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Pill for weight reduction intensify the functioning efficiency of the body, improve the catabolism of fat, and reduce its accumulation. Main raw materials: Apple cider vinegar essence, dietary cellulose, procyanidins, vitamin E, konjac purified powder, green tea, lotus leaf, spirulina, herbal essence. Pill for weight reduction - aimed at the waist, abdomen, hips, thighs and other parts where fat usually accumulates. One study (Riley MD& Dwyer T 1998) found no significant association between energy adjusted monounsaturated fat intake or energy adjusted polyunsaturated fat intake and microalbuminuria, but reported a positive association between usual dietary saturated fat intake and microalbuminuria. This was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD, although after adjusting for dietary fiber intake, these associations were attenuated. Furthermore dietary fiber is independently related to a lower risk for CVD in type 1 diabetic women. They found that dietary n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) are inversely associated with the degree but not with the incidence of albuminuria in type 1 diabetes (Lee CC et al.
DNSG EASD do not recommend a low carbohydrate diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients (Table 4). Diet, lifestyle and cardiovascular diseaseEight studies reported an association between macronutrients and CVD in type 1 diabetic patients.
2009), the authors concluded that a diet lower in carbohydrate and higher in MUFA might be preferable to a diet higher in carbohydrate and lower in MUFA for type 1 diabetic patients. 2009) to recommend a diet higher in MUFA and lower in carbohydrate for nonobese type 1 diabetic individuals to reduce CVD risk factors is doubtful. This was solely based on the positive effect on triglyceride (TG) levels and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels (PAI-1) in the first diet. A significant decrease in PAI-1 was found after 6 months in the lower carbohydrate and higher MUFA diet. In the other diet group there was an increase in TG levels, also this increase was not significant. 2010) found that dietary n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) are inversely associated with the degree but not with the incidence of albuminuria in type 1 diabetes. Mainly because of the higher atherosclerotic risk due to more and bigger very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in the last diet.
Diet, lifestyle and retinopathyOnly two studies reported results for the association between macronutrients and type 1 diabetic retinopathy. They conclude that this higher intake of energy from saturated fat and this lower intake of energy from dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits could increase the risk of atherosclerosis, which is often the underlying cause of CVD. Furthermore the TG levels did not significantly differ between the two diets in this study.In conclusion, these trials show that the effect of carbohydrate or MUFA on cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 1 diabetic patients is still not elucidated.


Furthermore, a negative association between carbohydrates and dietary fiber with retinopathy progression and risk factors was found. Furthermore none of these randomized controlled trials examined the potential positive effect of dietary fiber on CVD or the potential negative effect of saturated fat found in cross-sectional studies.
ConclusionA diet high in fiber, low in saturated fat, moderate in protein intake with moderate alcohol consumption as well as physical activity can be recommended for type 1 diabetic patients to prevent complications. Inspite of the lack of large robust prospective studies, using the available evidence, we can conclude that diet as well as lifestyle could play an important role in preventing longterm complications of type 1 diabetes. 1987).Recent studies have shown that people with type 1 diabetes eat a more atherosclerosis-prone diet. It has been demonstrated that 80%-90% of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease cases can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behavior with a focus on healthy diet and exercise.(Stampfer et al.
2004) These studies suggest that there could be a potential role for diet in type 1 diabetes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. There are more studies suggesting that diet (including alcohol) can play an important role in treating the complications of diabetes (Franz MJ et al. An overview of the relationship between diet (including alcohol) and complications in type 1 diabetic patients is lacking. Also the effect of lifestyle (including physical activity and dietary patterns) on complications is still not elucidated for type 1 diabetic patients. Lack of physical activity together with an atherogenic diet could enhance development of complications especially in high risk type 1 diabetic patients.In the following paragraphs of this bookchapter the literature on associations between diet (including alcohol) and lifestyle and chronic complications in type 1 diabetic patients will be summarized. In the final paragraphs all recommendations on diet and lifestyle in patients with type 1 diabetes will be put in perspective with the current literature.2. Diet, lifestyle and nephropathyEighteen studies reported an association between macronutrients and type 1 diabetic nephropathy.
The other five focussed on other dietary macronutrients such as fat, cholesterol or carbohydrate in relation with nephropathy.
2000) failed to show a significant relationship between dietary protein intake and markers of early nephropathy, other than creatinine clearance. 1997) found a significant relationship between dietary protein intake and urinary albumin excretion rate (AER). A higher AER was particularly found in people consuming more than 20% of their dietary food energy as protein.
2001) total protein intake was not associated with the presence of microalbuminuria, but a diet including a high amount of fish protein seemed to decrease the risk. No cross-sectional or prospective studies were found examining the effect of a Mediterranean diet or a Western diet on CVD in type 1 diabetic patients.


1991) found in their cohort study that a predominantly vegetarian diet (low in animal protein) may have an important beneficial effect on diabetic nephropathy without the need for a heavily restricted total protein intake.
2008) reported an association between adherence to the DASH diet and hypertension in type 1 diabetic patients.
But they were not able to determine if the reduction in total protein intake rather than the reduction in the fraction of animal origin was primarily responsible for the fall in the fractional albumin clearance.
They did not investigate a possible association between the DASH diet and CVD, but used hypertension as the main risk factor for CVD.
1998) cohort study showed that a low protein diet has a protective effect on the residual renal function in type 1 diabetic patients.In conclusion, these studies were not consistent in their conclusions on the effect of protein restriction on type 1 diabetic nephropathy. 2011) reported a possible association between the DASH diet and other CVD risk factors (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, LDL particle density, apolipoprotein B, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and adipocytokines) than blood pressure. In one of these four this decline was greater in the low protein diet group than in the usual protein diet group, but this difference was not significant (Hansen HP et al.
Unfortunately there were no studies found examining the effect of dietary patterns on CVD events.5. Current recommendations on diet and lifestyle in patients with type 1 diabetes put in perspective Overall, fiber and saturated fat intake play an important role in type 1 diabetic patients, with a beneficial and detrimental effect on the chronic complications respectively. Another study showed a decline in GFR in the low protein diet group, but did not directly compare this with the usual protein group (Dullaart RP et al. Most of the findings are consistent with the guidelines for type 1 diabetic patients (Table 4).The main limitations are the lack of prospective studies on diet and lifestyle in type 1 diabetics, lack of randomized controlled trials and the limited number of studies on dietary cholesterol, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fiber and no cardiovascular morbidity data. The available studies, with their limitations, all indicate that diet and lifestyle play an important role in preventing chronic complications of type 1 diabetes. 1994) reported an increase in GFR during the low protein diet, but this increase was not significant. In three of these five trials there was a decline in albuminuria in the low protein diet group as well as in the usual protein diet group (Dullaart RP et al.
Two of these three showed a significant greater decline in albuminuria in the low protein diet group than in the usual protein diet group (Dullaart RP et al. One of these (Brouhard BH& LaGrone L 1990) found a significant difference between the diet groups.



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