This layout has been designed as a 3 tank system with identical 500l tanks sized 1.650 mm height and 650mm diameter. Desalination is a process by which dissolved salts are removed from seawater or brines water thereby converting it into potable water. Desalination allows to people to have access to water that was previously not potable (finding another source). Of the more than 12,500 desalination plants in operation or in construction worldwide, 60 percent are located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A region has a water supply that is large enough to meet the population’s needs and is sustainable at present. If a region’s water supply is currently meeting the needs of the people in a sustainable manner, then switching to desalination, unless it is economically productive, is not an urgent issue. Mission 2017 believes that desalination needs to be implemented in any ocean bordering region that falls under the third category because the current conditions would warrant its use. Figure 2: shows the global distributions of rainfall across the globe highlighting the regions that have water access and the regions that lack it [13].
To address these issues we have developed an initiative based system to promote the further use of desalination.
In every location that has a centralized sewage system, the sewage is pumped through pipes to a sewage treatment facility. The only thing difference between the sewage treatment process and water recycling is what happens to the water when it leaves the plant. For as simple as water recycling is, only a few nations actually implement water recycling on a noticeable scale. The American Southwest is another location that implements water recycling as that portion of the country is a desert and is constantly under water stress.
Figure 3: The purple arrows represent uses of recycled water (also known as grey water) and the blue arrows represent “new” water [12].
Because water recycling simply reuses treated water that would have otherwise been disposed of, it is both a cheap and highly effective method to reduce net water usage. Our plan to implement water recycling on a worldwide basis would include spreading the word about the the simplicity and benefits of the process as well as using subsidies. To observe World Water Day, I am publishing a short white paper I wrote on greywater and wastewater (blackwater) recycling geared toward the Chicago, Illinois area. Greywater (also spelled as graywater) is wastewater from showers, bathtubs, sinks, washing machines, and dishwashers.
Greywater reuse is currently utilized mostly on small residential scale, with the outflow primarily going to landscaping irrigation.
Systems require a duplicate and separate set of pipes for greywater to be differentiated from wastewater. Precautions for non-potable recycling include minimizing storage time to prevent contamination. Greywater pipe separation is a relatively easy low cost when planned into a new smaller-scale residential construction.
Separate greywater piping systems are exponentially more expensive as a building becomes larger than one story or if it is a retrofit of an existing unit. Although cleaner than wastewater, greywater reuse systems can carry contaminants or become a pathogenic hazard, insect breeding sites, or odor nuisance if not carefully executed. National standards: Green Building Standards Guide by the National Association of Home Builders was recently updated to include greywater reuse as option where permitted.
The theory behind most current wastewater reuse is to apply recycled wastewater to lower value uses (ie turf irrigation) that would otherwise utilize high value potable water applications. Wastewater can be reclaimed by centralized wastewater treatment plants, decentralized smaller scale plants, or by satellite plants that can be located upstream from the central plant to intercept certain amounts of wastewater before entering the sewer system or by tapping into trunk sewers.
The simplest uses such as turf irrigation (gold courses, cemeteries) and industrial uses (drillbit cooling, concrete cutting, ground stabilization) do not have as stringent water quality needs and can be treated much the same as the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRD) current secondary standards, which is not disinfected. Agricultural uses require somewhat more stringent standards due the concern of foodborne illnesses, but this use is currently permitted under Illinois law.
In the most difficult method to create drinking water, such as the case in Orange County, California, wastewater is sent through filters, UV light sterilization, reverse osmosis and diluting basins before being injected into the groundwater for further dilution and filtration. Although many obvious water conservation benefits are the similar to greywater reuse, benefits of wastewater recycling are realized best on large scale processes, both in terms of centralized treatment and large scale agricultural, industrial or public use. One of the greatest reported challenges to reusing wastewater is the psychological deterrence by the public of using reclaimed wastewater. To get to drinkable standards requires a large upfront investment, although the cost may be considered reasonable relative to alternatives in some situations. This entry was posted in Green Building and tagged Blackwater, Greywater, Sustainability, Wastewater, Water Conservation, Water Recycling, Water Reuse on March 22, 2011 by Daniel. This is from a patent filing EP 0494399 A1 on “Process to direct and treat production waters in a paper factory with installation for treatment of waste paper” by German inventor Wilhelm Menges.
Consumption of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas has become an important issue over the last years.
The above diagram does not show any unit, but presumably is meant to be in cubic metres (per year?).
More water Sankey diagrams of similar style can be found on pages 19 through 23 in this workshop presentation on ‘The Importance of and Difficulties in Water Accounting’. After writing about VisioGuy’s radial Sankey diagram idea, I went through my bookmarks and collection of Sankey diagrams in search of further candidates for this special class of circular flow graphs.
