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It is critical that you understand your vehicle's maximum towing capacity before you begin towing. If you have not yet purchased a tow vehicle, remember that in general, AWD and 4WD vehicles have a lower towing capacity than a comparable 2WD vehicle.
Your best means of determining your vehicle's towing capacity is to read your vehicle's owner's manual and to compare the information there with the certification plate on your driver's door sill.
The owner's manual will provide detailed instructions and limitations, usually accompanied by tips for safe towing.
If your vehicle is not capable of towing any trailer, that will be stated explicitly in your owner's manual.
After you've read your vehicle owner's manual, it's a good idea to double check the compliance certification label. This is the vehicle's standard curb weight, plus an allowance for a standard amount of luggage, gas and passengers, as predicted by the manufacturer. This is the actual weight of your vehicle (GVW) plus the actual total weight (not the tongue weight) of your trailer. These numbers are the weights expected to be placed on your vehicle's front and rear wheels. After you understand your vehicle's weight capacities and general towing capacity, you need to learn your trailer's weight.
Figures 4-2 shows representative weights for a number of commonly-used utility trailer styles. Figure 4-3 shows representative weights for camping and travel trailers, and also relates those standard trailer weights to appropriate hitch classes.
You can check your trailer's tongue weight with a specialized scale, available for about $150 at trailer supply shops. You can also take your trailer's tongue weight with a common bathroom scale if it's less than about 300 pounds. Using this setup, you take a reading off the bathroom scale and triple it to find your actual tongue weight. Note that you can change your trailer's tongue weight substantially by changing the way you load the trailer. If you have too much tongue weight, your combined tow rig will sag at the coupler and you will find that your tow vehicle has to work much harder to pull the load. CHECK the pressure in your tires at least monthly and before long trips when your tires are cool (after the vehicle has been stopped 3 hours and then driven less than one mile). Tires designed for use in severe snow conditions generally have tread patterns, structure and materials to give superior performance.
Under emergency braking using conventional braking systems the wheels can lock up, making the car un-steerable. ASR is fitted to vehicles to prevent wheels slipping, spinning on slippery or uneven surfaces. Electronic sensors are used to control and dose the power transmitted to the drive axle, in order to ensure that tires can properly and reliably grip the road during acceleration. Tires have special tread patterns that ensure optimum drainage of the water away from the tread surface. The distance required for braking depends on the speed of the vehicle, the condition of the road surface and the condition of the tires, in particular the tread.
Looked at schematically, there is the outer cover - the tread and sidewall, and the substructure, the casing. Even modern winter tires can sometimes not help when there are huge amounts of snow and steep gradients. The date of manufacture of a tire is indicated on the tire's sidewall at the end of the DOT serial number. Tire manufacturers have adopted a standard identification system: four numbers, which indicate the week and the year of manufacture. On standard tires with symmetrical tread patterns, it does not matter which way the tire is fitted on the rim and in which position it is fitted on the car. Some tire manufacturers have, however, started producing tires with specific directions of rotation in order to improve wet grip and optimize noise generation.
A number of tires with asymmetric tread patterns are also now available which do not have a specific direction of rotation.
An Electronic Stability Program, ESP, helps master critical driving situations, for example when the vehicle suddenly over steers during cornering or when sudden evasive action is required.
ESP systems not only function when road conditions are good, but also on wet, on icy and on unpaved roads. If a tire punctures and looses air, a standard size or a temporary special spare tire must be put on in order to continue the journey. In order to avoid the troublesome, sometimes dangerous procedure of changing a tire on an open road, various manufacturers now offer so-called emergency mobility systems. What these tires have in common is that when all air pressure is lost the rim does not destroy the tire. These symbols are found on the sidewall of the tire indicating the load - carrying capacity of the tire.
Reinforced and XL tires require need higher inflation pressures compared to standard tires. Since rolling resistance also increases with low Inflation pressure, it is beneficial to check the pressure of tires regularly. Refer to your Vehicle Owners Manual for recommended rotation pattern and interval for your vehicle. Speed ratings for tires are identified by means of a speed symbol shown on the sidewall of a tire. Speed ratings are based on laboratory tests which relate to performance in the road, but are not applicable if tires are underinflated, overloaded, worn out, damaged or altered. Temporary spares are designed to carry the same load as the standard size tire on your vehicle and can be applied to any position. Since most wheels tend to run towards the outside because of the camber, most cars are set with a slight positive toe-in. The tread is that part of the tire with the groove pattern which is in contact with the road.
