despite the fact that research overwhelmingly supports couplet care—hospital practices have been very slow to change. To read the benefits of keeping moms and babies together, please refer to my article on skin to skin care after a Cesarean. It is important to know that some mothers may not capable of independently caring for their infants immediately or for several hours after a C-section. In 2011, nurses at Woman’s Hospital in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, led a switch from routine separation after Cesareans to couplet care—keeping moms and babies together. Perhaps most compelling, the staff felt it was simply “not fair” that moms who gave birth vaginally were allowed to stay with their babies, while moms who had C-sections were automatically separated from their babies. Amy and her baby Kareanna stayed together after a Cesarean– which allowed them to do very early skin-to-skin care. One of the first things the hospital did was put together a leadership team to plan for the change. Perhaps most importantly, staff made a commitment to provide care where the mothers and babies were, instead of always taking the baby away to the nursery.
In the first year after starting couplet care, the percentage of infants who were separated from their mothers dropped from 42% to 4%. In another hospital, researchers used an innovative way to inspire staff to switch to immediate skin-to-skin in the O.R. Evidence has shown that it is possible—and best practice—for moms and babies to stay together after a Cesarean. If a hospital staff member tells a mother that it is “impossible” for her to stay with her baby after a C-section, that statement is false.
Mothers who want to do very early skin-to-skin care and interact with their babies after a C-section should talk with their providers about this mother-friendly and baby-friendly practice.
These researchers describe how critically ill babies had a higher mortality rate when they were separated from their mothers after birth. These researchers found higher cortisol (stress) levels in infants who were not held by their mothers after birth. In this small randomized, controlled study, researchers experimented with keeping moms and babies together after a C-section. In this landmark study, researchers randomly assigned mother-baby pairs to several different groups, and one of the groups was assigned to mother-baby separation for 2 hours after birth. In this animal study, baby horses were separated from their mothers for one hour after birth (intervention group) or left undisturbed with their moms (control group).  The separation increased the risk for poor bonding and other adverse social outcomes. If you Google “hospital”, “couplet care” and “cesarean” you will find a large number of hospitals that already offer this mother-friendly and baby-friendly practice.
By signing up, you will receive lessons via email PLUS access to free printable handouts and more! For decades, the vast majority of birth research evidence has been locked away in medical journals.
A mother has told how she suffered such extreme morning sickness that she chose to have an abortion.
Cheryl Harrison made the heartbreaking decision after her condition left her unable to walk or care for her young daughter.
The 34-year-old had already experienced a traumatic first pregnancy with Scarlett, now five, during which she vomited up to 40 times a day. But when she was expecting her second child, her symptoms were even more pronounced and painful, and after nine weeks she and her husband decided on a termination. Mrs Harrison and her husband James, 34, a joiner, took the drastic action after she suffered dangerously high blood pressure. Mrs Harrison, who had her abortion in February 2008, recalled how she suffered when she was expecting Scarlett.
At least 70 per cent of pregnant women experience nausea, and around one per cent suffer so badly that they are hospitalised to avoid dehydration and starvation. On July 1, academics from around the world will meet at Warwick University to discuss the causes, effects and treatments of hyperemesis gravidarum. Psychologist Dr Brian Swallow, co-ordinator of the Pregnancy Sickness Support conference, said too many doctors trivialised morning sickness. Dr Swallow, of the University of Lincoln, said: 'Hyperemesis gravidarum can be far more serious than anyone realises.
A spokesman for anti-abortion campaigners ProLife Alliance said: 'We sympathise with Mrs Harrison and understand that she was going through extreme suffering during her pregnancy. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. The Institute for In Vitro sciences’ website includes an Outreach section, with a page dedicated to the Animal Protection Community.