The water from wash-basins, shower and bathtub could go through a recycling stage and be reused for flushing and watering the garden.
Austrian consulting company Stenum has revamped their Sankey Editor 2008 website a little bit, and they added new sample Sankey diagrams.
The diagram is in German, but I can understand as much as this: All flows are in cubic metres. This Sankey diagram shows COD (chemical oxygen demand) in a waste water treatment plant that handles both municipal waste water as well as effluents from a chemical plant. It was generated using the software package STOAT, which allows for dynamic simulation of wastewater treatment plants.
The Sankey diagram does not show any flow quantities explicitly, and the values seem to be clustered into five or six fixed arrow magnitudes. I have added the STOAT model to the list of software tools with Sankey drawing capabilities.
In the Wiki of the CD4WC (Cost Effective Development of Urban Wastewater Systems for Water Directive Compliance) project, I found an interesting Sankey diagram that I wanted to share with you. This presentation is very advantageous: The nodes in the system (the process blocks) remain at the same position, only the magnitude of the arrows changes, when switching to the substance flows view. It would also be a possibility to introduce as a third view (next to absolute water quantity, and substance quantities) the substance concentrations (impurities per m? of waste water). At CityScape Insurance, we’re happy to say that we try to do our part to protect our environment and use our resources wisely. Recycling isn’t just about putting your cans, bottles and newspapers into a bin, although that plays a big part. Electronic waste: TVs, computers, cell phones and other electronics should not go into landfills. Food waste: In many communities, food scraps and waste are collected along with yard waste and used for composting.

Restaurants and grocery stores: Some establishments are beginning to offer separate bins for recyclable materials and food waste.
Though your actions may seem small, they do make a difference in the Phoenix metro community — and the world.
We want to hear what you’re doing to Go Green, please share your ideas with others below.
FREYLIT WASH WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMSSince 1983 FREYLIT has been producing and installing a wide range of wash water recycling systems!We supply our products worldwide! Please note that the first tank works in this configuration as a buffer tank to handle a high inflow as it happens in the peak hours morning and evenings.
The special feature of the electronic control unit is that on a regular basis (up to every minute) every parameter of the whole system is being monitored and transferred via modem to a central location for further analysis or active access into the running system. Here salt water is forced under  high pressures through a semipermeable membrane that produces relatively pure water on the downstream side and leaves saline-rich water on the source side. If global water use is already at 9 trillion cubic meters a year and this rate is expected to increase by approximately 60 billion cubic meters more per year, according to our model, then humans must either use the water we have in a sustainable fashion or find another source for water.
In most cases this means coastal cities can use seawater for their municipal water supply (many islands in the Caribbean also use desalination) or landlocked cities can use brackish groundwater for the same purpose.
Worldwide usage is expected to grow with climate-induced water stress and as desalination technology becomes cheaper [14]. The places that fall under category two, on the other hand, will have to examine their situation with more thought. As Saudi Arabia has already demonstrated, water can be pipped inland to landlocked cities which means desalination is not limited to coastal cities and can ensure the prosperity of sizeable regions. Desalination is cheapest per cubic meter the larger the scale so it is more efficient to build a large plant to supply a city (or several villages) then to build a local desalination plant for a town. Even if desalination were implemented in every category 3 place on the planet, there are still a lot of places that fall under category 2 where desalination could be utilized if it produced water at a competitive level. Theoretically, desalination plants can pay for themselves in two decades if the price per cubic meter of water is set appropriately.
Desalination plants require over 15,000 kilowatt hours of electricity a day when operating [16].
Water that leaves a sewage plant can be used for any number of non potable purposes instead of disposing it [8].
Currently, Israel leads the way with water recycling because it recycles 100 percent of its sewage water. Irvine California uses recycled water for toilet flushing which only adds 9 percent to plumbing costs [8].
The component of water recycling, however, is that the water must be treated it is to be used again. Specifically, if a nation demonstrates interest in wanting to implement water recycling technologies (this could include wanting sewage treatment facilities), Mission 2017 will work with them on a case by case basis to find businesses and banks that are willing to provide the upfront costs of building the plants (they would make their money back by selling the treated wastewater).
Currently, water recycling is hindered in most places by cumbersome or non-existent state and municipal regulations. It is currently used either for irrigation and landscaping, which is fairly simple and inexpensive, or for flushing toilets, which requires greater expense, sterilization equipment and testing. As human contact should also be eliminated with systems that do not sterilize the water, under-soil drainage is the preferred method to eliminate pooling and maximize natural bacteria breakdown by the soil. Cost and space savings can even be gained by reducing the wastewater treatment system, especially for septic systems.