The measured distance from the tread surface to the bottom of the main grooves away from the Tread Wear Indicators. Tires should be stored in a dry, cool place, away from sunlight and sources of ozone, such as electric motors. If you must store tires flat, (one on top of the other), make sure you don't stack too many on top of each other.
Also be sure to allow air to circulate around all sides of the tires, including underneath, to prevent moisture damage. If storing tires outdoors, protect them with an opaque waterproof covering and elevate them from the ground. Spare tire carriers on your vehicle are not intended to be used for long term tire storage. The treadwear grade is a comparative rating based on the wear rate of the tire when tested under controlled conditions on a specified government test track.
The valve cap, although small, has a very important job: it protects the sensitive valve internals from dust, dirt and humidity.
If you change to winter tires, be sure they are the same size and construction type as the other tires on the vehicle. It is acceptable to install winter tires only on the rear position of a rear wheel drive vehicle. If winter tires are installed on the front position of any vehicle, the MUST also be installed on the rear position.
If winter tires with a lower speed rating than listed on the vehicle placard are installed for use in winter conditions, the speed capability of the vehicle is reduced to the speed rating of the winter tires.
In areas where heavy snowfalls are frequent, many drivers carry chains for use in emergencies, or have their tire dealer apply studded winter tires or install tires for use in severe snow conditions.

If you use chains, make sure they are the proper size and type for your tires, otherwise they may damage the tire sidewall and cause tire failure. We take pride in providing the most accurate descriptions possible, although we can not guarantee that all descriptions are 100% accurate.
This 1962 Austin Mini Cooper is a running project car that has been upgraded with an 1100cc engine and Cooper S brakes.
Panel gaps appear straight throughout, and apart from the subtle flares the bodywork appears unmodified. The interior features several updates including fixed-back buckets, a smaller diameter steering wheel, and a tach set back in the dash next to the main instrument binnacle. The seats look to be in good condition, though the headliner and door panels are showing their age. The engine was swapped to an 1100cc unit around 1990, and is fitted with .040 over pistons, a ported big valve head, Kent cam and timing chain, and a lightweight flywheel.
A British Motor Industry Heritage Trust certificate is included, giving confirmation of the VIN and the car’s original specification. Florida has issed out new style validation stickers for: Boats, Cars, Trailers & more ever since the year 2000. Rental license plates can either say VDC or VEHICLE and under the classification are a series of numbers.
On the bottom of the sticker Parking Placards is the owners drivers license number or permit number.
Below is a side by side comparison of what a defaced sticker would look like next to a nondefaced sticker. This 1978 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40 is a largely stock example that features its original 4.2 liter 2F inline six and 4-speed manual transmission.
The paint shows some wear in places, though the owner found no evidence of any rust repair or bondo work on the body. The rear brakes were upgraded to discs by the previous owner, and stainless steel braided brake lines were added. A few dents and dings can be seen on the front bumper, and the truck comes with a new OEM Toyota front bumper and rear bumperettes that are still in the box. Vinyl surfaces and interior plastics are in good condition, though the owner reports that the passenger seat has a seam that’s starting to split. The original 4.2 liter 2F inline 6-cylinder engine sits in a tidy engine compartment and is paired to a 4-speed manual gearbox. The undercarriage appears clean and shows no signs of major corrosion, though some surface rust is present on the exhaust and other underbody components. The number on the VIN plate is consistent with an FJ produced in late August of 1978, and the data plate indicates the original 854 color code.
This 1972 BMW 2002tii is a factory Golf Yellow example originally sold new in Europe and retaining its original engine.
Originally 070 Golf Yellow, the car has been repainted at least once – the seller says the color is a close match and paint shiny overall with some cracks, scratches and touched-up spots here and there. The body looks straight though both doors appear to sag. The right rear shows a large crack in the finished and surface rust where the paint has chipped away. Trim appears complete including flag mirrors and early aluminum-trimmed grilles, with slight warping and mild pitting on some pieces. The trunk looks clean and houses a shock tower brace, relocated battery and a steel-rimmed spare along with a factory jack. The interior looks nice for a driver featuring Euro-style front seats with cloth centers while the rear bench has been recovered in  full vinyl. The working odometer reads approximately 33k miles, but was changed from a KPH unit to MPH when the car was imported so actual mileage is cannot be verified.
Underhood, the car retains its original two-liter engine – as an early 1972 car, its stock plastic intake runners have been replaced with aluminum versions from Top End Performance for better sealing and heat tolerance. The car was purchased with a slightly noisy Getrag 245 five-speed transmission from an E21 320i, so it sat in the seller’s garage for almost two years before the gearbox was replaced with a lower-mile, smoother-shifting unit along with a new clutch, master cylinder and slave cylinder in February 2016. According to the BMW Archives, “The BMW 2002 tii VIN 2708759 was manufactured on February 24th, 1972 and delivered on the same day to the BMW dealer Gunther in Hochst (Germany). Some paper history comes with the car, including a collection of receipts for miscellaneous parts dating back to the 1990s.
