Tool Handles, Church Pews, Fine Furniture, Cabinets, Veneer, Flooring, Baseball Bats, Pool Cues, Oars and many other uses!
Fine Furniture, Cabinetry, Architecural Millwork, Instrument making, Wood Turning, Boat Building, Outdoor Construction, Counter Tops, Flooring, Veneer and many other uses! Once considered a more refined member of the mahogany family, Sapele is now being used as the industry standard for doors, windows and moldings due to the restrictions on South American Mahogany. Note: All pictures of boards that appear wet, have been wiped with denature alcohol to help show natural color.
The early settlement and growth of Canada depended on exploiting and exporting the country’s vast natural resources. A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories (see Figure 2) Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory. The Canadian legal system is based on English common law, except in Quebec, where the civil law system is based on French law (Napoleonic Code).
The Governor General is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections.
Canada is a vast nation with a wide variety of geological formations, climates, and ecological systems. Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area of Precambrian rocks surrounding Hudson Bay and covering half the country. The central Canadian Shield area is drained by the Nelson-Saskatchewan, Churchill, Severn, and Albany rivers flowing into Hudson Bay. Approximately 40% of Canada's landmass and freshwater is north of 60 degrees north latitude.
Canada has a wide range of soil types ranging from the peat soils in low lying areas to sandy soils in other areas.
A grassland soil whose diagnostic horizon is formed by high levels of organic matter additions from the roots of grasses.
A grassland soil with high sodium levels in the B horizon; usually associated with a clay-rich B horizon and often with saline C horizon material. A forest soil normally associated with coniferous vegetation on igneous-rock derived parent materials. A forest soil whose properties are not strongly enough developed to meet the criteria for the Luvisolic or Podzolic Orders.
Found throughout Canada wherever temporary or permanent water saturation cause formation of gleyed features in the profile. Found throughout Canada wherever pedogenic conditions prevent the formation of B horizons (unstable slopes, sand dunes, floodplains etc.). Associated with high clay glacio-lacustrine landscapes; characterized by shrinking and swelling of clays. Organic soils are associated with the accumulation of organic materials (peat) in water-saturated conditions. A detailed map of the major soil zones of the Canadian prairie region is shown in Figure 5. Because of its great latitudinal extent, Canada has a wide variety of climates (Canada 2011). The northern two-thirds of the country have a climate similar to that of northern Scandinavia, with very cold winters and short, cool summers. In the winter those parts of the country farthest from open water are the coldest, so that in the interior plains and in the North the winters are extremely cold.
Humid air masses from the Pacific cause enormous quantities of orographic (mountain-caused) rain to fall on the west coast and mountain areas. In the interior plains and the North (arctic and subarctic), precipitation is seldom more than 400 mm per year. Ontario and Quebec have more rainfall than the interior plains because the air masses pick up water vapour from the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. The forest of the Pacific coast, where steep slopes facing moisture-bearing winds produce a high rainfall, is Canada’s densest tall timber forest.
The southern portion of the interior plains is too dry for forests and gives rise to grasslands or natural prairies [Figure 10 and Table 2] (Bailey et al. Today in western Canada, the remaining native grassland area is small as annual crops have replaced native grass in all but dry or hilly areas (Bailey et al., 2010). With high organic matter and mineral content, the grassland soils are among Canada’s most fertile. Many cattle in western Canada graze on government land managed by federal and provincial government land agencies. From an ecological perspective, the Grassland Biome and Interior Mountain Cordillera are the most important areas for the beef industry in western Canada. The feedlot finishing industry (see Photos 12 & 13) is mainly located in southern Alberta. There are two markets for milk: fluid milk used as table milk or fresh cream accounts for 40% of the milk produced, while that balance is used for manufacturing of dairy products such as butter, milk powder, cheese, yogurt and ice cream.
