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The old Nanorex cluster and my Al Foster-phase Pearl Prestige Session kit.  Click on either for a larger image. If you lost this card, print and shove into the glove box.  You will eventually find it handy. If the Declaration of Independence had been signed 40ish days later, we could celebrate with fireworks + Perseids.
Maintaining your tires takes a little extra time, but nothing is more important for safety and long wear life. Federal law requires tire manufacturers to place standardized information on the sidewall of all tires.
215: Tire Width This three-digit number gives the width in millimeters of the tire from sidewall edge to sidewall edge.
65: Aspect Ratio This two-digit number, known as the aspect ratio, gives the tire's ratio of height to width in percentage. The speed rating denotes the speed at which a tire is designed to be driven for extended periods of time. Note: You may not always find this information on all tires because it is not required by law. This begins with the letters "DOT" and indicates that the tire meets all federal standards. The number of plies and cords indicates the number of layers of rubber-coated fabric or steel cords in the tire. This number indicates the maximum load in kilograms or pounds that can be carried by the tire. This number is the maximum amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire under normal driving conditions. To help consumers compare a passenger car tire's treadwear rate, traction performance, and temperature resistance, the federal government requires tire manufacturers to grade tires in these three areas. Although this rating system is very helpful when buying new tires, it is not a safety rating or a guarantee of how well a tire will perform or how long it will last. Example:A Maxxis MA-1 should have a UTQG rating of 480 BB and deliver a high level of mileage expectation along with a smooth, quiet ride. To ensure your safety, Maxxis recommends replacing your tires with the original size or the size recommended by your automobile’s manufacturer. View the Tire Inspection Chart for information on how to identify abnormal tread wear, sidewall damage, tire separations, road hazards and bead problems. When purchasing new tires, it is recommended the tires be mounted by a professional; do not attempt to mount them yourself.
Maxxis recommends that P-Metric automotive tires never be used as replacements for Light Truck tires or on a vehicle that is equipped with dual rear tires. If the tire is mounted on a rim that is too narrow, the tire will have a measurement that is too narrow.
As with any changes or variations done in regards to tires and rims, always consult with your certified Maxxis dealer first.
Higher aspect ratios provide a softer ride and an increase in deflection under the load of the vehicle.
Changing to a tire with a different aspect ratio will result in a different contact patch, therefore changing the load capacity of the tire. Always refer to your owner’s manual for a rotation schedule and pattern specific to your vehicle.
Proper tire inflation ensures your tires will perform better, last longer, and increase your gas mileage.
To ensure Maxxis tires look their best, the sidewalls are constructed to defend against the elements.
IMPORTANT – Because of the nature of tire mounting, Maxxis recommends tires always be mounted by a professional. It is our recommendation that bead sealer not be applied as this can inhibit the seating of the bead. Maxxis strongly urges that all tires mounted on a vehicle coincide with the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer. However, if different profiles must be used, mount the widest tires in the rear of the vehicle. Adjustment: An allowance given to a customer to be used toward the replacement of a tire because of warranty issues. Alignment: Inspection and the possibility of adjusting the caster camber and toe angles of the automobile’s suspension system in accordance with the manufacturer’s original specifications. Antioxidant: A chemical used in rubber compounds that prevents surface oxidation, chunking, and cracking. Balance: To ensure weight is distributed evenly around the tire and rim, resulting in a smoother ride. Banbury Mixer: A large machine used in the production of rubber compounds for mixing all of the filler and ingredients together.
Bead: The part of the tire that secures the tire to the rim, normally constructed from a high grade steel wire and hard rubber compound.
Belts: These are layers of fabric or steel cords coated in a rubber compound providing the tire with its strength. Bias-Ply: A type of construction method used to build tires where the cords in the body plies are placed diagonally from one side of the tire to the other, normally from one bead to the opposite bead. Bladder: A large, rubber, inflatable container used in the tire molding and curing process of tire production. Blem of Blemished Tire: A tire which has cosmetic or minor imperfection but is still considered safe to use. Camber: The angle of the vertical center of the tire to a vertical line viewed from the front of the tire.
Chafer: A rubber-coated, abrasion-resistant material that is used to aid in preventing a tire’s bead from rim damage and chafing.