The two numbers are likely to be different to account for engine weight and trailer tongue weight and luggage.
If you place too much weight behind the axle(s), you can actually generate negative tongue weight. ABS systems provide continuous monitoring and control of the braking force and in some circumstances can reduce the braking distance while maintaining full car steer ability.
Even tiny irregularities in the tire of only a few grams are multiplied by many orders of size. This weight irregularity can be tested and identified at in tire dealerships and is balanced by adding small counter-weights. At the center of the bead is the core, which comprises a bundle of steel wires embedded in rubber. With some low profile tires a problem can result: the reduced space between the tires and the wheel arch leaves no room to fit snow chains. For example, the figures 0201 indicate that the tire was made in the second week of the year 2001. This side of the tire must be on the outside, and the tire must roll forwards in the direction of the arrow for optimum tire performance. The systems detects skidding movements within fractions of a second and can take corrective action. The journey can be continued without changing the tire - over a limited distance at a restricted speed. If tires of different speed rating are mounted on a vehicle, the vehicle speed capability will be limited to the lowest speed-rated tire on the vehicle. Radial tires have belt plies, which are laid diagonally under the tread to stabilize and strengthen the tread area.
Maintain the proper inflation pressure as shown on the sidewall of the tire, it requires a higher inflation pressure than a standard size tire. The tread is specifically design to provide traction for stopping, starting, cornering and provide long lasting wear. Do not store tires on or over black asphalt or other heat-absorbent or reflective surfaces, such as snow-covered ground or sand. If your vehicle has a full size tire (same size and type tire recommended for use by the vehicle manufacture not temporary use spares) as a spare, it should be included in the tire rotation pattern. A tire graded 200 would wear twice as long on the government test course under specified test conditions as one graded 100. They represent the tire's ability to stop on wet pavement as measured under controlled conditions on specified government test surfaces of asphalt and concrete.
These represent the tire's resistance to the generation of heat when tested under controlled conditions on a specified indoor laboratory test wheel. If valve caps are lost they should be replaced immediately in order to avoid expensive damage later. The seller has owned this RHD example for 28 years, and it has moved with him from California to Georgia, where it has been garaged since 2002. Cooper S brakes have been fitted behind the aftermarket wheels, as is dry-adjustable suspension. There is some evidence of bubbling or prior body work behind the passenger’s door as can be seen above. In the first few years of the new stickers issuance not many were issued out since many tag agencies did not have the new machines to make the stickers. It's now time to check your newly issued Florida specialty license plates for something missing.
These sellers are using chemicals to rub the classification off of the validation sticker, leaving a blank where it should say the classification to which it is registered to, in most cases TRAILER plates posing as passenger plates or non-classified plates (which don't exist on current stickers).

School Board MeetingsMore U.S.Secular Europe Has More Abortion Restrictions Than the USGlobal Cooling? The blood-pumping scenes further showed a woman getting rescued by Brian O'Conner (Paul Walker) and the crew.More car maneuvering and cliff-hanging, and then the sequel's main antagonist, Ian Shaw (Jason Statham) introduced himself to Toretto. The current owner purchased the truck from a Florida dealer last year with 51,200 miles on the clock, and it had been previously repainted in its original Sky Blue (854). Traces of surface rust are said to be starting to form under the doors, and some bubbling can be seen on the paint on the front and rear edge of the hood.
Steel wheels and chrome hubcaps are in good condition and wrapped in new Hankook Dynapro tires. Exterior rubber and chrome trim look to be in good shape, and all the lights are said to work correctly. All gauges and lights are said to function properly, and the truck features factory front and rear heaters. The owner notes that the battery is newer, and that OEM replacement parts appear to have been used for maintenance performed by the previous owner. Modifications from stock include a Getrag five-speed gearbox with a new clutch, 3.90 limited-slip rear end, and MSD ignition but the car retains its Euro front seats and bumpers.
Some rust is present in typical areas including the trunk and previously-repaired front floor panels. Side markers appear to have been added when the car was imported but Euro bumper-mounted license plate lights are retained for a cleaner round-taillight rear end, which is complemented by a 2002 Turbo-style trunk spoiler. A previous owner attempted repair to the corroded driver’s side rear wheel well by grinding the rust, applying an epoxy sealer, and riveting in a patch – a good replacement wheel well is included in the sale. An upgraded stereo features an amplifier and seven speakers including a subwoofer behind the passenger seat.
