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Emergency vehicle lighting refers to any of several visual warning devices, which may be known as light bars or beacons, fitted to a vehicle and used when the driver wishes to convey to other road users the urgency of their journey, to provide additional warning of a hazard when stationary, or in the case of law enforcement as a means of signalling the driver to stop for interaction with an officer. Emergency vehicle lighting is generally used to clear the right of way for emergency vehicles, or to warn on-coming motorists of potential hazards, such as: a vehicle that is stopped or moving slower than the rate of traffic, or a car that has been pulled over.
The use of emergency beacons is restricted by law in many jurisdictions only for responding to an emergency, initiating a traffic stop, bona fide training exercises, or when a specific hazard exists in the road.
The optical and mechanical characteristics of the lights used can have a significant effect on the look of the vehicle and how readily it gains attention in emergencies.
The parts and workings of a rotating light: Top The assembled beacon, including an optional mirror to be used when the beacon is placed in the windshield or rear window. These revolving lights may contain a single, stationary bulb around which a curved mirror is spun (or which is attached to a spinning mirror), or a lamp with a Fresnel lens. Some emergency lighting is based on strobe lights similar to those used in flash photography.
Whether as lightbars or single beacons, LED-based lights typically use a clear, colorless dome because the light color is an intrinsic property of the LEDs themselves. LED lights are often used in a mode similar to conventional strobe lights, however they can be programmed with a wider variety of flash patterns because of their ability to be switched directly by electronics, as opposed to discharging a capacitor through a gas-filled tube.
Some emergency vehicles use signs made up of a large number of light sources (usually LEDs), which can be programmed to display messages to other road users. Emergency lighting may be fitted to several places on a vehicle, depending on the degree of conspicuity required. Since their introduction in the year 1948, rotating beacons have become widely accepted as a means of attracting attention to one's vehicle.
While many single beacons use rotating lamps or mirrors, others use strobe lights under a translucent dome to provide an omnidirectional flash. The single beacon is also available with a magnetic mount for situations where permanent mounting is impractical.
Close up of an older light bar: this light bar has a clear dome under which two rotating lights can be seen in this view.
Originally, this referred to a simple metal bar on the roof of the vehicle upon which agencies would mount two rotating beacons, as well as other components such as sirens and stationary "lollipop" lights.
Later, the individual components of the lightbar were integrated into a single contiguous unit, with two elongated domes on either side of a siren enclosure. Lightbars may now contain fixed, rotating, strobe, or LED-based lights in various configurations and offering programmable flash patterns.
Some lightbar variations are specialized to meet certain desires of the agencies utilizing them, such as those using multiple rotating beacons in a "V" pattern to provide additional illumination to the sides of the vehicle, and those designed to hug the roof of a vehicle to minimize air resistance or present a lower profile for "stealth" purposes. Some types of light can be mounted on to the outside of the vehicle (usually a permanent install) and these can be used to provide directional lighting in key areas, such as in front for clearing traffic, or to the rear for scene protection.
Common places to mount such beacons include on or in the grill of the vehicle and on the front of the rear view mirrors, where they can gain maximum visibility. A variety of emergency lights may be used in the interior of a vehicle, generally on the dashboard, visor area, or rear deck.
Interior lighting is available in a variety of form factors, ranging from flat LED panels under the sun visors, to halogen or strobe lights mounted on the rear deck, to "cherry" or oscillating "teardrop" lights mounted on the dash. The police car on the right is a slick-top or "stealth" vehicle, lacking the roof-mounted lightbar seen on the traditionally equipped car on the left.
The aerodynamic properties of light bars can be important for police applications, as fuel efficiency and drag are concerns in patrol and pursuit.
A key disadvantage of relying solely on internal lighting is the number of lights required to achieve true 360 degree visibility, with most lights usually concentrated front and rear. A study at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom showed that strobe lighting conveyed a greater sense of urgency to other road users, with the faster the flash the greater urgency, potentially helping to speed the emergency vehicle through traffic. This same study compared different light colors for glare and detection time under both daylight and night conditions. There may be a number of hazards to other road users related to the use of emergency beacons, and these effects should be mitigated as far as possible during vehicle design. Photosensitive epilepsy - This is an epileptic reaction to flashing lights in susceptible persons, which can range in severity from an unusual feeling or involuntary twitch to a generalized seizure.
