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Electronic Throttle Control (ETC), or "Throttle Actuator Control" (TAC), is replacing the throttle linkage on more and more late model vehicles.
Throttle-By-Wire eliminates the sticking and binding problems that sometimes occur with mechanical linkages, and return spring failures that may prevent the throttle from closing (a runaway engine).
The computer is a lot smarter than the driver when it comes to choosing the optimum throttle opening, especially in situations where a vehicle is starting to lose traction or spin out of control. With cruise control, integrating throttle control into the engine management system eliminates the need for external vacuum servos or motors to maintain a constant vehicle speed. Idle speed on some applications with Throttle-By-Wire is still controlled by a separate Idle Air Control (IAC) valve on the throttle body that allows air to bypass the throttle plate. Electronic throttle control also provides some warranty advantages for the vehicle manufacturer, too, by limiting "abusive driving" by lead-footed motorists. In 1988, BMW was the first vehicle manufacturer to offer electronic throttle control on its 7-Series cars. For redundancy backup and failsafe operation, the accelerator pedal usually has two or even three position sensors.
On most vehicles, an electronic throttle fault will put the system into a "limp-in" mode that will limit engine speed. Most of the faults that occur in a Throttle-By-Wire control systems are things you would expect, like pedal or throttle position sensors that wear out and skip or produce erratic signals, motor failures in the throttle body, and electrical problems like loose or corroded wiring connectors. If a fault occurs in the motor on the throttle body, it will be detected by the feedback signals from the throttle position sensors. The Throttle-By-Wire system also monitors the throttle position sensors on the throttle body.
On some systems, a special relearn procedure is required when parts have been replaced or the throttle control wiring harness has been disconnected. The pedal position sensor may be part of the pedal assembly, or a separate component mounted at the top of the pedal.
Note: It is NOT possible to convert an electronic throttle back to an ordinary mechanical throttle linkage. Unless the A-Frame is a proprietary item that has been designed and is appropriately marked as being suitable for the make and model of the towed vehicle, the A-Frames and connecting hardware, including the connection of the A-frame and safety chains to the towed vehicle, must be certified by a recognised engineering signatory.
Obtaining the assistance of an Engineering Signatory to confirm that an “A”-frame towing vehicle combination and “A”-frame coupling apparatus meet the requirements of this Information Bulletin is recommended. This bulletin provides a guide for the individual seeking approval for the simple (un-braked) “A”-frame towing of a small motor vehicle. Persons who tow a registered motor vehicle in accordance with this information sheet will be able to tow legally in all States and Territories.

Persons who tow vehicles in accordance with this bulletin will be able to tow legally in all States and Territories. While there is some consistency in the regulations and requirements across most states, some requirements vary wildly between states. Interestingly some states proclaim that meeting their requirements will allow the setup to be used in all states and territories, while other states do not and recommend seeking approval from each states authority. Some states require an engineering certificate for the entire A-framing combination (towing vehicle, towed vehicle and all of the connecting hardware and safety chains.
With the exception of the requirements of some states to have an engineering certificate for the combination, it should not be too difficult to equip and setup a vehicle for legal A-framing in all states. I suspect that having done this, any issues experienced with enforcement officers would relate to some degree to the mood of the officer encountered on the day.
Have you had an encounter with an enforcement officer in regards to towing with an A-frame? For us the opportunity presented its self for us to purchase an almost complete package at a reasonable price – and given the alternative of building or having a trailer built, it was the most sensible way for us to go. In my opinion – if money was not part of the equation (and it always is) I would prefer a very robustly constructed – bullet-proof trailer. I HAVE RECENTLY GONE AND PURCHASED AN [ A FRAME] HITCH N GO OVER THE TRAILER, AS I BELIEVE THERE ARE MORE PROS THAN CONNS. When we upgraded our towed car to a newer model, I went to the company that supplied the a-frame and asked for new brackets for the new vehicle. Gday has anyone had a A frame issues by police in nsw it appears they are the only ones with towed vehicle brakes being required I have A frame towed from wa to tas with no issues however am concerned about travelling through nsw. The Swanston Hotel Melbourne Grand Mercure is in the heart of the city, close to restaurants, theatres, nightlife and Melbourne's best shopping. Via email, text message, or notification as you wait on our site.Ask follow up questions if you need to.
Tory Johnson, GMA Workplace Contributor, discusses work-from-home jobs, such as JustAnswer in which verified Experts answer people’s questions. I would (and have) recommend your site to others I was quite satisfied with the quality of the information received, the professional with whom I interacted, and the quick response time. Not knowing what ohm scale the meter is set at, 105 ohm is high but the fact that it beeps is an indicator that there is enough ground available to allow the pcm to work!
Well if your scan tool works on other vehicles, and not on this one and the communication wires between the DLC and PCM are good, all of the power and ground ckts at the PCM check out, plus you have verified that the v-ref is not shorted through a bad sensor, the only possible conclusion is that your PCM is junk!
When the gas pedal is depressed, the electrical resistance of the potentiometers inside the pedal sensors change.

Generic OBD II codes for this kind of problem include P0638 & P0639, plus any OEM enhanced P1 or P2 series codes for that specific vehicle.
Persons who wish to tow vehicles equipped with proprietary or individually constructed systems incorporating braking of the towed vehicle will need to seek advice from their respective Road Transport Authority.
However, in order to ensure that potential problems with enforcement officers are minimised, it is recommended that a copy of this bulletin, together with any reports, approvals or other documentation, is carried in the vehicle at all times. This of course makes life very difficult for interstate travellers wishing to A-frame a second vehicle as they travel the entire country. To further complicate this requirement, they specify that the engineering certificate must bear the signature of one of their approved engineers. However, having seen a number of car trailers that have either broken or been severely damaged on bad roads, I am very happy with our choice. The hotel features 200 spacious, well appointed rooms and a restaurant on the 15th floor which overlooks the city centre. In the attached illustration, the red pins should have power when the key is in the run position and the purple pins should have less than 5 ohms of resistance to ground at all times!
Before going down this track I spent quite a lot of time researching the quite complex rules and regulations that each state enforces regarding A-framing a vehicle.
Many of the regulations are common sense (like “It must be safe to tow the vehicle” OR “The A-frame must allow for an adequate amount of angular movement between the two vehicles” ) and these have not been included in the table. Last year on our travels we witnessed on 2 ocassions people A Framing and not being able to reverse there way out of sticky situations.
I had real doubts about this website but your promptness of response, quick followup and to the point answer with picture was incredible. However the Moke has its limitations and we have recently decided to forgo the convenience of the Moke in favour or a four-wheel-drive vehicle.
I strongly recommend that you obtain a copy of the complete regulations for each state and check for compliance before towing in that state.
When you guys are away from the bus your not advertsing your absence with an empty trailer. Do I have to remove the vacuum line for the valve operation and plug it?  Can I bypass the mvim?

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