In Chicago, special permitting by the Dept of Public Health has allowed (as of 2010) only two buildings to reuse greywater for toilet flushing.
Receiving areas should be monitored for impacts, and best practices should be followed and research and testing on benefits and risks should be pursued. Clybourn, Chicago, IL (Mercy Housing Lakefront): Affrordale housing that recycles greywater to flush toilets in a 96 unit residential building, with added rainwater collections system. Wastewater recycling is typically considered on a much larger scale than greywater reuse due to the higher risk of contamination and mishandling on a small scale.
However, there are some highly advanced systems, the largest of which is in Orange County, CA, which do use reclaimed wastewater for municipal drinking water (see below). It is not clear what standards would be needed, but a higher level of secondary standards than above would by most reports be preferred. Therefore, the most immediate potential benefits would be the lower-value use, such as the turf irrigation or industrial uses.
The Orange County project cost $481 million to build, but the alternatives included desalination (up to four times the cost) in addition to the cost of new waste piping facilities to be built into the Pacific Ocean. The “thickening filtrate arising from the dispersion of waste paper is directly fed to a biological waste water” treatment.
The Wafeer water conservation project is trying to raise awareness and educate people in Saudi-Arabian industry in regard to the efficient use of water. The designer gave it a roller coaster style loop, which sure doesn’t add to the information content of the graphic, but immediately draws the reader’s attention to the recycling. The ones shown below are for the water flows of an electro-plating factory before and after optimization. Apart from the hydrogen peroxide flow entering from the top the flows shown all run from the source (water supply) to the sink (waste water treatment), the nodes in the middle (flushing, backflushing?) are the actual breakdown of the water flows.
The flows have a flat arrow base, and a rounded arrow head, which is uncommon, but still let’s you determine the flow direction.
For individual substances that can be found in the waste water, the diagram is then displayed with Sankey flows, that represent the quantity.
But how many of us really make reducing, reusing and recycling a part of our everyday life?
In fact companies such as Progressive Insurance launched the Plant-A-Tree program back in 2011, in this program Progressive plants a tree every time a customer signs up for paperless billing. Take your own travel mug to the coffee shop, for instance, or bring real silverware to work for lunches, instead of using plastic. New compact fluorescent light bulbs use far less energy than standard bulbs, and low-flow shower heads, coupled with aerators, can reduce your water use without you even noticing.
When properly maintained, many items, such as appliances and clothing, won’t need to be replaced as frequently. If you need something that you won’t use more than once or twice, such as a power tool, see if you can borrow or rent instead of buying. When you’re done with an item, if it’s in good shape, consider donating it to a charitable organization that will sell it or continue using it. Be sure to use these when available, and if your favorite place doesn’t offer this option, ask about it!
And when they’re combined with the efforts of millions of others, the impact is even bigger than you can imagine! To assist an initial purifiaction process the buffer tank (1st tank on the left) has been equipped with an additional active aeration.
Not only the parameters are being check but also an automatic alarm at the central control can be generated and the system can be switched off automatically. The first chamber is under a lower pressure than the salt water that enters it allowing a portion of the salt water to vaporize and be collected.

A portion of the salt water evaporates leaving behind a slightly more saline solution than the original salt water. Because membrane cleanliness is crucial to the efficiency of this mechanism, salt water is treated with some initial filters to remove particulate matter.
Desalination combined with Water recycling are both integral components of our “water crisis” solution.
Here, the desalination method of choice is MSF because of its ability to operate in conjunction with the waste-heat water from a power plant (given Saudi Arabia’s abundance of oil) . Currently, the average cost of desalination is roughly $5 for 1000 gallons of water while a typical municipal water supplier charges about $1.50 for 1000 gallons [6].
If the supply is unsustainable at the rate consumption is now, then some action must be taken to insure that future generations will have access to water (part of Mission 2017 declarations). In the following image, every region colored with a light tan (representing infrequent rain) is an area Mission 2017 would like to see supplied with desalinated water.
As a result, any region that has a desalination plant must be able to produce enough energy.
The first step is Preliminary Screening which removes large debris such as wood, dead animals, or clothing. The result of this is that Israel now has 70 percent more water to use for agriculture (the other 30 percent is used as grey water or water used by industry). However, by using recycled water for the number one source of domestic water use (26.7 percent of domestic water is used for toilet flushing) [11], the city requires almost a quarter less water per year. Mission 2017 would thus like to encourage cities worldwide, that already have sewage systems, to implement water recycling. As water becomes a scarcer and more expensive resource, the practical efficiency of water recycling, both greywater and wastewater is being explored and implemented at high levels of technology. The same technology currently used to create flushing water (see Mercy Homes Chicago) could be used to make drinkable water, but no sites have been permitted for turning it into drinking water in the Chicago area.