Glare - A bright light source in a person's field of view can reduce their ability to see other objects. Phototaxis - This is the so called 'moth-to-flame' effect, where the hypothesis runs that some drivers may be so distracted by the beacons that they are 'drawn' to them. The color of a vehicle's emergency lights is useful to denote the type of vehicle or situation, but the relationship between color and service varies widely by jurisdiction. By far the most common colors for the core emergency services to use are blue and red, and there are some arguments for using both.
Argentina uses blue for police, red with some blue for fire, green for ambulances, and amber for utility vehicles.
Red and Blue is used by all State and Federal Police forces, Military Police, Australian Customs as 'law enforcement' vehicles. Blue lights are reserved for emergency vehicles in general, such as police, fire, ambulance, State Emergency Service (except Queensland) and traffic commanders. White is used on most newer emergency vehicles, both as an extra color on lightbars and in the form of 'wig-wag' headlights. Many police vehicles, and less often other emergency services, also fit LED matrix variable message displays to vehicle lightbars. Generally, red is used for emergency vehicles, amber for construction and utility vehicles, and green for volunteer firefighters .
Some provinces restrict municipal peace officers (the exact title varies by province) to a different color; for instance, red-only in Quebec, and amber in Ontario. In some provinces, green may indicate a volunteer firefighter's medical responder's private vehicle, or other volunteer emergency first responders such as Search and Rescue personnel.[19][20] In addition to the use of optional green lights, volunteer firefighters often receive special licence plate size markings (red letters on a yellow background) to be displayed in place of a front licence plate, or in the window of said vehicle. German police lightbars often have "POLIZEI" written in white over the dome, and usually incorporate an LED text display that can read, in mirrored writing if towards the front, "STOP POLIZEI" or "BITTE FOLGEN" ("please follow"), to signal drivers to pull over. Dutch Police Vans and motorcycles often have a separate display, which in some cases can show up to 16 different texts in red lighting. Red lights are not as common in Europe, though they are used in some countries where red has a specific meaning. Highway Taxation Enforcement Officers of the Dutch Ministry of Finance use red lightbars on their marked patrol vehicles in order to stop vehicles for enforcement purposes.
Sweden also allows blue lights to be used on vehicles of "vital importance to the community".
In The Netherlands, on newer ambulance models red light will alternate the words "Ambulance" and "Spoed". Amber lights generally designate nonemergency or slow movement vehicles such as tow trucks, tractors, combine harvesters or construction equipment.
The main colour for emergency service vehicles is overwhelmingly blue, although there is also widespread use of flashing (white) headlights.
No qualification other than a driver's license is legally required to use blue lights; whilst provision has been made to require the drivers of emergency vehicles to have suitable training if they will be driving above the speed limit,[35] this has not yet been brought into force.
The common combination of blue flashing lights with two-tone sirens has led to 'blues and twos' becoming a nickname for the core emergency services as a whole, as well as the title of a British documentary series depicting them. Amber lights grant no priority in traffic and exist purely to advertise the vehicle's presence.
Amber LEDs are widely used on operational appliances owned by Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service. Flashing red lights are not generally allowed on vehicles, though many emergency vehicles have rear-facing flashing red lights, which are used to signify that the vehicle is stationary. Steady chequered lights denote command and control vehicles - these are red and white for fire (one of the few situations where a forward-facing red light may be shown), blue and white for police and green and white for ambulance,[39] and are often fitted in the middle of the light bar.
Blue only: Ambulances, whether operated by Fire Services Department, Auxiliary Medical Services, or Hong Kong St.
Red is the most used color on Japanese emergency vehicles, with the exception of the wig-wag headlights.
