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The Land Rover Defender (initially called the Land Rover Ninety and Land Rover One Ten) is a British four wheel drive off-road utility vehicle developed from the original Land Rover Series launched in 1948. The model was introduced in 1983 as the Land Rover Ninety and the Land Rover One Ten, the numbers representing the wheelbase in inches.
In 1989, a third model was brought out by Land Rover to be produced in parallel with the other two: the Land Rover Discovery.
The 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase Land Rover 127 available from 1985 was always marketed with the name rendered numerically.
North American Specification (NAS) Defenders sold between 1993 and 1997 said only "Land Rover" with no "90" or "110" numeric designation. Production of the model now known as the Defender began in 1983 as the Land Rover One Ten, a name which reflected the 110-inch (2,800 mm) length of the wheelbase.
Outwardly, there is little to distinguish the post-1983 vehicles from the Series III Land Rover.
This period saw Land Rover market the utility Land Rover as a private recreational vehicle. From 1983 Land Rover introduced a third wheelbase to its utility line-up, a 127-inch (3,226 mm) twin-axle vehicle designed to accommodate larger, heavier loads than the One Ten.
127s were built on a special production line, and all started life as One Ten Station Wagon chassis (the model was initially marketed as the One Ten Crew Cab, before the more logical 127 name was adopted).
Although the standard body-style was popular, the 127 was a popular basis for conversion to specialist uses, such as mobile workshops, ambulances, fire engines or even flatbed transports.
1986 saw an improvements in engines to match the by more advanced offerings by Japanese competitors. The new vehicles with their more modern engines, transmissions, and interiors reversed the huge decline in sales that took place in the 1980s (a 21% fall in a single year, 1980–1981).
To maximise sales in Europe, Land Rover set up the Special Vehicles division, which handled special low-number conversions and adaptations to the vehicles. The biggest change to the Land Rover came in late 1990, when it became the Land Rover Defender, instead of the Land Rover Ninety or One Ten. This engine finally allowed the Defender to cruise comfortably at high speeds, as well as tow heavy loads speedily on hills while still being economical. Throughout the 1990s the vehicle attempted to climb more and more upmarket, while remaining true to its working roots. A new variant was the Defender 110 Double Cab, featuring a Station Wagon style seating area, with an open pick up back.
Land Rover South Africa offered a unique Defender during the period the group was owned by BMW.
From Spring 2007 a series of changes were made to the Defender, most of which were implemented to meet emissions and safety legislation. The "XS" Station Wagon was introduced in 2002 as a top-specification level and the "County" package could be applied to every model in the line-up.
At the other extreme, basic models are available for commercial users, such as emergency services.
In the 1980s the Australian Army ordered Defenders made to their own specification, called the Land Rover Perentie, some of which were 6x6 drive.
In the final year of US production the engine was improved, designated 4.0 and mated to a 4 speed automatic transmission. Defenders, derivatives and clones have been built by a number of manufacturers including Santana Motors in Spain (licence expired), Morattab in Iran (using parts and molds bought from Santana), Otokar in Turkey (in the 1980s under licence), and Karmann in Brazil (for three years in the 2000s under licence).[6] Assembly also occurs in Pakistan, Malaysia and South Africa. Land Rover Defender vehicles have been used by many of the world's military forces, including the US in some limited capacity, following experience with the vehicle during the first Gulf War, where US forces found the British Army's vehicles to be more capable and better suited to operation in urban areas and for air-lifting than the Humvee. In 1994 Land Rover created the Defender XD (XD= eXtra Duty) to replace and complement these vehicles.
Land Rover offered its "Core" military Defenders with the 300Tdi engine rather than the more powerful but more complicated Td5 engine offered in civilian vehicles. The British police have used Land Rovers (including the Defender) in their service for many years, they are supplied with the entire range from Land Rover itself.
In 2004 a fleet of 12 Long wheelbase 110 Td5 Land Rovers were produced for the central German Government, varying between 110 Vans, 110 Hi-capacity pick-ups and 110 Station wagons.
Vehicles produced for the German Government order were produced in metallic grey with white roofs.