How often do you hear that your baby’s foreskin is going to be used to test the creams and cosmetics that you are going to apply to your face later? As a person who was once a baby, I feel offended by the idea that my body could be used as accessory to my parents’ religious beliefs, particularly if their religious beliefs call for the permanent alteration of my sexual organs. Notice that if you are in the United States, the sex of the writer of the above paragraph would be paramount to know if the described act is legal or not. Notice also that if your family happens to be an ultra orthodox Jewish family in the North East, it is likely that an old man sucked your penis immediately after cutting part of it with his knife. Well, given that some organizations such as the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe have raised concerns over ritual circumcision of male children as a procedure that violates the physical integrity of children, that numerous European medical and political associations oppose circumcision of children, that a 2012 ruling in Cologne, Germany, led to a temporary ban in circumcision of children followed by the urgent approval of an unconstitutional law to protect circumcision, our beloved American politicians have seen in the best interest of the world to create a new bill to protect religious freedom internationally. So, this new bill, passed Monday, would broaden the definition of “violations of religious freedom” in the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to include the persecution of advocates of male circumcision or ritual animal slaughter. It remains to be seen if the aforementioned bill will extend the same courtesy to those religious groups which practice the genital alteration of female minors -even when it is not written on their main religious book, or how the bill will deal with the distinctions between religious and cultural practices, and which practices are not protected by it. South Florida based doctor Christopher Hollowell posted a video of a circumcision of a 1 year old child.
He claims that as a urologist, he sees all the cases where uncircumcised boys have problems. It is unnecessary because at 1 year of age, the penis of this boy has not reached its adult size, so any present consideration will completely change during puberty, once production of testosterone increases and the body starts reaching its adult size.
I believe that removing it is a criminal act because the frenulum carries an artery and a high concentration of nerves.
The loss of irrigation due to cutting the frenular artery can potentially have long term effects. He says that he likes to think of circumcision as plastic surgery of the penis and that he likes to think that every man likes to have a beautiful looking penis. Hollowell says that when asked why do the procedure at one year and not at birth, his response is that he couldn’t do it before and had to try conservative measures because of the age. Now, the real reason why Hollowell performs these circumcisions at 1 year of age has everything to do with insurance and little to do with medical reasons. So this is the reason Hollowell is circumcising a 1 year old child over a diagnostic of phimosis and balanitis: because the parents did not want to pay the low cost of a neonatal circumcision out of pocket and preferred to seek a referral after the age of one, for a more complicated and risky procedure under general anesthesia and at a higher cost to the tax payers.
Subjecting a 1 year old child to general anesthesia for a non-medical surgery (plastic surgery of the penis – give the child a beautiful penis). While in circwatch we often discuss studies, articles and publications, and point their flaws, contradictions and conflicts of interest, we are first and foremost bound to the principles of bodily autonomy and genital integrity.
Removing part of the genitals of children without medical consent violates their genital integrity, part of the children’s right to physical integrity. Sure, there is often a discussion of whether there are benefits or harm, whether circumcision affects sexual function or sensitivity or not.
As clearly indicated by the AAP and discussed by the members of the task force, circumcision is often a non-medical decision based on cultural, religious or family factors. By performing a circumcision on your newborn child, you are denying this newborn person the right to choose, the right to make informed decisions over his own genitals, and you are depriving him of a normal part of his body. Even if there is a lower risk of a minor or rare condition, there is also a harm in circumcising. Your child’s body should not be an accessory to your religious or cultural expression. Chapter 3 is dedicated to study penile sensitivity in men who were circumcised as babies, vs.
We also suggest that Bossio missed a vital point by neglecting to study men who have undergone non-surgical foreskin restoration. First, the assertion that the foreskin is the most sensitive part of the penis comes directly from the Sorrells study, and it is one assertion that is often misunderstood. So, if the foreskin is significantly more sensitive to touch, it follows that the circumcised penis, in which the foreskin has been removed, is less sensitive to touch – particularly to fine touch. Most intact men masturbate by grasping the mobile penile skin and sliding it up and down the shaft.