Red: Used by any vehicle defined as an emergency vehicle to signify vehicles to give way to the emergency vehicle. Blue: Used by any vehicle that has statutory authority to signify a vehicle to pull over and stop. Amber: Amber lights may be operated by towing companies, traffic management agencies,[44] or by other utility vehicles when necessary to warn other motorists of a hazard.
Purple: Purple and amber lights must be fitted to pilot vehicles escorting an oversize vehicle. Green: A vehicle operated by a registered medical practitioner, such as a doctor, nurse or midwife, may be fitted with a single green beacon.
Volunteers in general are afforded no special privileges and cannot use flashing lights or sirens in order to navigate traffic. A security officer's personal vehicle from the state of Georgia, with a green lightbar on its roof. In the United States, colors are generally regulated at the state and local levels, but there are some commonalities. Amber or Yellow lights are often used by vehicles such as construction vehicles, tow trucks, snow plows, funeral escorts and hearses, security patrol vehicles or other vehicles which may be stopped or moving slower than the flow of traffic.
White is often used as an optional color on lightbars, though it may be restricted to emergency vehicles in some states. Green on a fire chief's car or a mobile command post denotes the command vehicle on scene; this usage derives from the use of green flags in the Incident Command System. Police agencies may use red, blue, or both, depending on the state, along with white and amber as optional colors; although amber is usually restricted to face behind the vehicle. Some privately operated special police are allowed to display the same colors as regular police, generally, if they receive their special police authority at the state level. Emergency medical vehicles, such as ambulances and paramedic fly-cars, generally use white and red, with an amber light facing the rear. The National Fire Protection Association publishes the NFPA-1901 standards for fire vehicles,[54] which specifies the degree of lighting on various parts of the vehicles, with some flexibility as to color. The degree of lighting is mandated by law and also by local custom in most areas, and can vary from a single rotating light on the dashboard or roof, to a setup much like modern police cruisers.
In some states, volunteers are allowed to use the normal red lights, while in other states volunteers must use some other color, usually blue or green. The conflicting color assignments can create issues for volunteers who drive their vehicles out of state.
The confusion generated by the different colors in each state can also cause problems for drivers who travel into others states. In states that do not enforce specific rules about green, yellow or white lights, they are often used by entities like private security companies which may be ineligible to use blue or red lights but wish to distinguish themselves from utility vehicles. Often while certain colors are customarily used by different services, there are other colors that are optionally used, such as amber and white. An ASV is a vehicle that has been built on the same platform as any other vehicle but comes with advanced security oriented features, such as bulletproof windows and windscreen. Civilian ASVs: The Civilian armoured security cars are either manufactures as such in the factory, for example BMW High Security series, Lincoln Town Car BPS, Audi A6, etc. Paul Westdyk is the author of this article and owner of Armor Trader, He offers different types of vehicles like  armoured security vehicle, bullet proof car, armoured car for sale etc. The '''M1117 Guardian Armored Security Vehicle''', or ASV, is an internal security vehicle+ manufactured by Textron Marine and Land Systems+ for use by the U.S. In 1999, the United States Army+ began buying a limited number of M1117s (originally the ASV-150) for the Military Police Corps.
The ASV uses an advanced modular expandable armor package from IBD Deisenroth Engineering+, consisting of ceramic composite applique on the exterior and spall liner on the interior.
In response to urgent United States Army requirements in the mid-2000s, production increased from one ASV every three weeks to 56 vehicles per month.
At about 15 tons, the M1117 is lighter than the 20 ton Stryker+ ICV or 25 ton M2 Bradley+ armored vehicle.

The Guardian's armor is designed to defeat small arms fire, mines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs).
ASVs in Iraq and Afghanistan have withstood several IED attacks, some vehicles multiple times. The typical mission profile of an ASV involves 50% travel primary roads, 30% travel on secondary roads, and 20% cross-country travel. Bulgaria uses a variant of the M1117 APC fitted with a NSVT+ heavy machine gun instead of the M2. M1117 Armored Security Vehicle+ The M1117 Guardian Armored Security Vehicle, or ASV, is an internal security vehicle manufactured by Textron Marine & Land Systems for use by the U.S. Mark Rivera, Customer Retention Manager and CJIS Security Compliance Officer with Vigilant Solutions, served for sixteen years with the Maryland State Police, retiring at the rank of First Sergeant with thirteen of those years at the supervisory and command level.