Although the number of farms has steadily declined in the last 20 years, as has the number of cows, the amount of milk produced has remained fairly stable. Smaller herds are housed in tie stalls or stanchion barns (Photo 17), while larger herds are housed in free-stall barns (Photo 18) with milking parlours.
Canada's orderly marketing system is designed to encourage the production of sufficient volumes of industrial milk and cream to meet domestic demand for dairy products as well as certain planned exports. Canadian dairy cattle, recognized for their disease-free status and their ability to produce high quantities of milk over several lactations, are exported around the world.
Canadian dairy innovation is built on the industry's expertise in research and development.
In Canada the main sheep producing areas (see Photos 19 and 20) are Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. The forage resource used for grazing and production of forage crops covers over 36 million hectares. The beef and dairy industries are the second and third ranking primary agriculture sectors after grain. Canada's cold-temperate climate dictates winter feeding of livestock with preserved forages for periods as long as October to May depending on location and annual weather.
Cultivated forages have been widely adapted to various regions with significant production coming from lands not suited to annual crops.
Most of the forage-based livestock industry is in western Canada and management integrates rangeland with cultivated forages. Canada's natural vegetation is simply classified as 24% tundra, 71% forest and 5% grassland (McCartney and Horton, 1997). Inuit hunters who traditionally have used the caribou as a source of food and shelter are very concerned about the long-term survival of these vast herds due to the lack of suitable grazing reserves. Wheatgrass and northern porcupine grass (Agropyron-Stipa) communities are interspersed in this forest biome in northern British Columbia (Photo 28) and Alberta. The mixed wood plains ecozone stretches from the Great Lakes of southern Ontario and east along the St. One hundred and fifty years ago this area was heavily forested with more tree species than any other region of Canada.
The Atlantic maritime ecozone (see Figure 12) (Photo 31) covers the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island (Photo 32) and parts of southeastern Quebec.
About 15% of the soils in Nova Scotia, 20% in New Brunswick and 60% in Prince Edward Island are of high agricultural value with some areas specializing in potato production (Willms and Dormaar, 1993). Cultivated grasses (Photo 33) such as timothy, orchardgrass, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and legumes such as white clover can increase pasture productivity in the region and reduce seasonal fluctuations in dry matter yield associated with native swards. The Pacific Cordilleran, or Coast Forest, extends from the Gulf of Alaska to northern California along the coast of the Pacific ocean (Figure 13). The Rocky Mountain Cordilleran Biome stretches from southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta through central British Columbia into the Yukon (Figure 14). The Grassland Biome (see Figure 15) in Canada is a continuation of the Great Plains of central North America. The natural plant communities of the Canadian grassland biome have been described by Moss (1944), Moss and Campbell (1947), Coupland (1950), Coupland and Brayshaw (1953), Moss (1955), Coupland (1961), Blood (1966), Looman (1969), Scoggan (1978), Looman (1981), Willms and Jefferson (1993) and Bailey et al. For more details on Canada’s land areas used for agriculture and forage and grazing click here. For a 24' wide span you are usually far better off dropping a beam at 12' or so and using lumber joists. We use denature alcohol because it evaporates and does not effect the moisture content of the wood.
At the time of Canada’s first census, in 1871, about half the population was British and nearly one-third was French.
The proportion of people claiming ancestry from the British Isles ranges from about two-thirds in Newfoundland and Labrador to less than 5% in Quebec; the proportion of people of French descent ranges from a majority in Quebec to a low percent in the rest of Canada.
During the 20th century, manufacturing industries and services became increasingly important.
Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbour to the south across an unfortified border. This vast region, with its store of forests, waterpower, and mineral resources, is being increasingly developed.
In some regions soils are heavy clay while in others soils are light brown to black and grey wooded.
High acidity in the A horizon results in formation of a bleached Ae horizon and deposition of iron and aluminum in the B horizon. Dominant process is eluviation of clay from the Ae horizon and its deposition in the Bt horizon.