In circumcised males, the typical technique consists in moving the penile skin what little length it can be moved during erection, or when no mobile skin is available at all, the hand rubs the penile skin, in which case external lubrication (hand lotion or adult lubricant) is needed to avoid chaffing the skin. What this indicates is that there is a mechanic component of stimulation by using the foreskin as an agent, a mobile part, which interacts with the glans. We can also consider that during heterosexual penetration, the glans touches the opening of the vagina and goes through its vestibule, but once inside it is not in contact with anything else. It seems to me that given the importance of Sorrells’ study as a starting point to Bossio, she missed the mark. We have already shown above how deeply flawed is this, given that the same assertion is contradicted by Bossio herself. Healio, Medical Daily, True Viral News, Australian Networks, The Independent, I Fucking Love Science, GCO News, Renal and Urology News, Today’s Parent and many others also mindlessly reported on this absurd study. Some readers pointed out that Jennifer Bossio’s measuring point was the outside of the foreskin (see diagram). Sorrells declared that the foreskin was the most sensitive part (to soft-touch and to soft-touch only). Regardless of whether the foreskin is the most sensitive part, or just as sensitive as the rest of the penile skin, or if it was not sensitive at all, removing it would still violate the bodily autonomy and genital integrity of the person.
I believe we all, regardless of whether we oppose circumcision of children, or promote it, can agree that circumcision is not a necessary procedure.
Which is why it is important to see how subtle language is used to convince parents otherwise.
We were alerted to Touro Infirmary’s verbiage and had  the chance to verify it on their website.
The website makes no attempt to educate parents on why they would want or not, to have their male child circumcised. The most recent discussion in genital integrity forums is the publication of a paper (and related news articles) by two U.S.

Their paper on ritual male infant circumcision pretends to appear multicultural, by using language that appeals more to an European audience. The fact that Muslims in the United States tend to circumcise during infancy is not a result of Islam, but a result of the American culture which makes infant circumcision easily available and almost normative at birth.
So once removing the embellishment and appearance of diversity, the paper is a discussion concerning American and Jewish circumcision only.
Their paper goes into a discussion of whether genital integrity is in fact a human right, and whether the principle of open future as suggested by Darby is applicable or not. Finally, they propose a three step test to determine if a parental decision constitutes a violation of human rights. Personally, I believe that it is sad that educated adults and physicians, whose minds should be focused on healing, spend all the time and energy they spent into rationalizing and justifying hurting babies as a valid parental decision, as long as the harm is relatively low and any catastrophic incident has a relatively low incidence. An existent video of Kavita Arora appears to present an idealistic, happy, young adult with passion to provide a nice birthing experience to female patients.
Allan Jacobs is Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Medicine at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. As for Allan Jacobs, his religious affiliation seems to account for his bias in favor of circumcision. To our knowledge, none of the American doctors that used to perform clitorectomies and other forms of FGM on all-American female minors, ever paid for their crimes. We hope to see Arora and Jacobs publicly retract their two papers, or follow the steps of Dr. Circumcision promoters usually get away with claiming that circumcision has benefits while FGM doesn’t.
Furthermore, societies that perform FGM claim that it has social, moral and medical benefits. Peyser questioned intactivist Anthony Losquadro whether the obsession with foreskin is healthy. Here’s another outfit with a romantic, feminine vibe that would be right at home at any baby shower. Neutral Animal Print- Even if I know whether it’s a boy or girl, I’m not telling! However, I have come to realize that women cannot do early skin-to-skin if they are routinely separated from their babies after a C-section. Is it possible for hospitals to make the switch from routine separation to routine couplet care after a Cesarean?