If you're incorrect, you'll get another chance to enter a different code on the next screen. These are additional to any standard lighting on the car such as hazard lights and are often used along with a siren (or occasionally sirens) in order to maximize their effectiveness. It may also be used to provide specific directions to motorists, such as a command to pull over. These may be white lights used on scene to enable emergency workers to see what they are doing, or they may be colored lights that advertise the emergency vehicle's presence. These domes usually come in solid colors, but in some cases the front and back halves of the dome are different colors. In a modern enclosed lightbar, generally 'V'- or diamond-shaped mirrors are provided between the lamps to give the effect of multiple flashing lights.
These xenon flash lamps put out a very brief but very bright flash by ionizing and then discharging a large current through the gas. Light-emitting diodes are small, completely solid state, very power-efficient, long-lasting (as they have no filaments to burn out) and can be seen very easily even at great distances and in sunlight. LED-based lightbars can be made very thin, reducing wind resistance by around 8-10 percent,[2] or made very flat and used in novel applications, for example to flip up under a sun visor.
In colder inclement climates, this has resulted in LED emergency vehicle warning lights (as well as traffic lights) being obscured by the buildup of frost or snow, raising safety concerns.
The strobe light is the coiled glass tube near to bottom of the headlight assembly, near the center of the highlighted region of the picture (click picture to enlarge).
This can be done by adding electronics to the existing lighting system (for instance, to create a wig-wag), or by drilling holes in the reflectors of stock lighting and inserting flashing lights in those holes. This can be used to request other vehicles to pull over, indicate a special instruction, or just to display the name of the operating service (e.g.
Beacons and lightbars are often mounted on the roof for high visibility, while other lights may be mounted on the body, in the grill, or in the interior of the vehicle. Although the use of the single beacon in law enforcement has dropped since the introduction of light bars, they are still used by some police departments, because of their lower cost and in some cases, it may be simply due to tradition. Some smaller and low-cost beacons of the latter type, however, are simply a blinking incandescent bulb. Examples of such situations would be detectives in unmarked vehicles, volunteer firefighters, or managers at freight yards who use an amber light for safety. The rotating light on the right is fitted with an additional red lens, while the left light will give off unfiltered white light.
The extended domes allowed for more rotating beacons, additional mirrors, and fixed-beam lights toward the center to replace the "lollipops".
They may include a second, lower, tier of lamps, such as clear halogen "takedown" lights towards the front to illuminate the vehicle being stopped, clear side-facing "alley" spotlights, additional amber or red towards the rear for scene protection, or directional traffic advisory arrows. They can also form part of the main lighting arrangement for subtly marked or unmarked vehicles. In the UK many emergency vehicles have lights on the side of the bonnet, which helps to warn oncoming traffic when pulling out of junctions.
In the case of wig-wag lighting, this involves adding a device to alternately flash the high-beam headlights, or, in some countries, the rear fog lights.
Uses range from discreet or temporary lighting for unmarked vehicles and volunteer responders, to additional rear lighting on fully marked vehicles, to a "slick-top" configuration not unlike a full lightbar set.
These may be permanently mounted and wired into the vehicle's electrical system, or they may be temporarily mounted and plug into the vehicle's cigarette lighter.
It also concluded that factors such as flash pattern were important, with simultaneously flashing beacons attracting attention far quicker than alternately flashing versions, although this did increase discomfort glare.
While red and blue both compared favorably with amber for glare under various conditions, some contradictory findings were observed for detection time.
This epileptogenic response can be triggered by lights flashing in the frequency range of 10–20 Hz, regardless of color.
In North America the usual emergency colors are red and blue, with blue generally reserved for police in many jurisdictions and red reserved for fire departments and emergency medical services. One study found that for flashing lights, red was more easily perceived in daylight, and blue at night. Red and blue is also used by all State and Australian Defence Force fire and ambulance services.