An MSD electronic ignition and distributor with rev limiter have replaced the originals, which are also included. Several keys are included – one fits the ignition and both doors, another fits the trunk lock and a final one is for the locking gas cap. The difference from the vertical (inward or outward tilt of the tire) is then referred to as either positive or negative camber. It is recommended that the lower speed-rated tires be placed on the front axle regardless which axel is driven. It is recommended to rotate your tires every 6,000 to 8,000 miles, or sooner if uneven treadwear begins to appear.
Although a tire may be speed rated, tire manufactures do not endorse the operation of any vehicle in an unsafe or unlawful manner. Refer to the information on the sidewall of the tire for proper usage & speed restrictions.
If not corrected, wet weather accidents are more likely to happen due to skidding on bald or nearly bald tires. Under some rules, motorists are subject to fines if they block traffic and do not have winter tires on their vehicles. If studded tires are applied to the front axle, they also must be applied to the rear axle. The seller recently rebuilt the clutch hydraulics as a first step to making the car roadworthy again, though further recommissioning work still needs to be completed. Paintwork shows well in photos, though the seller notes that there are some areas of surface rust. The seller recently started the car and rebuilt the clutch hydraulics after 13 years in the garage, but notes that more recomissioning work will be required before the car can be used on the road. In time more agencies received the equipment to eventually phase out the old style separate month year stickers.
It has been confirmed that sellers (both ALPCA and non-ALPCA) are selling new Florida specialty license plates with defaced trailer plates posing as passenger plates. Rear disc brakes and stainless steel brake lines are said to be recent additions, and the seller has driven it around 400 miles following an oil and filter change. One of the earliest 1972 cars on the tii registry, chassis #2708759 was delivered to a German dealer before being brought to the States in the late 1970s by a service member. The passenger side is in better shape, though more corrosion is visible around the fuel tank. I wanted to highlight this video from IGN, which claims to be a teaser trailer for a new Back to the Future reboot titled Fast to the Future starring Vin Diesel. By restricting tread movement during contact with the road, the belt plies increase improve tread life, traction and improve handling. The purpose for regular rotation is to achieve more uniform treadwear on all tires on your vehicle. Furthermore, tire speed ratings do not imply that a vehicle can be safely driven at the maximum speed for which the tire is rated, particularly under adverse road and weather conditions or if the vehicle has unusual characteristics. With such a tire, a vehicle may be operated until it is convenient to repair or replace the disabled tire. The relative performance of tires depends upon the actual conditions of their use and may vary due to driving habits, service practices, differences in road characteristics and climate.
The valve cap should always be fitted to the valve in order to protect the valve core from dirt and moisture. The car is sold with a British Motor Industry Heritage Trust certificate and a clean Georgia title. This bulletin is focused on exposing a defaced trailer sticker from a untampered passenger sticker. Subsequent ownership included a mechanic for Shirley Muldowney, the First Lady of Drag Racing – the seller purchased the car in 2014. I love this fake trailer as an April Fools Day release because you might buy it for a few seconds before it becomes so obviously ridiculous, It took some work to create this edit complete with computer generated effects… and its just fun. GET QUOTE Tweet Where and How do I find my Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)?Posted September 23rd, 2011 & filed under Articles.
Use an accurate tire gauge to check pressure and maintain it at the level recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
These tires will show a symbol of a mountain with a snowflake next to the MS letters & are designed as winter tires. Starting in the year 2000, four numbers are used for the Date of Manufacture, first two numbers identify the week and the last two numbers identify the year of manufacture. Have your standard tire repaired or replaced as soon as possible, then return the temporary spare to the trunk to conserve its useable tread life.
This is a driver tii with some rust detailed below, and it is sold with a clean Arizona title.
Watch the Back to the Future reboot trailer embedded after the jump.Back to the Future Reboot TrailerWho wouldn’t want to see Vin Diesel driving fast in a Delorean time machine to right some wrongs? Prior to year 2000 three numbers are used for the Date of Manufacture, first two numbers identify the week and the last number identifies the year of manufacture. The temporary tire can be worn down to the tread wear indicators, same as your standard tire. This page is to help see the different parts of the new stickers as well as the different types. To identify tires manufactured in the 90's a decade symbol (a triangle on its side) is located at the end of the DOT serial number. Remember: Under inflation is the most common cause of sudden air loss or sudden failures in any kind of tire and may result in unexpected loss of vehicle control or accidents. Logo Concept by: Illumination InkAll names, trademarks and images are copyright their respective owners.

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