In the past, infant survival depended upon close and virtually continuous mother-newborn contact. At the time, most women received general anesthesia that made them and their babies incapable of interaction after birth. Brazelton published a classic study showing that general anesthesia was harmful to newborns (Brazelton 1961). In contrast, when researchers study other non-human mammals, keeping mothers and babies together is the control condition, while separating newborns from their mothers is “experimental” (Moore, Anderson et al. In Alaska, only 5% of babies are separated from their mothers after a vaginal birth, while in Mississippi, 81% of infants are separated from their mothers after a vaginal birth. To summarize, babies who receive couplet care—in other words, who stay with their mothers and receive early skin-to-skin care—are 2 times more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding at 3-6 months, compared to babies who receive routine hospital care. For example, if mothers received strong sedatives, are nauseous, or were sleep-deprived for many hours before the Cesarean, then they may need supervision or assistance in caring for their newborns.  The mother’s level of awareness and her ability to remain awake when caring for and feeding infants must be assessed and closely monitored by nursing staff, especially when a Cesarean follows a prolonged labor or when sedative drugs have been given (Mahlmeister 2005). 2012).  As the first two reports were very similar, I will focus on the article by Elliott-Carter (you can read the article for free in its entirety here).
The hospital was motivated to change for several reasons, including a desire to stay competitive with other hospitals and repeated requests from patients to not be separated from their babies. The C-section rate at Woman’s hospital was 40%, and they have more than 8,000 births per year.
This team included nurse managers from labor and delivery, postpartum, and newborn care, as well as pharmacists and materials management. Although taking the baby to the nursery was easier and more convenient for the staff, they realized that keeping the couplet together was best for moms and babies.
Nurses stated that everyone was extremely satisfied with the change—including staff, physicians, and mothers.
Making the switch from routine separation to couplet care can be done—some hospitals have already done so.
Moms should also talk with their anesthesiologists to make sure that they do not receive sedative drugs unless medically necessary, as these drugs may make some women incapable of early interaction with their newborns.
Not surprisingly, the intervention group had earlier first mother-baby contact, earlier first feedings, and more stable infant body temperatures.
At Evidence Based Birth®, we believe in putting the evidence back in the hands of the women and families, inspiring them to make more informed decisions about their care.
James could see how much I was suffering and never opposed the idea of a termination, but he still thinks of the family we might have had.
I’ve always found animal testing horrific, barbaric, but I try not to get too much into animal rights activism because if something completely breaks my heart, it is to see animals suffering. It starts by saying that “The activities of the animal protection community have had a significant role in driving the search for valid non-animal methods“, but is it really a non-animal method one that depends on the amputation of genital tissue from human babies?
Or are they so culturally ingrained in the rite of circumcision that they no longer see it as a cruel action?
While the intention of protecting animals from animal testing is very valuable, doing it by using harvested genital tissue forcefully amputated from non-consenting individuals (who are not yet competent to provide informed consent, but will eventually be)  is simply not the ethical way to do it. How does it feel to feed the machine and treat our children as little more than guinea pigs? A female writer who expresses dismay over the idea of her sexual organs being permanently altered by her parents would be simply criticizing the odious custom of female genital mutilation.
And in spite of laws protecting children from the actions of pedophiles, this man did so under the guise of religious freedom – and currently protected by NYC Mayor Bill De Blasio.
They have, of course, mixed the language including references to organizations such as ISIS. Thus, males of the future will have no resource but to surrender their most private organ to be mutilated and carved for the appeasement of their parents’ religious beliefs, enshrining the routine ritual abuse of male babies. During the narration, Hollowell first appears satisfied about the lower rates of circumcision (and even misrepresents it) but as the video progresses, he becomes strongly biased for circumcision.
He claims, for example, that the 1 year old child he is circumcising has phimosis and balanitis.
Most babies are born with congenital phimosis (also known as physiological phimosis), which is a normal condition: the foreskin is not ready to retract. The foreskin and the glans are still in the process of separating, and there is no need to rush them. The frenulum itself is said to be one of the most pleasurable parts of the penis -by those who were lucky enough to retain their full frenulum, or did not suffer total damage of it. Some suggest that ischemia (lack of blood) is behind the common occurrence of meatal stenosis in circumcised boys. Hollowell repeats several times that the foreskin is very vascular tissue, yet he doesn’t seem affected by the idea of removing it. He then goes on an explanation about aging and bleeding that has more to do with Jewish myths than with actual science.