Map of Canada showing the 12 zones that Correspond with the most Common Distribution of 10 Soil Orders. Ocean currents play an important role, with both the warm waters of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic and the Alaska Current in the Pacific affecting climate. The central southern area of the interior plains has a typical continental climate - very cold winters, hot summers, and relatively sparse precipitation.
As air currents generally move from west to east, the west-coast mountains effectively keep marine air out. It borders on three oceans, contains vast areas of boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, mountainous ecosystems, arctic ecosystems and prairie grassland ecosystems to name a few (see Figure 7). There are several large and distinct forest zones, which blend into a number of transitional zones.
Generally, the trees in this subarctic zone, with its cold, dry climate, are small and of little commercial consequence. In the interior plains of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta the forest merges with the grasslands to create an arc of aspen parkland (Figure 9), characterized by prairie vegetation dotted with groves of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and other poplars in low moist areas and along valley bottoms. Abundant moisture and a long growing season are conducive to the growth of evergreens with very hard wood, excellent for construction lumber. The degree of acidity and leaching is greater in the coniferous and less in the mixed and deciduous forests. The Dry Mixed Grass prairie in southeastern Alberta and western Saskatchewan is the most southerly and driest area of western Canada and consists of needle-and-thread (Stipa comata) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) with sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate) and cactus. The best soils for crops are the dark brown Chernozemic and black soils of the tallgrass and parkland zone, the area of Canada that is famous for wheat cultivation. The prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba have 82% of the national beef cow herd, Ontario and Quebec 12%, British Columbia 5% and Atlantic Canada 1% (Statistics Canada 2010).
These give an overview and indicate the level of meat (total meat) and milk equivalent exports and imports.
In the more moist areas of eastern Canada cows will calve in a barn while in the drier areas of western Canada cows calve on bedded mounds protected from the wind with wind breaks.
The typical Canadian dairy farm has 72 cows and produces an average of 5,579 hectolitres of milk per year. The Canadian Dairy Commission, in its facilitative role, helps build consensus within the industry, which characterizes the overall approach to orderly marketing in Canada's dairy industry. The top three products exported were dairy spreads, products consisting of natural milk constituents, and skim milk powder.
The area stretches from the vast arctic tundra of the far north to the grasslands of the southern prairies, and from the forests of British Columbia through the boreal forests of central and western Canada to the deciduous forests of eastern Canada. It is the third highest contributor to the gross domestic product after mining and oil (Statistics Canada, 2010).
It is estimated that two-thirds of the feed protein in Canada comes from hay, grazing of forages, and fodder corn production. The four western provinces have 96% of the 26 million ha of Canadian rangeland used for livestock production with 36% in British Columbia, 29% in Alberta, 24% in Saskatchewan and 8% in Manitoba.
Plant geography classifies major terrestrial communities into biomes based on climate and natural vegetation. In addition to caribou, there are large herds of bison (Bison bison) and reindeer which are in some cases commercially managed in the arctic and boreal forest zones. The soils of the Boreal Forest range from Gray Luvisols on the interior plains to organic soils on the lowlands of Hudson Bay, and the Podzols of the Canadian Shield.
It can be divided into two ecozones; the mixed wood plains ecozone and the Atlantic Maritime ecozone (Figure 12). This equals the land area used for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybeans (Glycine max), and grain corn in Ontario. The effect of the Pacific Ocean combined with varying altitudes, slopes, and aspects of the cordilleras creates more diversity in climate and vegetation than is found in any other region of Canada (Meidinger and Pojar, 1991).
The climate of the zone ranges from sub-arid to humid at low and mid-elevations and cold at high elevations. Ecotourism is of great importance as many national and provincial parks have been established for recreational use and as wildlife preserves. It is an association of trembling aspen and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) groves with interspersed grasslands.
Foothills rough fescue (Festuca campestris) can be found in the Alberta foothills, while plains rough fescue (Festuca hallit) grows primarily on the Black Chernozemic soils of central Alberta, Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba.