Until recently some states used only red on fire engines, ambulances and State Emergency Service vehicles. Amber is also used by vehicles operating in and around airports and docks, this includes Australian Federal Police and Australian Customs vehicles which are fitted with additional amber lighting to supplement their red and blue lightbars. They are also used in combination with amber lights by some council rangers[12] and the New South Wales Ministry of Transport. Blue is used, along with red, for police, as well as for snow removal vehicles in Ontario (with Amber for Municipal snow removal) and purple is used for a funeral.
However, Ontario does permit certain types of provincial enforcement officers, such as Ministry of Transportation, red lights. Green may also be used by stopped Emergency Vehicles to denote a command vehicle or the site commander.
However some Autonomous Communities have allowed other colors, such as blue, red or white (the latter two of which is used by SAMUR in Madrid), which however, would be technically illegal to use throughout Spain.
This includes firefighters, rescue services, emergency response vehicles for public utilities and civil defense units. Police in Finland, Estonia, Germany and Sweden use a forward-facing red light to indicate that a driver must pull over and stop. This means response vehicles from gas companies and electrical companies may use blue lights and sirens, as well as command vehicles for the Stockholm metro. However most organisations will insist that their drivers are trained in emergency driving techniques. The Regulations specifies several classes of vehicles which may use amber lights, such as towing, highway maintenance, pilot vehicles escorting an oversize load, and vehicles unable to travel over 25 mph[36] and fitting these lights to other vehicles(such as privately owned or pedestrian) is legal (these beacons are widely fitted to vehicles as wide ranging as security and ambulances). The combination of blue and amber LEDs in a light bar are proven to be more visible at a distance. These are, however, specifically prohibited by the Regulations.[24][38] Hazard lights may be wired to function at the same time, to make civilians further conscious of their presence. The Japanese police uses light bars mounted on a raised platform or a mechanical raised platform to make them more visible over congested streets. This includes the New Zealand Fire Service, recognized ambulance services, and the New Zealand Police. Currently only used by the police, but after 1 November 2009, can be used by customs officers, fisheries officers, and marine reserve officers. However, volunteer Fire Police members who respond to calls in their own private vehicles may be authorized by their unit or brigade to display a red beacon, for reasons of safety and identification.
In the state of Iowa, red lights can also be used on a funeral hearse, but only during funerals. It is rarely used as the only color on a lightbar, though Arkansas, Rhode Island, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Maryland, West Virginia, South Dakota, Texas, Louisiana, and Kentucky require flashing white beacons on school buses. Some police cars have an amber traffic-control stick, or "arrow stick", behind the lightbar to direct traffic left or right around the vehicle; these usually have 6 or 8 rear-facing lights that flash in sequence. Vehicles operated by fire departments, such as fire engines and heavy rescue vehicles, prominently use red, a color with strong cultural associations with the fire service, along with some white. Some states have a specific rule authorizing light colors for EMS vehicles, while on the other hand some EMS vehicles "inherit" their light colors from the fire or police department they are operated by or contracted to, and may show blue lights.
There is also a GSA procurement specification for ambulances known as KKK-A-1822-F,[55] which many local authorities follow. In the latter case, the lights are used as a courtesy to "request" the right of way and generally do not mandate pulling over. In Connecticut, Indiana, and New York, volunteer firefighters use blue while volunteer EMTs use green. While some authorities may be satisfied with covering the lights with an "Out Of Service" tarp, compliance may be more difficult in other jurisdictions. One color in their state may mean firefighter or EMT when in another state it may mean police, obviously causing problems.
Most phone and cable companies, towing services, and certain types of construction equipment mount some type of lightbar or lighting system; additionally, several local and state vehicles involved in maintenance work for roads, gas and water pipes, electric services, and so forth utilize yellow lights for a higher degree of visibility. Security vehicles generally use their lights on private property and are generally not allowed a "courtesy" or "emergency" light on public roads.