With 300Tdi production stopping in 2006, Land Rover set up production of a military version of the 4-cylinder Template:Ford Duratorq engine that is also used as a replacement for the Td5 in civilian vehicles. The British Army's Land Rovers have been the subject of criticism following recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The second 1998 Special Edition was the 'Heritage', intended to hark back to the early days of Land Rover in the 1940s.
Possibly the best known Special Edition was the Tomb Raider of 2000, built to commemorate Land Rover's role in the first film of that franchise.
Following the first Land Rover G4 Challenge in 2003, G4-Edition Defenders became available.
There have also been various special editions of the Defender created by the company's overseas operations for sale in their specific markets such as the 'Sahara' edition and '55th Anniversary' Defender 90s sold in France- the former being a basic-spec Station Wagon painted in a sand-like tan colour and supplied with special decals and the latter being a Station Wagon fitted with numerous luxury options and special badges in the mould of the factory-built 50th editions. 2008 saw Land Rover's 60th anniversary, for which a new series of special edition Defenders were produced. Concept vehicles DC100 and DC100 Sport, on which the replacement is intended to be based, were revealed at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show.
It is intended that the new vehicle will be in production by 2015.[8] and will replace the then 25 year old model which is the longest running production of any Land Rover vehicle.
Alanson Brush and his “Brush Runabout” are credited with the first mass produced vehicle with a shock absorber.
With great thought to price as well as ride comfort most manufacturers used leaf type springs for their suspension. What sets the Brush automobile apart is the use of a hydraulic shock with a coil spring front suspension.
Straight axles use a king pin or a ball joint to attach the spindle and u-bolts to attach the springs, springs were mounted in much the same fashion as today’s leaf spring vehicles, with pivots or slides that allow the spring to work as the overall length of the spring changes while the vehicle travels. More complex with more moving components independent suspensions greatly improved the handling experienced by those driving a solid axle car. Torsion bar style suspensions are also used by many manufacturers with the control arm type suspensions. McPherson style front suspensions use a shock absorber and coil spring combination that attaches to the spindle in place of the upper control arm. While the springs (leaf, coil or torsion bar) support the vehicle and the shock absorbers control the energy stored and released by the springs, sway bars, or anti-roll bars control the vehicle.
Among all the various components found on a suspension one of the most critical is the common ball joint. This is just a basic outline, we are often stuck with whatever suspension system our vehicle has but there are always ways to improve handling, ride and even vehicle stance. Even if you’re not ready to start your next project, or if you have some questions, give us a call.
The number was spelt out in full in advertising and in handbooks and manuals, and the vehicles also carried badges above the radiator grille which read "Land Rover 90" or "Land Rover 110", with the number rendered numerically. To avoid possible confusion, from 1991 the Ninety and the One Ten were renamed the Defender 90 and Defender 110. Following the adoption of the Defender name, it became the Defender 130, although the wheelbase remained unchanged. A full-length bonnet, revised grille, plus the fitting of wheel arch extensions to cover wider-track axles are the most noticeable changes.
Whilst the basic pick-up, Station Wagon and van versions were still working vehicles, the County Station Wagons were sold as multi-purpose family vehicles, featuring improved interior trim and more comfortable seats.
Called the Land Rover 127, it was designed specifically with use by utility and electrical companies in mind, as well as military usage.[4] In its standard form it is a four-door six-seater consisting of the front half of a One Ten Station Wagon, and the rear of a One Ten High-Capacity Pick Up (HCPU). These were then cut in two and the 17 inches (432 mm) of extra chassis length welded on before the two original halves were reunited. In South Africa, the Land Rover assembly plant there offered a 127 Station Wagon with seating for 15. The bulk of the division's work was the construction of stretched-wheelbase mobile workshops and crew carriers for British and European utility companies, often including 6-wheel-drive conversions, but more unusual projects were undertaken, such as the construction of an amphibious Land Rover Ninety used by the company as part of its sponsorship of Cowes Week from 1987-90. This was because in 1989 the company had introduced the Discovery model, requiring the original Land Rover to acquire a name.[4] The Discovery also had a new turbodiesel engine.