If a child was in a life or death situation, where not performing a circumcision would easily cause the child to die or be permanently impaired, it would be irresponsible to not do it. As a parent you may have the best of intentions, but you are missing this side of the issue.
This is often perceived by parents as a recommendation, resulting in tilting the balance without regards for the future preferences or desires of the minor individual. We have no issue with people becoming circumcised – as long as they can provide informed consent. It should be taken to apply to your choice over your own body, not your choice over someone else’s body. While Badger describes it as a difference in preference, the reality is that it is a difference in what is possible to do with the available tissue. In most cases this results in the glans being repeatedly covered and uncovered, with the rim of the foreskin stimulating the glans; typically the hand does not touch the glans. Obviously, removing the foreskin makes this action impossible, thus altering the mechanism of stimulation for the circumcised male. The vagina instead is grasping the penile skin, and facilitating its gliding motion during the repeated penetrative motion.
Circumcision alters the mechanics of the penis and causes stimulation to be different, both for the male and the female. Last week, however, the media picked up Jennifer Bossio’s paper, and predictably, as we have often indicated, used misleading headlines to make this look as far more conclusive than it really is. This must be the originating point of all these press releases, as Bossio’s study was the core of her PhD thesis at Queens University.
For example, Bossio writes “with respect to warmth detection, the foreskin was more sensitive than the glans penis, but not the midline shaft or an area proximal to the midline shaft.
Different parts of the body specialize in different kinds of sensitivity, according to our body’s needs. But by using careful language,  they present circumcision as a necessity, as something that is simply done.
It has been one of my objectives for several months, to write a response to this paper, but many circumstances have slowed my efforts. The same argument can be made for Jewish people who allow their male babies to be circumcised by doctors before leaving the hospital; orthodox Rabbis consider circumcision performed on the second or third day of life, by gentile doctors, to be inadequate and invalid. Predictably enough, they find that under their test, male infant circumcision is not a violation of basic human rights.
This new paper on female genital “alteration” is just the logical consequence of such a finding. To me, the purpose this paper serves seems to be masturbatory fodder for circumcision-crazed psychopaths, and not the work of professional and empathetic physicians, thus earning them a proper space in the bookshelf, next to the works of J. When was this passionate healer derailed into defending the indefensible -harming babies, male and female alike? Note that he too, is a gynecologist, for whom the concern for the genitals of healthy male children should be zero. Not even more recent ones, those that removed the phalluses (clitorises or penises) and gonads of intersex babies, as did Dr. But the conclusion that those practices are not violation of human rights seems to detract from the humanity and dignity of the authors. Intactivists recognize the right of adult men to decide whether they want to get circumcised or not. It would be better to say that circumcised penises deliver decreased sexual pleasure, as a result of the loss of mechanic and sensorial tissue. But, as mentioned by a group of 38 European and Canadian Physicians, only one of those benefits has any relevance to children, which is the dubious claim that it reduces the risk of urinary tract infections during the first year of life, infections that are usually easy to treat and of little relevance. From outside, it is quite clear that the American society is obsessed with foreskin – with removing it!

But, is there any person in the world who lives unconcerned about their own body, including their own genitalia? Adult males deciding to get circumcised have every single right to do so and can do it after evaluating the evidence, evaluating their own values, and are capable of  providing informed consent. Here’s a look that pairs tapered blush pants with a feminine peplum sweater and a chic clutch. A ruffled, soft blue top is combined with a pair of cropped, houndstooth pants for an interesting twist on a menswear look.
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In order to do early skin-to-skin, women and newborns must stay together—a process known as “couplet care.” However, the vast majority of women are separated from their babies after a C-section. Because mothers couldn’t care for their babies, hospitals created central nurseries to care for newborns, and infants were typically separated from their mothers for 24-48 hours.
As a result of his research, more people began to move away from using general anesthesia during birth, which resulted in mothers and infants being more alert—and capable of interaction—immediately after birth (Anderson, Radjenovic et al. When infants are brought to the nursery while their mothers recover separately, it is common for a nurse to give a first feeding of formula (Elliott-Carter and Harper 2012). You can read about the many other benefits of early skin-to-skin care—and the potential harms of separating mothers and babies— here.