It extends across the southern prairies from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains to the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border.
It is characterized by needle-and-thread and prairie dropseed (Stipa-Sporobolus) and bluestem and indiangrass (Andropogon-Sorghastrum) communities. Also, please keep in mind that the pictures below are only examples of the wood and not actual products available for sale. Since that time the proportion of Canadians of British and French ancestry has dropped to about one-fourth each, as more have arrived from other countries in Europe, Southeast Asia and Latin America. By the end of the 20th century, agriculture and mining accounted for less than 5% of Canada’s labour force, while manufacturing stood at one-fifth and services, including transportation, trade, finance, and other activities, employed nearly three-fourths of the workforce.
Canadian agriculture is firmly private, but it has come to depend on government subsidies in order to compete with the highly subsidized agricultural sectors of the European Union (EU) and the USA. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, and education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. The head of state for Canada is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor General while the head of government or Parliament is the Prime Minister. East of the Canadian Shield is the maritime area, separated from the rest of Canada by low mountain ranges, plains and river valleys, and including the island of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island. The Columbia, Fraser, and Yukon rivers are the principal drainage systems of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. Since there is such a wide variety of soil types it is difficult to attempt an overall summary.
Westerly winds, blowing from the sea to the land, are the prevailing air currents in the Pacific and bring coastal British Columbia heavy precipitation and moderate winter and summer temperatures.
Southern Ontario and Quebec have a climate with hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters, similar to that of some portions of the American Midwest. During the summer, however, those parts of Canada farthest from open water are the warmest. Because winters are not as cold as in the interior plains, the air is less dry, and enough snow falls to make winter and summer precipitation about equivalent. There are few thunderstorms, and the low Appalachian Mountains produce only a little rainfall.
These ecosystems support numerous human activities such as agriculture and forestry upon which the country’s economy heavily depends. East of the Manitoba-Ontario border is a band of mixed coniferous-deciduous forest that extends into both the Great Lakes - St. The grazing industry is located primarily in western Canada with British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba having 84% of the national beef herd.
The Mixed Grass prairie eco-region surrounds the Dry Mixed Grass eco-region of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba where there is slightly more precipitation.
The less fertile light Brown Chernozemic soils of the dry mixed grass prairie country tend to be alkaline, and the predominant agricultural activities are dryland farming and grazing. Although Canada is a net meat exporter, since 2004 imports of milk products (milk equivalents) have exceeded exports. The dairy industry ranks third in terms of value in the Canadian agricultural sector, following grains and red meats. There are 452 dairy processing plants (272 which are federally-inspected) contributing to more than 22 730 jobs across Canada. The primary destination for Canadian dairy products was the USA which accounted for 48% of total dairy exports in terms of value. An example of Canadian dairy innovation is the development of a robust line of functional dairy products. Only 7% or 68 million ha of Canada's entire land base is used for agriculture (McCartney and Horton, 1997). The agri-food industry contributes approximately 8% of Canada's annual gross domestic product. Grain crops are grown on the majority of cultivated lands but the farm value of forage conserved as hay and silage is about 40-60% the value of feed grain crops.
The western provinces also have 82% of the nation's cultivated pasture, 64% of the nation's forage crop area, and 84% of the nation's beef cow herd. Canada may be divided into arctic tundra, boreal forest, deciduous forest, grassland and mountain cordillera biomes.
The area is dominated by trees, rivers, lakes and the Canadian Shield (Photo 27) bedrock which surrounds Hudson Bay. The whooping crane (Grus americana), one of Canada's most well known endangered species, nests in this biome. Its waterways, gentle topography, fertile soils, warm growing season, abundant rainfall and early settlement have made it Canada's most populated area, with 60% of the nation's people (Willms and Dormaar, 1993).
Livestock production dominates Ontario's agriculture with 36% of farm income derived from ruminant livestock and 56% of all farm cash receipts coming from all livestock products in general.