Sometimes this is done to satisfy particular regulations; for example, California requires a steady red light facing forward and a flashing amber light to the rear on every vehicle. The M2 Bradley weighs 25 ton, Stryker ICV is nearly 20 ton while the famous M1117 is about 15 ton heavy. Tanks+ and infantry fighting vehicles+ were for frontline combat, and unarmored utility vehicles for transport behind the lines. This purpose-built ASV was derived from Cadillac Gage+'s previous Commando+ family of AFV+ which was used in Vietnam for base security+. At $800,000 each, the M1117 was significantly more expensive than the $140,000 price for an M1114. The plant that produces the vehicles is located in New Orleans+ and was heavily damaged by Hurricane Katrina+. The armor is angled presenting no vertical surfaces, deflecting many rocket-propelled grenade+ (RPG) hits. General Defence Staff of Bulgaria has put a requirement for an additional 30 units to the Parliament. These vehicles are the Infantry Carrier Vehicle version, purchased to supplement Colombia's recently acquired fleet of BTR-80s, another 39 were expected to enter operational service in 2012.
He holds a Master of Science Degree in Management from The Johns Hopkins University and Secret clearance through the FBI, Baltimore.
These highly functional, highly secure, and fully customizable drawer units are precision crafted in the USA from 16-gauge steel. Please rush me my FREE TRIAL ISSUE of POLICE magazine and FREE Officer Survival Guide with tips and tactics to help me safely get out of 10 different situations. In many jurisdictions, the use of these lights may afford the user specific legal powers, and may place requirements on other road users to behave differently, such as compelling them to pull to the side of the road and yield right of way so the emergency vehicle may proceed through unimpeded.
Some vehicles incorporate a small arrow board to direct traffic on the rear of the light bar.
In the latter case, steadily burning lights are often used alongside rotating or flashing lights rather than on their own, though historically some emergency vehicles only displayed steadily burning lights. Bottom left and right The green dome of the beacon has been removed to show its rotating reflector, incandescent lamp, and electric motor. Larger rotating lights may contain modular or sealed-beam lamps which rotate as an assembly (commonly 2 or 4 bulbs, but possibly 1 or 3). The light produced has a somewhat bluish emission spectrum, which makes red lightbars glow a fuchsia-pink color when lit. The illuminated back-up lamps seen in the two cars in the foreground are being used as emergency lights which operate on a different circuit, rather than burning steadily to indicate that the cars are in reverse gear. One agency that famously continues to employ traditional red rotating beacons on its patrol cars is the Michigan State Police.

These "mag-mount" beacons are often round or teardrop-shaped, and are often referred to as "Kojak" lights after the popular 1970s TV detective who used one.
The modern trend of locating sirens on or near the front bumper of emergency vehicles has resulted in many lightbar models eliminating the siren housing in lieu of more lighting.
In this application, the operating service may choose to use lights with clear lenses so as to minimize the possibility of the lights being noticed when not on. These lights are often strobe or LED types, as they have the lowest profile for purposes of attachment.
It can also involve drilling out other lights on the vehicle to add "hideaway" or "corner strobes". They are often fitted with shields which direct the light through the window, but prevent reflections in to the cab. These "slick-top" cars mount their emergency lights within the cruiser, generally around the periphery of the windshield or into the leading or trailing edge of the roof.
Unsurprisingly, attention was gained far quicker the higher the intensity of the light was, and the more beacons were present. When all colors were held at equal intensity, amber had the poorest detection time both daytime and night. While individual light sources used on emergency vehicles generally have much lower flash rates than this,[5] the Loughborough study suggests that such possibilities be minimized.
The study distinguished between "disability glare", where a driver may be temporarily blinded and unable to see hazards in the road, versus "discomfort glare", which is a more general effect from lights which may cause motorists to avert their eyes. In western Europe the emergency color tends to be only blue, with amber as a warning color for construction equipment, etc. Civilian Ambulance and most fire units across the country use red and blue lights with State Emergency Service vehicles in most states being authorised to use the red and blue light combination (except for Queensland SES). Queensland State Emergency Service vehicles are only authorised to display amber lights under certain circumstances. Further, in Queensland, some municipal animal control units use a green and amber light combination. In Western Australia magenta is used by the Department Of Environment and Conservation "HAZMAT Response Unit".