They made sure baby blankets were placed in the heated blanket warmer, and that appropriate medications for both moms and babies were stocked in each room.
It took about 6 weeks from the beginning of this process until couplet care was fully implemented. Nurses report that mothers are able to have skin-to-skin contact earlier, and that the first breastfeeding session goes smoother. Although couplet care may be more inconvenient for staff in the beginning, in the end, keeping mothers and babies together after a Cesarean is what is best.
And you are reading this from someone who loathes to see babies and children suffering because of medical abuse. Why have we allowed the biomedical industry to turn our children’s genitals into a commodity for the cosmetic industry? It takes years, for this phimosis to be overcome, with the average age being 10 and a large variance. Quite often, it’s just an ammoniacal dermatitis resulting from bacteria in the feces staying in the diaper for too long, and can be resolved with medicine and patience, without need for surgery. As we have often explained in this blog, the foreskin and the glans start as a single structure, and at some point a layer starts desquamating, creating the subpreputial space.
Not only that, but even if at 18 the  frenulum was still short (frenulum breve), there are non-invasive ways of correcting it. So, to remove it before the person has attained an age of maturity seems to me a purposely damaging action which has long term effects over the sexual experience of that child. Loss of blood flow could also affect the surface of the glans, as hypothesized by Ken McGrath. Now, if we consider that the foreskin is a double layered area, then the total area of tissue being removed accounts for approximately two thirds of the covering of the penis.
If American doctors were using more recent circumcision technology, they would be able to circumcise children and adults without cauterizing the inside of the penis as if it was a piece of grilled steak. So instead of paying the $200 to $800 out of pocket, many families waited one year at least, and then procured a referral for circumcision.
But we have problems with people forcing minors to undergo permanent reductive procedures on their genitalia. In the case of males with particularly long foreskins, the glans may never be uncovered at all, and the hand stimulates the glans only indirectly, through the foreskin. For the circumcised male, the vagina simply rubs directly against the penile skin – because there is no movement of the skin, which tends to dry the lubrication of the vagina. Many of the articles we reviewed, clumsily include Bossio’s contradiction without pointing it out. Using a different stimulus modality (warmth sensation, as opposed to fine-touch punctate pressure), we partially replicated the findings reported by Sorrells et al.
Examining penile sensitivity in neonatally circumcised and intact men using quantitative sensory testing. The language presents circumcision of the male child as something inevitable, and the consent form as something that just needs to be signed so we can move forward and be done with this. And by doing this, they attempt to ensure the perpetuation of male infant circumcision in the United States. I will, however, summarize a few points here, so that we can better understand their mental process.
Through the paper, they often reinforce the fact that Muslims practice circumcision, to give the appearance of diversity.
Jewish circumcision requires a proper ceremony performed on the eighth day of life, by a trained Jewish mohel, with methods that are not the most sanitary, nor place particular interest in preventing pain for the baby. The irony that they had defined the test in such a way that a favorable result would be obtained, seems to be lost on Jacobs and Arora. In 2009, she graduated with both an MD from Jefferson Medical College and a Master’s Degree in Bioethics from the University of Pennsylvania. How does she get away with publishing a paper that is beyond the scope of her practice which is not in surgery, urology or pediatric care, but the care of women and their reproductive systems? Intactivists are concerned with protecting the genital integrity of minors, but recognize the autonomy of adults to provide consent and make decisions over their own bodies.
One cannot deny that both cultural practices are usually performed on minors without regard for their future preference. Similarly, other societies may deny the benefits that our society claims, and medical claims often change or stay on the edge, which is why the AAP, CDC and CPS statements simply cannot recommend circumcision – leaving the decision to the parents. Similarly, when some Jewish people claim that circumcision is vital to Jewish identity, they are also being obsessed with foreskin – with removing it.