In theory it only replaced the older Diesel Turbo engine in the range, with the other 4-cylinder engines (and the V8 petrol engine) still being available.
Although the 200Tdi had been a big step forward, it had been essentially a reworking of the old turbocharged diesel to accept a direct injection system. Although prototypes had been built in the Series days, it was not until the late 1990s that this vehicle finally reached production.
Between 1997 and 2000, the Defender 90 and 110 were offered with a BMW petrol engine alongside the normal Tdi engine. The Tdi could not meet upcoming Euro III emissions regulations so the Td5 replaced the Tdi as the only available power unit. The dashboard layout of the original One Ten from 1983 (which was in turn very similar to that used on the Series III from 1971) was replaced with a full-width fascia and different instrumentation. Legislation from the European Union outlaws the inward-facing seats used in the rear of previous Land Rover Station Wagons.
The bonnet was reshaped with a bulge to allow the new engine to fit in the engine bay whilst meeting pedestrian safety rules. XS models come with many "luxury" features, such as heated windscreen, heated seats, air conditioning, ABS and leather seats. The Perentie has proven to be highly vulnerable to land mines and the Army's new specification calls for optional armour.

Initially, the Defender 90 was only available as a soft-top, but later version was offered with a unique, removable, fibre-glass roof panel or regular Station Wagon hard-top. In 1998 regulations changed to require the fitting of airbags for both front seat passengers in all vehicles, as well as side door impact requirements.
The British Army has used Land Rovers since the 1950s, as have many countries in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Powered by 300Tdi engines, the XD has a much stronger chassis, with fibre webbing around the welded joints in the chassis and around stress points to massively increase load capacity. The German Government did not renew the supply contract after 2006 instead turning to Mercedes for their logistics fleet. The electrical installation on these vehicles was a special order and kept "luxury" fittings and fixtures to a bare minimum.
The majority of British Service Land Rovers carry no armour-plating and the composite armoured SNATCH Land Rover (originally designed to withstand small arms fire and hand-launched projectiles as experienced in Northern Ireland) is not immune to the larger roadside bomb and rocket attacks. This is most likely the larger, higher-capacity 4x4 or 6x6 Pinzgauer forward-control vehicle similar to the now disused Land Rover 101 Forward Control, given that the current Land Rover design is also reaching its weight limits due to the increasing amounts of communications and weapons gear used by modern patrol forces. These have usually been little more than a vehicle being fitted with certain option packs and equipment, although more bespoke Editions have been produced. Called the 90SV (SV stood for 'Special Vehicles', as all the vehicles were produced by Land Rover's Special Vehicle Operations department), they were painted turquoise and were fitted with a black canvas Soft Top with standard door tops.
The first was the Defender 50th which was essentially a NAS (North American Spec) Defender 90 Station Wagon. Available in 90 or 110 Station Wagon form, the Heritage was only available in the two original colours offered by the company - the dark Bronze Green or the light pastel Atlantic Green.
As well as the distinctive Tangiers Orange colour of the competition vehicles, yellow and black versions were also produced. The Defender Black was a 90 or 110 County Station Wagon with metallic black paint, roll cage and dark-tinted rear windows. Sometimes individual Land Rover dealers have created limited editions of vehicles to suite their markets.
You may see little importance to this small hydraulic miracle, many car owners still don’t understand what importance a shock absorber has in controlling their ride, improving overall handling and improving brake effectiveness.
With the release of the Model T in 1908 the world saw one of the first innovations of automobile suspensions from Ford. The most widely used on early vehicles was a straight axle, typically supported by leaf springs, either one or two, to support the vehicle, cargo and passenger weight. Leaf springs are popular even today due to their load carrying ability and the simplicity in which they work. The most common independent front suspension is one using upper and lower control arms to attach the spindle to the car and a coil spring and shock placed between or above the control arms. This system was revolutionary in helping the designers to engineer lower hood lines and add more room for front wheel drive transaxles without sacrificing ride and handling. Using either a solid bar or a tube, the sway bar is attached to the frame and pivots inside of busings while the ends of the bar are attached, with links, to the lower control arm. Control arms pivot up and down, springs compress and expand, shocks are moving and all of this has to happen in such a way as to provide a better ride, better traction and better handling.