Police now use both red and blue Canada-wide(except where local laws prohibit),including Ontario (thanks to successful testing in Toronto and Ottawa, and changes in the provincial traffic act), where the color blue was only used for non-emergency work.[16][17] Blue flashing lights are still permitted on snow removal vehicles in Ontario, as long as they are not used in conjunction with flashing red lights.
Officers appointed to enforce the Highway Traffic Act and other statutes use red or red and blue lights as well, such as Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Natural Resources, University Constables and others. Swedish ambulances and fire engines often use white along with the dark "euro" blue to improve visibility during daylight hours. Germany and Sweden also use red on fire vehicles to designate the command post; in other countries a single green beacon sometimes designates the command post.
Also, Dutch police cars have a red light on their police cars with the words "POLITIE" (Police), "STOP" (Stop) and "Volgen" (Follow). However, these lights may only be fitted and operational while stationary at an emergency scene, not while mobile in traffic.
In Washington State, red lights are also used on tow trucks, but only if the vehicle is not in motion. Certain railroad-related machines, like fueling tankers or switching engines, may also use a flashing white light. In Texas light construction and utility vehicles commonly use Blue along with Amber, though technically illegal.
Amber, and blue in some states, are also shown towards the rear, and some communities even have lighting on fire trucks not dissimilar to police (Red and Blue). Some states, such as Pennsylvania, limit volunteer use of red lights to chiefs and captains of squads.
In New Jersey, volunteer fire and ambulance personnel use blue lights in their personal vehicles while respoding to their stations. In Detroit, Michigan, Angels' Night volunteers will patrol neighborhoods with yellow lights to help deter vandalism during Devil's Night and Halloween.
Getting a car retrofitted with the upgrades of an ASV can cost a fortune, nearly $100,000 or more and it takes about a few weeks time. Its armament consists of an Mk 19 grenade launcher+ and M2HB Browning machine gun+, mounted in a turret similar to that used on the U.S. In 1993, the military had to fight through Mogadishu+ in unarmored Humvee+s, leading to the development of up-armored models. The manufacturing facilities have since been rebuilt and expanded to five buildings and personnel have more than doubled. As of May 18, 2007, after their vehicle submission failed ballistics testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Textron received word that they would not receive further orders as part of the MRAP program. If an RPG does hit the vehicle directly, it can still function, although crew survivability varies depending on the location at which the RPG hits. Front and rear independent suspension provides smooth highway speeds of up to , while it is capable of fording depths of water, climbing gradients of 60%, negotiating 30% side slope, and overcoming obstacles of five feet. In August 2013, Textron was awarded a $31.6 million contract for 28 Commando APCs with remote turrets. The large drawers open smoothly on Tuffy's exclusive slide system incorporating eight heavy-duty precision stainless steel roller bearings. Especially in the last case, these rotating beacons are sometimes referred to colloquially as "gumball machines" or sometimes "cherry tops" in the case of red lights. Beacons are also commonly used on construction equipment when a full-sized lightbar would be unnecessary or impractical to attach to the vehicle.
Slick-top police cars also lack the silhouette of a lightbar or beacon, making the car harder to identify as a police vehicle.
White flashing lights are common as a supplemental light on emergency vehicles, particularly for fire and ambulance vehicles. Cars carrying armed security officers (tasked with protecting embassies, airports and government buildings) may use blue lights and sirens if responding to an alarm.
In a mass-casualty event, the first ambulance will have a flashing or rotating green light. In Wisconsin, red lights are allowed on tow trucks in motion or not, but only in combination with amber lights. Certain government vehicles, such as rural mail delivery vehicles, use a flashing white beacon in some states. In the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Green is used along with Blue by Municipal Police Forces. Many fire chiefs' cars have, in addition to the red lights, a single green beacon to indicate command post status. In NJ red lights are only allowed for emergency vehicles, fire chiefs or other law enforcement vehicles. These civilian armoured security cars come with a more sturdy and powerful engine, shock absorbers and brakes. Some of the military armoured vehicles also come with a fully air conditioned crew compartment. Marine Corps+' Amphibious Assault Vehicle+; and a M240H Medium Machine Gun+ mounted outside the gunner's hatch. Many generals doubted the benefits, but the Military Police Corps, tasked with patrolling the "safe" rear area behind the battle line insisted that the Army fund a slow but steady production of the bullet resistant M1114 Humvee. The vehicle is a 21st-century version of the V-100 Cadillac Gage Commando+ which was used by the U.S.
