Stanley Plane History,woodworking crafts nl,Cabinet Making Quotes - Good Point

28.03.2014, admin  
Category: Woodworking Products

A beautifully decorated 17th or early 18th century plane, probably of German origin, in the Weston Park Museum, Sheffield, by whose kind permission it is reproduced. NOTE: The following article is from a small booklet by Stanley Tools in Great Britain which was printed sometime in the 1950's or 1960's. The first plane was probably a chisel-like tool inserted in a block of wood, but none of these rudimentary tools has come to light. The Silchester plane bears a remarkable resemblance to a modern Jack Plane in its main lines of design. The front of the plane is fitted with a carved handle for the left hand and the back of the stock is left flat. Another new feature, the stopped chamfer along the top edge, gave a more comfortable grip, and both these features remained on wooden planes until modern times. Generally speaking the planes ofthe 15th, 16th and 17th centuries were provided with a forward horn.
A cabinet maker's plane of the 17th century has been preserved and has beautifully finished scrolls and the toe and heel are so designed that it is impossible to trap the fingers. Believed to have been made in England, this plane was the forerunner of many similar types. Other planes of the early nineteenth century have survived, in which a sheathing of iron is used and in some cases this was dovetailed together. Another example of an exquisitely carved German plane from the collection in the Weston Park Museum, Sheffield.
From 1800 onwards many planes trace their origin to Shefiield and London as the craft of the toolmaker had now begun to develop and centre on these places.
Although experiments with planes with cast iron soles were taking place as early as 1827, it was not until about forty years later that a satisfactory tool was marketed. The story of the gradual evolution of American metal planes of the Stanley type is rather hazy although a fairly accurate pattern of development can be obtained from old catalogues and patent specifications.
As mentioned above the first glimpse of a metal soled plane seems to have been in 1827 when a patent was taken out by H. This was the stage of development when Leonard Bailey made his entry into the world of planes. One of the first completely iron Bailey planes, illustrated in a Victorian "home mechanics" guide. The Jack, Fore and Jointer planes had a flat casting screwed to a long, paralleled-sided stock, with an open grip and a turned knob for the left hand. These three planes also show in their earliest forms another important feature of Bailey's tools which played a big part in future development and popularity.

From the same source, an early Stanley iron plane, evidently produced before Bailey joined the company. So far efforts had been concentrated on improving the wooden soled plane by incorporating a metal seating for the cutter and working parts.
Bailey was the father of the modern plane which is now a precision cutting instrument capable of removing the finest shavings.
Although his patents long since expired and his ideas have been so extensively copied as to have become standard designs the Stanley company still retains the name Bailey on all its bench planes in acknowledgement of his great contributions to the development of the plane we know today. In 1843, Frederick Stanley founded a small shop in New Britain to manufacture bolts, hinges, and other hardware products for sale to local residents. The company known to New Britain residents for over a century as Stanley Works actually got its start as two separate companies.
By the turn of the century, the name Stanley was a fixture, not only in New Britain but at hardware stores across the country.
In 1920, Stanley Works purchased the business of Stanley Rule & Level, a New Britain business organized as a joint stock company in 1857. Woman working in the Stanley plant operating a machine which cuts out material for steel bullet jackets, New Britain, ca.
The success of Stanley Works in the decades that followed came not only from a dedication to producing quality tools but from the foresight company executives had in branding their product.
The postwar era witnessed Stanley diversify its product line and expand its operations through a number of strategic acquisitions. The smoothing plane shown still had the rather small mouth opening, while the grooves for the wedge were comparatively deep. This disappeared in England but has persisted in Europe to the present day, where it is often the practise to use the plane with a pulling rather than a pushing action. Some exquisite carving can be seen on a set of early German planes in the possesion of the Weston Park Museum, Sheffield. Bronze was used (as it was in Roman times) for plane bodies but mostly in smaller planes such as bull nose and shoulder planes. Even so, some of the more important improvements to planes were not made the subject of patents at all.
This was done on the same cast iron stock with slightly curved plates more like the later Stanley planes.
This patent also dealt with a cammed lever cap with a spring at the back which has since been a feature of the later Stanley and Bailey planes and has been retained to this day. This was the standardisation of components, which of course made it possible to make and sell the planes at popular prices and also enabled craftsmen to obtain spare parts more easily.

The final important step in the development of the modern plane now had to be taken, the transition to an all metal bodied plane which would give a sole of greater and more lasting accuracy. He was subsequently appointed as head of their plane department and the firm later became known as Stanley Tools.
He was the first man to invent a plane in which such a cutter could be used to advantage with adequate and fine adjustment, and later to incorporate them in an all metal plane. Stanley involved himself in the creation of a local gas light company in 1855 and, two years later, proved instrumental in helping bring the first running water to New Britain. Stanley Rule & Level manufactured levels and squares and, perhaps most famously, the Bailey Plane.
Stanley ran advertisements in popular magazines in the 1920s that encouraged fathers and sons to work together on do-it-yourself projects. The result was even greater branding for Stanley on an international scale and the movement into a new $8-million headquarters in New Britain on August 1, 1984. His first patent, taken out on June 22nd, 1858, dealt with a friction plate device for the vertical adjustment of the cutter of a joiner’s plane. All the cutters used in previous patterns were standard Jack or Smoothing plane irons, which tapered in thickness from the cutting edge to the top. His success in the bolt business soon encouraged Stanley to expand into forging other types of hardware such as hooks and hinges. The success of the Bailey Plane allowed Stanley Rule & Level to branch out into the production of other hand tools, and by 1900, the company was the largest manufacturer of planes and related tools in America. During the Great Depression, Stanley placed their products in industrial and vocational schools, assuring brand loyalty from future generations of industrial professionals. Today, Stanley Black & Decker continues to operate as one of the most trusted names in tools for millions of consumers across the globe.
The side plates rose to their maximum height about one third of their length from the front Two ribs on the inside formed a groove to take only a single iron and a wooden wedge.
Even today this is occasionally seen with Continental planes but has never been very popular with craftsmen because it reduces the effective area of the plane sole contacting the wood. Bailey also provided a handle smoother 9" to l0" long and a 'Jenny' plane 13" long with a Jack plane handle bedded on a stepped casting.
In fact apart from one feature added some years later it is very similar to the present day version of the plane.

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