The area provides an extensive grazing resource for wildlife and commercial cattle and horse producers. Major species include western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), with sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in the north and coastal areas, and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. The forage resources of the Rocky Mountain Cordilleran are important for guide-outfitting and ecotourism enterprises. The rain shadow created by the coastal mountains results in some of the driest areas in Canada.

It stretches from the Canada-USA border in a tear drop arc from Alberta, through Saskatchewan and into southern Manitoba. This biome can be classified into four associations (see Figure 10): Aspen Parkland, Fescue Prairie, Tallgrass Prairie and Mixed Prairie.
The comparatively good moisture and rich soils of the Fescue Prairie has made it a very productive crop area. Soils range from Brown Chernozemic soils in the southcentral region to Dark Brown Chernozemic soils further north. I usually try to line these 6" deep wood beams up on exposed 6x6 posts for an internal post and beam look. Because immigrant groups have tended to settle in particular locales, they generally have retained their cultural identity. Several marketing boards for specific farm commodities practice supply management and establish floor prices. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
On 1 July 1867, Canada became independent from the union of British North American colonies. The cabinet or federal ministry is chosen by the prime minister usually from among the elected members of his own party sitting in Parliament. Except for the west coast, all of Canada has a winter season with average temperatures below freezing and with continuous snow cover. In general, the rainfall on Canada’s east coast is less than that on the west coast because the prevailing winds come from offshore. The east and west coasts are areas of lighter snowfall because the ocean usually makes the air too warm for large quantities of snow to fall. While some activities often leave no impact and others help restore ecosystems, generally the integrity of Canada’s ecosystems is threatened from the collective weight of many kinds of human activities originating from both within and beyond the ecosystem borders. Wind erosion has been a serious problem in prairie regions wherever the grassland has been converted to cultivated farmland; however, modern reduced tillage systems have substantially reduced erosion on cropland. There is an increased interest to reduce winter feeding costs by extending the grazing season to a year-round one; this also includes grazing hay bales which are strategically located in the fields to provide cattle with designated amounts throughout the winter. The Canadian dairy sector operates under a supply management or quota system based on planned domestic production, administered pricing, and dairy product import controls. Already several products have been developed, such as probiotic yogurts, ultra filtered milk, and dairy products containing Omega-3 fatty acids.
Agriculture's primary importance varies across the country and is most important economically to the province of Saskatchewan.
Important cultivated forages include alfalfa (Medicago sativa), red, white and alsike clover (Trifolium pratense, T. The climate consists of long, cold winters and short, warm summers as influenced by continental climatic conditions. Livestock operations (Photos 25 & 26) are found on the southern edges of the Boreal Forest where it meets the prairie grasslands and in the clay belt of northern Ontario. Important tree species include sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (Acer rubrum), beech (Fagus grandifolia), American elm (Ulmus americana), trembling aspen and birch (Betula spp.).
Other regions can receive 1 500 mm of annual precipitation (Ecological Stratification Working Group, 1995). These grass plains are comparatively flat and were home to large herds of bison prior to European settlement. The region is highly productive with wheat, barley, oilseeds, specialty crops, alfalfa seed and dehydration products, and beef cattle being of primary importance.
As a result, this association has been extensively cultivated and only limited areas remain of the original Fescue Prairie.
Major species include northern and western wheatgrass, needle-and-thread (Stipa comata) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis). If your trying to span 24 feet with a single joist you pretty much have no choice but to go with an engineered joist. For example, Ukrainians largely migrated to the Prairie Provinces where the land and climate were similar to their homeland, and many Dutch settled on the flat, fertile farmlands of south western Ontario. The Constitution Act of 1867, created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 1982, transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. On a per-capita basis, its resource endowments are the second richest in the world after Australia.