Determine how you plan to drive your vehicle and what you plan to use it for and then purchase quality parts, not necessarily the most expensive, but the highest quality. Coil springs can be cut to adjust ride height and custom made springs are available so that you don’t have to cut. The Ninety and One Ten replaced the earlier Land Rover Series, and at the time of launch, the only other Land Rover model in production was the Range Rover. These carried front badges that say "Defender", with a badge on the rear of the vehicle saying "Defender 90" or "Defender 110".
This change was reflected in Land Rover starting what had long been common practice in the car industry - detail changes and improvements to the County model from year to year in order to attract new buyers and to encourage existing owners to trade in for a new vehicle. The logic was that this allowed a workcrew and their equipment to be carried in one vehicle at the same time.
127s did not receive their own dedicated badging like the other two models, instead they used the same metal grille badges as used on the Series III 109 V8 models, that simply said Land-Rover. Land Rover also offered the 127 as a bare chassis, with just front bodywork and bulkhead, for easy conversion. The Special Projects division also handled specialised military contracts, such as the building of a fleet of 127-inch (3,226 mm) V8-powered Rapier missile launchers for the British Army. However, the Tdi's combination of performance and economy meant that it took the vast majority of sales. More importantly, 130s were no longer built from "cut-and-shut" 110s, but had dedicated chassis built from scratch. The engine was the BMW M52 2800 cc, straight-six, 24-valve engine as found in the BMW 328i, 528i, 728i and the Z3.
The Td5 engine was replaced by an engine from Ford's DuraTorq line (AKA the puma engine), built in their factory in Dagenham, making the Td5 the last Land Rover engine to be built in-house at Solihull.
Instruments came from the Discovery 3, and some of the centre panels come from the Ford Transit. The new dashboard and ventilation system necessitated the removal of the distinctive air vent flaps underneath the windscreen which had been a feature of all previous Land Rover utility models.
A range of special conversions are available that include hydraulic platforms, fire engines, mobile workshops, ambulances, and breakdown recovery trucks. Although the Range Rover had been sold there since 1987, this was the first time utility Land Rovers had been sold since 1974. The Defender could not be fitted with these without major modifications, which given the small numbers of NAS vehicles sold in relation to Land Rover's global sales, were not economically viable. The British Army replaced its Series III fleet with One Tens in 1985, with a smaller fleet of Nineties following in 1986.
The XD was available both in Defender 90 and 110 forms and known to the British Army as Land Rover Wolves. Although trials with the Td5 engine proved it to be reliable in battlefield conditions, it was decided that servicing and repairing its electronic control systems should they fail was too complicated and reliant on having diagnostic computers available.
Four FFR equipped vehicles were produced to facilitate the VHF radios in service at that time with the German Government and Police authorities. Mostly they have been aimed at the more lucrative 'lifestyle' market than the Defender's usual commercial and off-road markets.
Alloy wheels were also fitted, together with rear disc brakes (at that time a first for a Land Rover). A metal mesh-effect front grille, body-coloured alloy wheels and wing mirrors and silver-painted door and windscreen hinges were all employed to make the Heritage look similar to the original Series I of 1948.
Painted dark metallic grey with special badging and details, the Tomb Raiders came equipped with a roof rack, additional spot lights, winch, bull-bar and snorkel. Defender 90 and 110 Station Wagon versions were available, with front A-Bar, roll-cage, side-steps and front spotlights as standard, as well as G4 badging.
The Defender Silver was a 110 County Station Wagon with silver metallic paint, front A-bar and spotlights, metal wing-protector plates and winch.
A dealer in Scotland created the 'Braemar' edition of 25 vehicles to appeal to local agricultural and forestry buyers, being a 90 Hard Top supplied ready fitted with a winch, off-road tyres, spotlamps and worklamps, underbody protection and chequer plate. All were painted black with 'satin' effect body graphics on the vehicles sides and bonnet carrying the '60th' logo used throughout 2008 at various special events and on anniversary merchandise. It does not meet the USA safety requirements from 1998 and since then Land Rover is offering US buyers more luxuriously equipped Freelanders and Discoveries instead.