However, in early 2008, Textron was awarded a contract to build 329 ASVs worth $228 million. Angled armor is more resistant to attack than vertical armor due to the shape of the V-shape hulls+ deflecting explosive forces, as opposed to a single-plane hull which takes the entire force impact. They can be securely locked with Tuffy's exclusive locking system to provide protection for tactical equipment and other valuables. Because of these visual advantages, these vehicles are sometimes referred to as "stealth" vehicles. New York also certifies some volunteer EMTs to use red lights and sirens provided their vehicles carry certain equipment;[57] this is often used by Hatzolah volunteers in the NYC area. Also in Michigan, emergency road service vehicles (tow trucks, wreckers, etc.) are allowed to use red warning lights only when stationary.
It has been developed by Textron Marine & Land System and is being used by Military Police Corps of US Army. However, because of the increased weight due to insertion of layers of armours, these vehicles have comparatively less service life.Some other features incorporated in the civilian ASVs include an explosion resistant fuel tank, automatic fire extinguishers, remote starting of the car, run-flat tyres, a siren, pressure and temperature controlled tyres, PA system, etc. The security features incorporated in the standard military armoured are designed to deal with IEDs, mines as well as small arms fire.
The vehicle was utilized by American military police and convoy security units in Iraq+ and Afghanistan. The United States Army believed that existing vehicles could be used without an "unacceptable level of risk." When the Iraq War+ began in 2003, there were 49 ASVs in service, with almost all of them being assigned to MP Units.
Army Military Police during the Vietnam War, whose duties often consisted of providing armed escort for wheeled convoys. Flashing blue lights and sirens may only be used by authorised vehicles in case of emergency and order all other vehicles to make way, since these vehicles have the absolute right of way. In Poland, red is used on some police and military vehicles to show that it leads a convoy. Typically in New York state, volunteer firemen use blue lights in their personal vehicles and volunteer EMS use green lights. To offer protection against tear gas or poison gas attacks, the cabin of these vehicles can be sealed at which time it offers its own supply of air. It is a more heavily protected and heavily armed alternative to the armored Humvee+ which was not originally designed to be a protected fighting vehicle. The first MP unit to officially use them in a combat zone was the 527th MP Company and other elements of the 720th MP Battalion.
The USAF in South Vietnam utilized an open hatched (turret-less) ''Commando'' for base security missions. Blue lights alone may be used to secure the site of an accident (or a standing emergency vehicle).
Until recently the National Police in Slovakia used only blue lights, they have recently started using red and blue lights; Municipal and Military Police used blue lights in Slovakia.
Although, it is confusing to also have green lights to signify an incident command vehicle. An ASV may also be a civilian car for VIP personnel, such as President or other government officials, UN officials, etc. These vehicles offer protection against biological and chemical attacks with the help of an incorporated gas particulate air filtration system. However, the onset of events in Iraq+ gave new life to the ASV program as HMMWVs proved vulnerable to attacks and a large source of casualties. Sometimes, columns of emergency or police vehicles use blue lights (without sirens) to make the column more visible to other vehicles.
A lot many automakers, such as Mercedes Benz, Audi and BMW are now offering such high security cars. Up-armored HMMWVs were not designed to be armored cars like the M1117, which are designed to withstand hits from small arms, mines and rockets in front-line combat units.
Soldiers who used them, and some members of Congress+ visiting Iraq favored them over other mine protected vehicles+. As of mid-2007, 1,729 vehicles were delivered or under contract with many being dispersed not just to MPs but numerous other military units including the Iraqi National Police+.

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