Performance standards policy models encourage innovation in cost and performance, increasing demand, but a measurable system of oversight and monitoring must be in place because the outcomes are not as predictable. There are four potential uses for reused wastewater, ranked in infrastructural difficulty of processing.
Thus, Sankey diagrams are a possibility for the “determination of fluxes of substances per unit of time”.
For the export of grey water recycling systems a detailled training and installation is strongly recommended since local materials like tanks could be used.
Upon leaving the first chamber the salt water enters several more chambers each with a lower pressure than the previous one allowing even more of the pressurized salt water to vaporize. However, in this system the water vapor from the first chamber is used to heat the water in the next chamber (that is under a lower pressure than the previous chamber). Additionally, after the water passes through the designated membrane, a post treatment generally occurs to to kill any microbes in the water as well as adjustment of the water’s pH back to normal [1]. At the present nearly 70 percent of the nations water comes from desalination but there are plans from within to make the nation completely water independent (i.e. This difference in priced is incurred from the costs it takes to build and run a desalination plant compared to simply pumping water from an aquifer or lake. Desalination will be appropriate if the area is then either rapidly running out of water or if the effort it would take to make the water supply sustainable (see Artificial Recharge) is not feasible (i.e 100 percent of the water supply must be reused indefinitely).
Once sewage has passed through screens, it is then mixed vigorously and pumped with air induce the decaying process of organic waste. Considering that the 70 percent of the world’s water is already used for agriculture, water recycling, on a global scale, could reduce the amount of water pulled from sources by 25 percent [10].
We’re hoping you’ll take the time – if you’re not already – to make reduce, reuse and recycle part of your daily routine. The main benefit is that we can achieve a higher recycling rate by simply adding a buffer tank. Though this pattern repeats throughout several chambers to increase the efficiency of the overall system, the underlying process is trying to use the heat of condensation to heat the next batch of salt water; this produces distilled water (the condensed water vapor) and more water vapor (the cycle repeats) [1].
Regardless most people would avoid paying 3-4 times more for anything if they do not have to. Additionally, if a location can be categorized as the third category, then desalination should be seriously considered. Post application, we will determine the most appropriate way to organize the funds for the construction of desalination plants on a case to case basis by cooperating with business, banks, and other resources willing to participate. After aeration, the sewage enters settling tanks where the heavy sludge sinks to the bottom and the lighter materials float to the top; both of which are removed from the water (scraped from the or bottom of the tanks). For example, recycled water is used to cool the Palo Verde Nuclear Reactor in Phoenix Arizona [8].
Depending on where you’re starting from, it may take a change in mindset, or maybe just a little more dedication. The water that did not vaporize leaves the system with a higher saline concentration than when it entered; this is discarded properly as waste while the distilled water is put into the municipal water supply as drinkable water [1]. Currently, but not surprisingly, Saudi Arabia hosts the world’s largest desalination plant that alone produces 800,000 cubic meters of water a day that travels through a maze that consists of 2500 miles of pipes to reach the various inland cities of the country [4]. Another way of putting this is “if your backyard well is dry [or running out quickly], you cannot solve your household water supply challenges by reusing or conserving more of the well water which you do not have” [5]. Even though this initiative will be a rolling application, getting the word out, and finding countries that want to participate will take at least 5 years.
After the majority of the macro waste is removed, the water is then chlorinated to kill any remaining microbes that could cause harm.
As can be seen by the purple arrow in the image below, water recycling can supplement many different needs in society. But these tips from the Environmental Protection Agency can help us make the world a cleaner place. Such an extensive pipe system gives Mission 2017 reason to believe that desalination technologies are not necessarily restricted to servicing coastal cities. Additionally, drawing up the plans to implement desalination as well as physically making the blueprints for a plant will take another 2-3 years [15]. The last step of the process is to neutralized chlorine in the water and stabilizing the pH. Further still, Saudi Arabia plans to achieve its complete independence of water by constructing desalination plants that run purely on solar. Once, the sewage has been processed, it can now be safely return to the river or ocean [9]. Specifically, for the cost of $500 billion, the country can increase its desalinated water production by a factor of 5 (which is required amount to meet the needs of its growing population) and produce several solar farms that will harness approximately 60 terawatts of energy from the sun and power the desalination plants [3]. This country’s long term goal provides the ideal blueprint of all other nations (that are not landlocked) in that desalination and solar cells, when used in a conjoint manner, can make a country both water and energy sustainably independent.

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