Unlike current Defender with 93", 110" and 130" wheelbases, DC100 was presented in 100" wheelbase (DC100 = Defender Concept 100" wheelbase) just like Discovery but it was not revealed if it will be using its' chassis.
You see, springs have been around for ages, leaf springs can be traced to the Egyptians and Siege machines used in Europe.
To save weight and maintain the ride he expected, Ford used only one spring per axle and mounted them transversely. Gimming used a rubber block just like what we see on many cars now, although the importance of this type of mount now is not the same as it was when introduced. These were very simple, straight forward suspensions that were rugged but really provided little ride control, even if the customers weren’t aware of it at the time. This type of suspension is still used today, particularly on heavy vehicles, you can find solid axle front suspensions on nearly every over the road truck. Going back to our high school geometry we see how the pressure of the vehicle will cause the sway bar to apply equal force, like a torsion bar, to the opposite side of the vehicle.
Each of these components have to be mounted so they can move freely and still create some isolation between what the suspension is doing and the consumer driving the vehicle. The wheel mounts on a spindle and the spindle is attached to the control arms with this part.
Most of these components are not difficult to service and replace but it isn’t easy work either, don’t waste your time and your money on a product that doesn’t have a good service life.
Leaf springs can be mounted above or under the axle typically to change ride height and leafs can be added or removed based on what you expect from your suspension.
The current model, from 2007, still has the space above the radiator for the badge, but this is simply blank, and they have "Land Rover" spelt out across the leading edge of the bonnet in raised individual letters. The company itself adopted more modern practices, such as using marketing campaigns to attract new buyers who would not previously have been expected to buy a Land Rover.
The Rapier system actually consisted of three Land Rovers: a 127 which carried the launching and aiming equipment, and two 110s which carried the crew and additional equipment.
It retained the block, crankshaft, main bearings, cambelt system, and other ancillaries as the Diesel Turbo.
This makes the Defender 90 Station Wagon a four seater vehicle (reduced from six or seven), and the Defender 110 Station Wagon a seven seater (reduced from nine).
Whilst the flaps have been deleted, the bulkhead pressing remains the same, so the outlines of where the flaps would be are still present.

Whilst the Defender has been in use in the Australian military for many years, as a consumer product it has lagged far behind 4x4 work vehicle offerings from Toyota and Nissan in popularity.
To comply with the strict United States Department of Transportation regulations, ranging from crash safety to lighting, as well as the very different requirements of American buyers, the North American Specification (NAS) Defenders were extensively modified.
Land Rover retired its utility vehicles at the end of 1997 to focus on its more upmarket Discovery and Range Rover models, as well as the newly launched Freelander.
Usually 110-inch (2,794 mm) Soft or Hard Tops, they are used for patrol, communications and supply duties.
Land Rover were also unable to guarantee they could make the Td5 resistant to electro-magnetic interference. Following the change-over to the Mercedes contract, the German Central Government sold their Td5 fleet. They were available either as a 90 Station Wagon or a 110 Double Cab, with standard Td5 engines. The 1999 X-Tech was aimed at the commercial market, being a metallic silver 90 Hard Top fitted with County-style seats, alloy wheels and Alpine window lights. Bespoke 5-spoke alloy wheels were used and a new silver-coloured front grille design was used. Total replacement will be needed by 2015, when new regulations regarding crash safety for pedestrians will render the current design obsolete.
Coil springs have also been widely used and, along with leaf springs, heavily used with auto manufacturers, namely Daimler-Benz used coil springs on many of their earliest vehicles. This design became very popular with many manufacturers although it was sometime later before shock absorbers would become important. This is also still a very popular set up for hot rods, using axles set up with a “drop” helps a builder lower his ride with little effort and with the use of either a mono leaf or coil springs and shocks can achieve a decent ride, if spring rate is chosen correctly.
In order to dampen the activity bushings are used in nearly every pivot point of the suspension. For such a small component, built with a ball and socket design, it takes the absolute blunt force of the vehicle.
