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07.07.2014

Viral herpes meningitis, natural cancer remedies that work - For Begninners

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Meningitis DefinitionMeningitis is a serious inflammation of the meninges, the thin, membranous covering of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningitis is most commonly caused by infection (by bacteria, viruses, or fungi), although it can also be caused by bleeding into the meninges, cancer, diseases of the immune system, and an inflammatory response to certain types of chemotherapy or other chemical agents.
The most serious and difficult-to-treat types of meningitis tend to be those caused by bacteria. In some cases, meningitis can be a potentially fatal condition.DescriptionMeningitis is a particularly dangerous infection because of the very delicate nature of the brain.
Therefore, if enough brain tissue is damaged by an infection, serious, life-long handicaps will remain.In order to learn about meningitis, it is important to have a basic understanding of the anatomy of the brain. While nonbacterial types of meningitis are more common, bacterial meningitis is the more potentially life-threatening. Certain conditions predispose to this type of meningitis, including alcoholism and chronic upper respiratory tract infections (especially of the middle ear, sinuses, and mastoids).N. Patients with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) are more prone to getting meningitis from fungi, as well as from the agent that causes tuberculosis. Patients who have had their spleens removed, or whose spleens are no longer functional (as in the case of patients with sickle cell disease) are more susceptible to other infections, including meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis.The majority of meningitis infections are acquired by blood-borne spread. A person may have another type of infection (of the lungs, throat, or tissues of the heart) caused by an organism that can also cause meningitis. Similarly, patients who undergo surgical procedures or who have had foreign bodies surgically placed within their skulls (such as tubes to drain abnormal amounts of accumulated CSF) have an increased risk of meningitis.Organisms can also reach the meninges via an uncommon but interesting method called intraneural spread. This involves an organism invading the body at a considerable distance away from the head, spreading along a nerve, and using that nerve as a kind of ladder into the skull, where the organism can multiply and cause meningitis. Herpes simplex virus is known to use this type of spread, as is the rabies virus.The most classic symptoms of meningitis (particularly of bacterial meningitis) include fever, headache, vomiting, sensitivity to light (photophobia), irritability, severe fatigue (lethargy), stiff neck, and a reddish purple rash on the skin. Untreated, the disease progresses with seizures, confusion, and eventually coma.A very young infant may not show the classic signs of meningitis.
Similarly, debilitated elderly patients may not have fever or other identifiable symptoms of meningitis.Damage due to meningitis occurs from a variety of phenomena.
Inflammation may cause the blood-brain barrier to become less effective at preventing the passage of toxic substances into brain tissue.DiagnosisA number of techniques are used when examining a patient suspected of having meningitis to verify the diagnosis.
Certain manipulations of the head (lowering the head, chin towards chest, for example) are difficult to perform and painful for a patient with meningitis.The most important test used to diagnose meningitis is the lumbar puncture (commonly called a spinal tap). Normal CSF should contain no infection-fighting cells (white blood cells), so the presence of white blood cells in CSF is another indication of meningitis. Death or permanent debilitation follows herniation of the brain stem.TreatmentAntibiotic medications (forms of penicillin and cephalosporins, for example) are the most important element of treatment against bacterial agents of meningitis.