On an average annual basis, Canadian rivers discharge close to 9% of the world's renewable water supply, while Canada has less than 1% of the world's population. In the east the cold Labrador Current meets the Gulf Stream along the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, cooling the air and causing frequent fog. Despite this situation, society is attempting to implement various measures to conserve and protect entire ecosystems and their components so they will continue to sustain themselves and provide for future generations.
The boreal forest (Figure 8) is an important source of pulpwood and also produces considerable lumber, but much of the northern area is too inaccessible for commercial lumbering.
The majority of harvested forage, dehydrated alfalfa and forage seed crops are grown in western Canada. Dairy products shipped from processing plants are valued at approximately USD$8 billion. When large commercial flocks were excluded, the average flock would have 65 ewes with 20 ewe lambs, 3 mature rams and 1 ram lamb. The majority of forage production is used on-farm, with off-farm sales estimated to represent approximately 10 to 15% of total production.
The terrain consists of rolling uplands and lowlands underlain by Precambrian granite bedrock. The vegetation is floristically diverse ranging from bunchgrass associations in valley bottoms with dry to wet forest communities at mid-elevations to high elevation alpine communities. Cultivated crops are often grown under irrigation with fruit orchards, berry production, and vineyards located in heavy concentrations in the southern valleys.
Native grasslands have been extensively ploughed and cultivated for grain production over the last hundred years.
Since settlement in the Parkland, most native grassland has been replaced by cultivated crops.
Much of the original wheatgrass-Junegrass (Agropyron-Koeleria) communities along with portions of porcupine grass and northern wheatgrass (Stipa-Agropyron) communities have been converted to cereal and cultivated forage production. However, I also have a framing plan with a beam and standard joists since some areas of the country will find that to be less expensive.For really long spans you can also look into web trusses (deep configurations built up from 2x6 or 2x4's).
Many Chinese, Portuguese, Greeks, and Italians have settled in specific sections of large cities, particularly Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Water is also highly visible in Canada: probably no country in the world has as much of its surface area covered by freshwater.
The forage-based livestock industry makes a significant contribution to the national economy. The average beef cow herd size in 2007 was 61 head and 61% of all the beef farms have less than 47 cows.
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) grows in the southern parts while Douglas fir, lodgepole pine and trembling aspen grow elsewhere. Today most of Canada's wheat, oilseeds, pulse crop and beef production are centered in the grassland biome.
Many areas unsuitable for sustained crop production have become government-operated community pastures consisting of bromegrass-bluegrass (Bromus-Poa) complexes.
These are expensive but allow you to have the big open spaces needed in commercial installations.
Other rivers flow laterally from the interior into Hudson Bay or the Atlantic or Pacific ocean. Of particular note are the Great Lakes, which are shared with the USA, and which make up the largest area of freshwater found in one place anywhere in the world (Canada, 2011). Many ranchers (see Photos 34-39) use these areas for beef cattle grazing (Wikeem et al., 1993). At that span size you should probably be looking for at least a L480 or L600 deflection rating and you'll not get that with dimensional lumber. Toward the north of this section is a series of rich mining areas, and still farther north is the Mackenzie lowland, traversed by many lakes and rivers. Freezing precipitation may occur during the colder months in any part of the country, occasionally disrupting transportation and communications.
White spruce grows in upland areas along with aspen poplar, while black spruce is found on wetter soils. The western most region of Canada, extending from western Alberta to the Pacific Ocean, includes the Rocky Mountains, a plateau region, the coastal mountain range, and an inner sea passage separating the outer island groups from the fjord-lined coast.
Balsam fir and jack pine are found in the central and eastern parts, while alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. It is estimated that there are several hundred thousand caribou in the eastern Arctic herd. The Arctic islands constitute a large group extending north of the Canadian mainland to within 885 km of the North Pole. They vary greatly in size and topography, with mountains, plateaus, fjords, and low coastal plains.

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    Some new woodworking store instruments and gear to construct extra superior wooden basic and standard designs.