As what some consider hobbyists we may enjoy working on our cars and trucks but mostly it is for improvement, not to re-do work that has already been done.
Externally, turbodiesel vehicles differed from other models only by having an air intake grille in the left-hand wing to supply cool air to the turbo.
The operation was streamlined, with most of the satellite factories in the West Midlands that built parts for the Land Rover being closed and production brought into the Solihull factory, which was expanded. The breather system included an oil separator filter to remove oil from the air in the system, thus finally solving the Diesel Turbo's main weakness of re-breathing its own sump oil. Small numbers of V8-engined Defenders were sold to users in countries with low fuel costs or who required as much power as possible (such as in Defenders used as fire engines or ambulances). This option was offered due to a demand for a petrol-driven alternative to the diesel engine after production of the V8 Defender had ended. The engine's lubrication and sealing system has been adapted for use in wet, dusty conditions and to maintain lubrication at extreme angles in off-road use. This brought the Defender in line with its competitors which have generally used this layout for many years. Mid 2009 Land Rover expanded the model range to include 110 and 130 Cab-Chassis, Panel Van and High Capacity Pick-up versions and late in the year announced the re-introduction of the 90 station wagon model for sale from early 2010. These older vehicles are reaching the end of their service lives, with many being sold onto the civilian market from the late 1990s. 90XDs are less common, but are generally ordered as Soft Top or Hard Top vehicles for light liaison and communications.
The Australian Army also tested the Td5 and found it to be reliable, but was concerned that the extra performance and speed that the engine gave would result in more accidents and vehicle damage on rough tracks when driven by inexperienced drivers, so opted for the older engine as well.
Other proposals include the South African made RG-31 or similar larger and more heavily armoured trucks or armoured vehicles that provide greater protection.
The Defender actually used in the film (now on display at the Motor Heritage Centre, Gaydon) was actually a highly modified 110 High Capacity Pick Up with a specially fitted and tuned V8 petrol engine and a non-standard interior.
The second model year edition in 2003 was better equipped with wing protector plates and air conditioning. This also incorporated a new design of headlamp with the sidelight lamp being integral with the main headlamp unit, allowing the space previously used for the separate sidelight to be used to fit a pair of high-intensity driving lamps.
These systems may seem archaic now,(the “Runabout” used Hickory wood for its front axle), but provided the comfort clients of the turn of the twentieth century wanted. With the “Runabout” Alanson Brush incorporated the shock absorber with the coil spring, much like a suspension that another man named McPherson is associated with. A spring absorbs energy and releases energy, when going over a bump the spring absorbs the energy and then releases it by pushing back with equal or greater force. Another type of spring used in conjunction with a straight axle is a torsion bar, torsion bars absorb the energy through a long rod attached to the axle and the frame, this set up is designed so that the twist in the rod supports the vehicle and the rod then twists during operation to absorb the energy.
As the body begins to apply it’s weight the sway bar, or anti-roll bar, transfers the energy and raises the right side of the vehicle to maintain control.
The most popular type of bushings are the standard rubber bushings they have used for years which provide for a great ride and a great deal of insulation from the roughness the vehicle may be traversing through at the time. When choosing replacement parts choose a quality piece that is serviceable with grease fittings. Torsion bar type suspensions are the easiest to adjust ride height but, like other types of suspensions, the vehicle requires an alignment to ensure proper handling and to control tire wear. It offered improved off-road ability and load capacity for traditional commercial users, whilst the improved handling and ride comfort. Short-wheelbase vehicles lack the load capacity needed by modern armies, and the increased power of heavy-lift helicopters has made the larger 110s easily air-transportable- a historic advantage of the smaller, lighter 90. In total 1071 50th Anniversary Defenders were built; 385 for the UK home market, the rest for Japan, Europe and Middle East. Inside the SVX models gained Recaro bucket seats in the front row, alloy gearlever knobs and a Garmin GPS navigation system. I am most happy that of all the suspension systems that may have carried over from the carriage manufacturers of the day the leather strap used on many personal and livery units were not deemed effective. Alanson had worked with Oldsmobile and Cadillac before leaving to form his own car company in 1904, during this time he tried several different designs of his own and not until his brother wrecked his recently completed “Alanson Crestmobile” did he realize how important the shock absorber was to improved handling for the driver.