Compound: The mixture of ingredients such as natural rubber, synthetic rubber, carbon black, and chemicals, put together in different ratios to form the building block from which tires are manufactured. Contact Patch: The area of the tire that makes direct contact with the surface of the road. Deflection: The change in the tire’s vertical and lateral dimensions when it is placed under load.
Directional Stability: The tendency for a tire to move in the direction it is steered to rather than following the contours of the road. Green Tire: A tire that has not yet gone through the process of vulcanization or curing in the tire molding process.
Grooves: Channels in the tread pattern that allow water to flow out from underneath the tire for wet weather driving. Hoop Strength: The strength in the construction of the belt of a tire is resistant to centrifugal strength, giving the tire stability.
Hydroplaning: A loss of traction of a tire on a road surface caused by wet weather conditions. Load Index: A numbering system that specifies the maximum amount of weight a tire can carry at the speed indicated by the speed rating. Load Range: This term replaces the former ply rating system and provides the load and inflation limits of a tire. Match Mounting: A system of mounting a tire where the high point of the tire is matched with the low point of a wheel. Over Inflation: A tire that exceeds the maximum amount of air pressure recommended by the manufacturer. Polymer: A high molecular weight organic compound made up of many identical components which link to form a chain through a process called polymerization. Radial: A construction method used to build tires where cords of steel are coated in rubber and are laid across the crown of the tire at an angle of 90 degrees. Retread: A process in which a new tread cap is applied to a casing of a tire that has been worn down. Rim: The piece of hardware a tire is mounted on and then placed on the automobile or truck. Rim Flange: The outermost edge of a wheel’s rim where additional weights for balancing the tire are positioned.
Runout: The measurement of the "out of roundness" of a tire that causes vibration and cannot be balanced. Section Height: The vertical distance measured from the edge of the bead to the center of the crown in a tire that is not under load. Section Width: The measurement of a mounted tire from the outside of one sidewall to the outside of the opposite sidewall. Sipes: Small, thin slots that are molded into the ribs or blocks of a tread pattern that aid in the traction of the vehicle in wet weather conditions. Static Balance: A condition in which a mounted tire has even weight around the wheel's axis when the tire is not in motion. Steel Belt: A layer of material constructed from steel cords and normally coated in rubber, placed on top of the casing used in the production of tires.
Toe: This is the difference between the front and the rear edges of a tire mounted on an automobile.
Tread Void: Areas in a tread such as grooves and channels permitting water to be moved away. Tread Width: The measured distance from the outer edge of a tire’s tread pattern to the opposite edge of the tread pattern. Under Inflation: A tire that has a lower amount of air pressure than recommended by the manufacturer.
UTQG: Uniform Tire Quality Grading – A measuring system to compare a tire’s performance based on test results for treadwear, temperature resistance, and traction.
Zero Toe: A condition where tires on the same axle are positioned exactly parallel to each other.
Besides knowing how to identify numbers, preschool children need to learn how to write the basic numbers from 1 to 10.  These basic Number Tracing worksheets will help them practice.
The term ignition-off draw identifies a normal condition where power is being drained from the battery with the ignition switch in the Off position.
The IOD connector can be used by the vehicle owner as a convenient means of reducing battery depletion when a vehicle is to be stored for periods not to exceed about twenty days (short-term storage). Although there are various relay designs, the ones most commonly found in low voltage auto and marine applications are electro-mechanical relays that work by activating an electromagnet to pull a set of contacts to make or break a circuit. This information identifies and describes the fundamental characteristics of the tire and also provides a tire identification number for safety standard certification and in case of a recall. Numbers of 70 or lower indicate a smaller sidewall for improved steering response and better overall handling on dry pavement.
If you change your wheel size, you will have to purchase new tires to match the new wheel diameter. The next two numbers or letters are the plant code where it was manufactured, and the last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built.
This grading system, known as the Uniform Tire Quality Grading System, provides guidelines for making relative comparisons when purchasing new tires. Other factors such as personal driving style, type of car, quality of the roads, and tire maintenance habits have a significant influence on your tire's performance and longevity.
A higher graded tire should allow you to stop your car on wet roads in a shorter distance than a tire with a lower grade. Sustained high temperature (for example, driving long distances in hot weather), can cause tire failure. On the other hand, a Maxxis MA-501 has a UTQG rating of 300 AA and is more in line with the expectations of a performance tire. The "Tire Finder" locator section of this website only recommends the original equipment sizes.

Each tire is manufactured with specific speed rating and load requirements to ensure proper vehicle use.