Patients who develop seizures will require medications to halt the seizures and prevent their return.PrognosisViral meningitis is the least severe type of meningitis, and patients usually recover with no long-term effects from the infection. While death rates from meningitis vary depending on the specific infecting organism, the overall death rate is just under 20%.The most frequent long-term effects of meningitis include deafness and blindness, which may be caused by the compression of specific nerves and brain areas responsible for the senses of hearing and sight. This may be a chronic problem for some patients, requiring the installation of shunt tubes to drain the accumulation regularly.PreventionPrevention of meningitis primarily involves the appropriate treatment of other infections an individual may acquire, particularly those that have a track record of seeding to the meninges (such as ear and sinus infections). The term meningitis does not refer to a specific disease entity but rather to the pathologic condition of inflammation of the tissues of the meninges.
The most common causes are Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), and Haemophilus influenzae, which are responsible for approximately 70 per cent of all cases.
The organisms gain access to the ventriculosubarachnoid spaces and the cerebrospinal fluid where they cause irritation of the tissues bathed by the fluid.Bacterial meningitis typically begins with headache, nausea and vomiting, stiff neck (nuchal rigidity), and chills and fever. Inability to straighten the knee when the hip is flexed (a positive kernig's sign) and involuntary flexing of the hip and knee when the neck is flexed forward (a positive brudzinski's sign) are indicative of meningeal irritation.A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is verified by isolation of the organism from a specimen of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture. Supportive measures include rest, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, and prevention or control of convulsions with anticonvulsant drugs.The prognosis is generally good, especially for meningococcal meningitis in which residual neurologic deficits and persistent convulsive seizures are rare. Pneumococcal meningitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae are more likely to be complicated by these sequelae as well as by septic shock and hydrocephalus.Benign Viral Meningitis. It is, therefore, called also aseptic meningitis complex, which is somewhat misleading because the meningeal irritation often follows infection with the mumps virus or with one of the picornaviruses.The patient with this disorder typically complains of headache and signs characteristic of meningeal irritation, intolerance to light, and pain when the eyes are moved from side to side.
Assessment of the patient with meningitis includes monitoring vital signs, neurologic status, and fluid and electrolyte status. In general, enteric precautions are indicated for patients with aseptic meningitis caused by an enterovirus. Nutritional status must be maintained throughout the course of illness to reinforce the patient's natural resources for combating infection and recovering from its deleterious effects.Portals of entry resulting in meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and intracranial mass lesions. It usually occurs in epidemics, and symptoms are those of acute cerebral and spinal meningitis. There is also usually an eruption of erythematous, herpetic, or hemorrhagic spots on the skin.
The most common causes in adults are bacterial infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, or Haemophilus influenzae. Antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B, given intravenously or intrathecally for several weeks, may prevent death from fungal meningitis, but serious neurologic sequelae may occur.
See Aseptic meningitis, Bacterial meningitis, Cryptococcal meningitis, Eosinophilic meningitis, Gram negative meningitis, H influenzae meningitis, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Meningococcal meningitis, Mollaret's meningitis, Neoplastic meningitis, Pneumococcal meningitis, Pseudomeningitis, Purulent meningitis, Staphylococcal meningitis, Tuberculous meningitis.
Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that must be treated and diagnosed quickly to obtain the best outcome.


Infectious meningitis now is largely a disease of adults and usually is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis, although other microbes may be responsible.
It also may result from the spread of blood-borne infection.SymptomsThe symptoms of meningitis include fever, chills, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status, vomiting, and photophobia.
Acute bacterial meningitis and meningitis caused by some fungi and amebas may also cause rapid deterioration in mental status, seizures, shock, and death.DiagnosisCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) must be examined. Close family contacts of patients with meningococcal meningitis, day care center contacts of infected children, or any persons (including health care workers) with direct contact with the saliva of infected patients are to be treated with antibiotics to prevent disease transmission.TreatmentDefinitive treatment depends on identification of the underlying causes, but empirical therapies for infectious meningitis must be given immediately, hours before the causative agent is identified.
Dexamethasone is administered intravenously before starting antibiotic therapy for best response to reduce the incidence of deafness in children (a common complication) and to help prevent death in adults with pneumococcal meningitis.
Viral meningitis treatment is supportive; recovery usually is complete (within 7 to 10 days). Questions from the patient and family should be answered honestly, with reassurance that behavioral changes usually resolve.The patient with infectious meningitis may need monitoring in an ICU.
To help prevent meningitis, patients with chronic sinusitis or other chronic infectious or inflammatory illnesses should be taught the importance of proper hand hygiene and of following through with prescribed treatments. Sterile techniques should be strictly enforced when treating patients with head wounds, skull fractures, or lumbar puncture, ventricular shunting, or other invasive therapies.MENINGITISacute aseptic meningitisA nonpurulent form of meningitis often due to viral infection.
It typically results from a viral infection (such as coxsackievirus or other enteroviruses) although frequently no causative organism is identified.
The virus can be spread by direct contact with saliva, sputum, mucus, or stools of an infected person. Assessments are made for complications such as shock, respiratory distress, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.Since mosquitoes can spread some viruses that cause meningitis, avoiding mosquito bites during the warm months of the year by wearing insecticides (DEET) and barrier protection, and eliminating standing pools of water, where mosquitoes breed, may help prevent the disease.
The public should be made aware of meningitis symptoms (fever, headache, stiff neck, altered levels of consciousness) and the importance of prompt attention for any patient suspected of meningitis.bacterial meningitisMeningitis caused by disease-causing and potentially life-threatening organisms, esp. Occasionally, repeated lumbar punctures reveal a vasculitis of the central nervous system or a partially treated bacterial meningitis. A rare cause of disease in healthy hosts, cryptococcal meningitis is an opportunistic infection usually seen in patients with advanced AIDS or patients taking high-dose steroids. Mollaret meningitis See: Mollaret meningitispneumococcal meningitisMeningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a disease predominantly found in adults.



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