Obviously without some sort of damper this cycle will continue and the vehicle will continue to bounce after hitting a bump, a shock absorber does exactly that, absorbs some of the energy from the spring and controls the release of the energy as well. The biggest difficulty encountered with straight axle suspensions isn’t poor ride quality but actually poor handling. Different diameter bars are used based on the application, a heavier, thicker bar will be found on a track vehicle where handling is going to be tantamount to winning the race and passenger cars will have a slightly smaller bar to improve handling without sacrificing ride and drive quality. The ball joint allows the suspension to pivot up and down while maintaining proper tire angle and also allows the front wheel to turn left or right. Early turbodiesel engines gained a reputation for poor reliability, with major failures to the bottom-end and cracked pistons. This was a 5-door Station Wagon body but with the rearmost seats removed and the rear side panels left without windows, producing a 5-seater vehicle with a secure, weatherproof load space. While Brush motors enjoyed some relative success Alanson’s financial backer had other interests, absorbed by the U.S. When driving over rough surfaces or imperfections in the road (pot holes), the suspension has a tendency to skip as one side reacting to the roughness begins to create a loss of control on the opposite side of the vehicle. Polyurethane bushings are not as soft as a rubber bushing so more road feel will be transmitted through to the driver, however, being of a more dense material the polyurethane bushings provide for a better handling vehicle and control the changes a vehicle is thrust into easier. This, again, is a very crucial piece of a vehicles front suspension and needs to be inspected, along with the rest of the suspension, for wear or damage regularly, a worn ball joint will lead to, eventually, the spindle coming loose from the control arm creating a loss of control. Research what you want to do, research the parts and search related forums online to discover the pitfalls of what you have planned. A revised block and improved big end bearings were introduced in 1988, and a re-designed breather system in 1989.
The SVX edition was available as a 110 Station Wagon (only available outside the UK), a 90 Station Wagon and a brand-new design of 90 Soft Top- the first time a Soft Top model had been available through showrooms in the UK since 1992.
Not being able to isolate the action of one front wheel lead to the adaptation of independent front suspensions. Polyurethane bushings, as well as other bushings made of material other than rubber, will typically be found in cars geared more towards performance.
I also recommend that you keep in mind that anytime you make changes to ride height you also change the geometry of the vehicle and by changing this you are changing how weight is distributed and will affect handling and braking performance, possibly with adverse results. These largely solved the engine's problems, but it remains (like many early turbodiesels) prone to failure if maintenance is neglected.
SVX Soft Tops had only the two front seats- the rear load bay being used to accommodate the spare wheel and a lockable storage box. The result you want is a safe vehicle that handles well, rides nice and maybe, with changes in ride height, has a more aggressive stance. 1st gear is lower than the previous gearbox for better low-speed control, whilst the higher 6th gear is intended to reduce noise and fuel consumption at high speeds.
A new design of hood was used, sloping down towards the rear over a jointed folding frame, unlike the standard square-framed hood used on other Soft Top Land Rovers. C'est en fait 2 petite lames qui viennent faire contact avec le levier, j'ai tout nettoye et gratte avec le dos dans couteau et c'est reparti comme neuf.Plus tard RAS au demarrage je roule sans monter dans les tours pour la faire chauffer et au bout de quelques bornes j'ai ouvert un peu plus et elle a cale donc arret sur le bord de la route, point mort un coups de demarreur et la voila reparti et ainsi de suite des que je tirais dedans elle merdait. Mais j'ai vite compris que c'etait la bequille car une fois ou deux elle calais des que je m'etait la premiere.J'ai donc demonte le cache au dessus du repose pied cote selecteur et la j'ai tripote, moteur en marche avec une vitesse (sur le leve-moto bien entendu), l'espece de contacteur relie par un cable a la bequille se qui m'a permis de conclure qu'il serait plus simple d'oter le cable entre les deux.

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