Before the measurement is taken, Maxxis recommends the tire be mounted on the rim recommended by the Tire and Rim Association (T&RA) for accurate measurement. This could possibly put an increase of force on the shoulder of the tire, resulting in tire damage.
However, a lower aspect ratio, normally used for higher performance vehicles, has a wider contact patch and a faster response.
This change in load capacity should always be taken into consideration when changing tire sizes.
However, a good rule of thumb is to rotate your tires about every 6,000-8,000 miles in order to avoid irregular tire wear.
Tires should be inspected by a professional as soon as possible to avoid excessive wear and damage to your vehicle’s front end parts. Improper alignment affects tire wear, gas mileage, stability, and the overall performance of your vehicle. To keep them looking their best, use a mild soap or detergent and a semi-soft bristle brush. To make certain you’re within safety limits, check the vehicle owner’s manual to determine the amount of load put on the tires.
Make sure to match tire diameter to rim diameter and mount light truck radials on rims only approved for that application. Only trained tire professionals using the correct tools, safety equipment, and procedures should mount tires. All DOT approved tires in production have a tread wear indicator molded into the tread pattern. The calculation is derived from dividing the section height by the section width of the tire.
This type of tire construction utilizes an innerliner inside the casing, preventing air leakage.
The IOD connector feeds the memory and sleep mode functions for some of the electronic modules in the vehicle as well as various other accessories that require battery current when the ignition switch is in the Off position, including the clock. Simply disconnect the IOD connector from the JB receptacle slot # 15 and place it in slot # 11 (see diagram above).
Refer to Ignition-Off Draw Fuse and Battery in the index in this service manual for the location of additional service information covering the ignition-off draw fuse and the battery. Tire manufacturers also must indicate the cords used in the tire, which include steel, nylon, polyester, and others. You also can use this information to inquire about the quality of tires placed on new vehicles. While mounting new tires, the dealer can inspect the vehicle, rim, brakes, etc., for any potential problems as well as recommend the proper inflation, correct positioning, and correct tire size. If the tire is mounted on a rim that is wider than recommended by the Tire and Rim Association, the tire will have a flatter profile, moving the flex point toward the area of the rim. You should have an alignment performed on your vehicle about once a year, although hitting a curb or pothole may throw your alignment out.
Mounting tires of different speed ratings, sizes, or construction could result in tire failure.
However, it must be remembered that disconnecting the IOD connector will not eliminate IOD, but only reduce this normal condition. If this happens, you should have a tire professional inspect your alignment as soon as possible. The load index of the replacement tires should always meet or exceed the maximum load of the original tires.
When the top of this indicator is even with the plain of the tread pattern, the tires should be replaced. When a vehicle will not be used for more than twenty days, but less than thirty days, remove the IOD fuse from the Power Distribution Center (PDC).
One end of the armature is connected to a tension spring which pulls the other end of the armature up. The braided bonding strap provides a good electrical connection between the armature and yolk, rather than relying on contact between the armature pivot point alone.
Just dab a little flux on this joint and heat it with a soldering iron until it melts back together. The coil and contact (or contacts) are then connected to various terminals on the outside of the relay body.How they workWhen the coil is supplied with voltage a magnetic field is generated around it which pulls the hinged armature down onto the contact. Slide the relay back into its cover, dab a little super glue or tape it back together, and you're ready to go. The Type B layout is arguably easier to work with as the connected terminals are in-line, making the wiring easier to visualise. The 9.5mm wide terminals tend to be used for higher power applications (such as for starter motor solenoid activation) and the smaller terminals tend to be used for electronics signalling where only very low currents are required.
The disadvantage of a resistor is that it allows a small current to flow in normal operation of the relay (unlike a diode) and is not quite as effective as a diode in suppressing voltage spikes, but it is less susceptible to accidental damage because resistors are not sensitive to polarity (i.e.
Adding driving lights that come on with the headlight main beamThis simple circuit uses the power feed to the headlight main beam bulb as the trigger to energise a relay. This way, if a relay on one side fails the driving light on the other side will still work. The coil of the relay is fed from the headlight power cable so that it will only be supplied with +12V when the headlight switch is on. When the ignition is turned off the power to the coil of Relay 1 is cut which cuts the power to the coil in Relay 2 and breaks the starter motor solenoid circuit, so the engine cannot be started again without going through the above routine.

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