2004). In addition, most mothers who give birth by Cesarean receive regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia, so these mothers, too, are usually alert after giving birth. One of the team’s challenges was finding a large enough space where moms and babies could recover together after a C-section. Inspired by the bonding they witnessed between moms and babies, nurses decided to delay administration of erythromycin ointment and the vitamin K shot until after the initial breastfeeding.
Watching the videos helped the staff get engaged in problem-solving in how they could make the process work smoother. This layer is called the balanopreputial sinechiae or balanopreputial lamina, and it dissolves slowly through several years. Because there has to be a diagnosis code for insurance to cover it, doctors would diagnose phimosis, knowing very well that they are providing a fraudulent diagnosis because those children are perfectly normal. In fact, the underlined sentence alone shows that Bossio validated Sorrells’ study, the very study that she appears to be trying to contradict. There is also a transitional area which was pointed by Sorrells as the single most sensitive area to soft touch, and there is the frenulum, joining the ridged band and the inner foreskin to the glans and the meatus. American Jews who have their babies circumcised in hospitals on the second day, do so not because they are Jews, but because they are Americans, and a similar argument could be made for American Muslims. She completed her residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University in 2013. Her research interests include reproductive ethics, reproductive technology, perinatal decision making, conscience, HIV care in pregnancy, and feminist Bioethics. In the places where these practices take place, it is assumed that the individual has no say on whether they will be subjected to it or not, and shall simply accept the genital alteration and live with it.
When considered the number to treat (100 to 1000 circumcisions to prevent one incident) and the incidence of complications (1 in 500 being an optimistic rate), and the massive loss of normal genital tissue, it simply is not proportional. Societies where circumcision is not prevalent are not obsessed with foreskin; they simply have no reason to remove random normal and healthy parts of the bodies of children, foreskin included.
They ended up choosing overflow labor and delivery suites that were big enough to accommodate the couplet. Smith, please let me tell you that infant circumcision allows American doctors to continue to harvest genital tissue without consent from American baby boys, for the profit of the biomedical industry. In fact, babies circumcised on the 8th day according to the Jewish tradition, may still die from exsanguination, as we have previously showed in this blog.
We wouldn’t try to assess sensitivity to sound in our eyes, or sensitivity to light in our ears.
However, they have already argued in a previous paper that infant circumcision is not a violation of human rights.
She has served on the national ethics committees of both the American Medical Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. She is also interested in medical education, especially with the intersection of ethics education. In that sense, both practices are culturally and ethically similar, even if their physical effects are different. They also modified the existing recovery room (PACU) so that it could be used in case the overflow rooms were full. The AAP erroneously claims that these adhesions should be resolved by the 4th month of life.
Bossio did not take measurements on the points indicated by Sorrells as the most sensitive ones to fine-touch sensation, which are the ridged band and the frenulum. If the foreskin is sensitive to soft-touch, it is likely because we need that area to be sensitive to soft-touch, and removing it is going to affect the reasons why we need that sensitivity.
Arora and Jacobs responded, in fact reaffirming that their paper refers to infancy only -without expressing disapproval or approval to circumcision beyond infancy, which they consider subject to a separate but related discussion, and state that Islamic circumcisions in the United States are often performed during infancy.
They moved curtains to make each patient’s space big enough for both mothers and infants to recover together, and they put a radiant warmer for the infant in each recovery space.
Nevertheless, she found that the outer foreskin was significantly more sensitive to touch than the rest of the penis, which is consistent with Sorrells, even if her conclusions fail to indicate that. Which leads to the basic conclusion, that their paper was not written to protect circumcision as it is performed in Africa, The Philippines or in Muslim countries, only circumcision as it is performed by Jews and Americans. He completed his residency at Parkland memorial Hospital and his fellowship at Mount Sinai Hospital. In the case of the circumcised males, the bar for non-existent measuring sites is simply omitted.
A board certified gynecologic oncologist, he serves as Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Flushing Hospital Medical Center.
He has published articles in the field of reproductive ethics in journals such as the Hastings Center Reports.

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