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Followup to my post a few days ago on energy efficiency in an engine: Someone mentioned the below diagram that can be found on the Nissan Technology website. Published in a 2010 report by Australian Government, Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. If you look at the numbers you will even see that they don’t add up correctly at the ‘Motive Power’ node.
The diagram shows how energy from fuel is lost in different stages of a vehicle motor (engine, power train, transmission) with approximately 21% of the energy being used as power at the wheels. Here are two unicolor ones from the Exergy Design Joint Research Lab at Osaka University in Japan.
From what seems to be a 1998 abstract on retrofitting the main engine of the Japanese vessel Fukaemaru come these two Sankey diagrams.
Kongsberg Maritime has developed a ship engine room simulator that also features a Sankey diagram visualization. The Sankey diagram is a simple bottom to top breakdown of the energy contained in the fuel input. This visualization is one of the “approach[es] Kongsberg Maritime has towards enabling the Green Ship”.
MAN Diesel, a renown producer of marine and power plant diesel engines, has been working on improving fuel efficiency of its engines. Download a description of the TES here (PDF, 291 KB) or view a high resolution version of the above Sankey diagram from their press picture gallery. The Sankey diagram shown in this post on the Green Car Congress blog visualizes that only 25% (green arrow) of the energy from combustion is used as “effective power” for mobility and accessories, while 40% of the energy is lost in exhaust gas.
Projects are being carried out at John Deere, Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel and Mack Trucks, to name just a few. The inefficient energy use of car engines and other vehicles are the main reason for the transport sector being (next to energy generation and transmission) the sector where most energy is being lost (see this post).
We have checked everything to the best of our ability, but please keep in mind that this information is provided with no warranty therefore YMMV. Hi, I have a T5 transmission out of v6 1996 Camaro 1352-247 and I need adapter to small block v8 can you help? The Volvo S40 and V50 effectively served up Volvo compact-car functionality in two ways: as a compact sedan and wagon, respectively. Available from 2005 until 2011 inclusive, look for the pair with naturally-aspirated or turbocharged power, front or all-wheel drive and automatic or manual transmissions-- depending on the model selected.
With as much as 227 horsepower and features like power seats, a driver computer, a sunroof, automatic climate control, iPod connectivity and premium audio, drivers could benefit from a safe, sporty and sophisticated motoring experience. Limited cabin storage, fuel mileage and blind spots are among the most common owner-stated gripes.
When test-driving a used S40 or V50, check for proper operation of the external temperature readout, climate control system and all door-mounted controls, including the power locks, mirrors and windows.
Some owners have reported door-mounted controls going dead at random-- which could be pricey to repair.
Note that a humming sound or vibration, particularly from the rear of the vehicle at low to moderate speeds, could be a symptom of a problem with the All-Wheel Drive (AWD) system, if so equipped.

For peace of mind, have your S50 or V50 checked out by a Volvo mechanic ahead of your purchase.
Justin Pritchard is an automotive consultant and a member of the Automobile Journalists Association of Canada (AJAC). The fascinating mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes can be exploited in many applications, which might include lightweight and strong vehicle or aircraft body with in situ health monitoring and self healing properties, superior aircraft or car brake carbon-carbon composite discs that could dissipate a heat more efficiently, strong and interactive windscreens with de-icing properties. Even a few percent loading of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix could make non conductive polymers to conduct electricity and solve many problems with static electricity that could be a spark of fire within a vehicle. In an aircraft wing carbon nanotubes conductivity could provide de-icing and lighting strike protection with reduction of weight. However, there are a number of problems to overcome in a development precess of carbon nanomaterials application.
No sequencing of engine elements where power is lost as in the diagram from the Australia Gov report.
49 out of 100 should be roughly half the height of the ‘Fuel Energy’ node, but it is only 40%. The base seems to be 100% energy (the label actually says ‘fuel exergy’) and the useful energy (arrow going straight up, labeled ??) is 15.48% only. Useful energy on the power train is shown as a vertical flow to the top, while losses branch out to the right. Also, I am not sure whether the author forgot an arrow at the blue node labeled “Lucht” (air). Department of Energy (DOE) is funding research projects that target the increase of efficiency of car engine. If yours has a GM bell housing and the input shaft is too long, then a Hamilton S10T-5 should be used to install it. Chevy used both Chevy bolt patterns with 14 spline and Ford bolt patterns with 26 spline on the V6 Camaros. These Swedish twins shared mechanical bits and offered shoppers a choice between a traditional compact and sporty four-door and a small station wagon with extra flexibility and space.
Some owners also dislike the S40 and V50’s desire for premium gasoline, and stiff, sporty ride too.
Check the audio system for proper operation, too—as some owners have reported issues with failure of the factory radio head-unit. Note any harsh shifting or slipping from models equipped with the automatic transmission, too.
A Volvo-trained mechanic can help assess the needs and condition of the car you’re considering, too. This could make your Volvo more fun to drive, but it could also turn the engine inside out with no notice if modifications and supporting tuning weren’t executed properly. They could improve strength of a body in an aircraft or a vehicle, decrease weight and make army vehicle or military aeroplane electromagneticly invisible.
Energy–Mass Balance: Transport’ figure 11 on page 26 this so-called Sankey diagram looks like a aerial view of my nephews playing room with his building blocks spread on the floor… While I generally appreciate a Sankey diagram being used in a government report on energy consumption or loss in transport, I think this one is poorly executed.
The MAN Turbo Efficiency System (TES) allows to recover of heat from the exhaust gas, which is responsible for about 50% of the energy losses.

MEMS with optics is called MOEMS- Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-Systems).ICs can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments it with the “Senses” and “Limbs”.
If you have the Chevy bolt pattern with 14 spline long input shaft then the Hamilton S10-T5 is correct for your application, if not we can't help with that application(yet). I have not purchased a trans yet and I hope you can tell me which trans would be best for this swap. For maximum peace of mind, have the used S40 or V50 you’re considering put on a hoist and inspected for signs of leaks, rust or worn-out suspension components. To help avoid such drivability issues, be sure to maintain your S40 or V50’s engine with Volvo-approved parts, and feed it premium gasoline. Then, inspect for signs of oily white smoke as the engine fires up, which could be a sign of a bad turbocharger.
Carbon nanotubes and nanofibres could be added to metals in order to improve properties and make lighter engines, they could be used in tyres ispead of carbon black to improve wear properties and provide in sity pressure sensing.
Nanotubes must be efficiently dispersed and bonded to the material they are reinforcing (the matrix), in order to maximize load transfer.
Note that with proper maintenance and oil-changes, the turbocharger should easily last the life of the vehicle. Many companies managed to solve some of these problems with more or less success and developing new composite materials from various polymers and carbon nanotubes with improved mechanical, thermal or electrical properties. These systems can sense, control and actuate on microscale, and function individually or in arrays to generate effects on macroscale.
There are still many opportunities for improvement of properties of traditional engineering materials and their replacement with use of carbon nanomaterials in transport and in many other applications.
A system is then created by fabricating electrical circuits that drive those mechanical blocks on the same substrate. This technology is targeted at devices that range in size from mm down to microns, and involve precision mechanical components that can be manufactured using semiconductor manufacturing technologies. The bell housing bolt pattern to the transmission for your three speed is the same for all the Chevy T5s until 1993.
This reduces cost, bulk, weight and power consumption while increasing performance, production volume and functionality.
You can figure out which gear ratio the transmission is by looking up the tag number bolted to the tail shaft housing on the rear of the transmission.
This is shown schematically in the figure.Microsensors detect changes in the system’s environment by measuring mechanical, thermal, magnetic, chemical or electromagnetic information or phenomena. Microelectronics processes this information and signals the microactuators to react and create some form of changes to the environment.An example of a MEMS device is an accelerometer used for car airbags. You will need to remove your old transmission and bellhousing to figure out what size clutch you have. You will be able to use the original style throwout bearing and clutch system that your truck came with.

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