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Author: admin, 07.12.2015
The finding that neurons can co-release two neurotransmitter molecules, dopamine and GABA, through a common mechanism provides a further advance in our understanding of the nervous system. The BrainImmune resource covers the broad interdisciplinary area of neuroendocrine-immunology and stress-immune interactions and their impact on health and disease. As these neurotransmitters bind to receptors that have different effects on the post-synaptic neuron, their co-release allows dopamine-releasing neurons to modulate the activities of striatal neurons in various ways.
After its release, GABA is taken up into presynaptic terminal via GABA transporters and repackaged into vesicles for subsequent use.
In glia, GABA is converted to glutamate by a mitochondrial enzyme, GABA transaminase (GABA-T). GABA is found in high concentrations in the brain and spinal cord but is absent in peripheral nerves or peripheral tissues.


Some of the important physiological and clinical considerations regarding this neurotransmitter are as follows. Because epileptic seizures can be facilitated by lack of neuronal inhibition, increase in the inhibitory transmitter, GABA, is helpful in terminating them.
Barbiturates act as agonists or modulators on postsynap-tic GABA receptors and are used to treat epilepsy. This reaction is catalyzed by a cytosolic enzyme, L-glutamic acid-1-decarboxylase (GAD), which is present almost exclusively in GABAergic neurons.
Unlike glutamate, GABA is not an essential metabolite, and it is not incorporated into a protein. For example, GABA is used as an inhibitory neurotransmitter by the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.


Thus, valproic acid (dipropylacetic acid) is useful as an anti-convulsant because it inhibits GABA transaminase, which is an enzyme that metabolizes GABA, and increases GABA levels in the brain. Individual members of this group of neurotransmitters are discussed in the following sections. In the mesolimbic pathway, axons of the dopaminergic neurons ascend in the brainstem and forebrain in the median forebrain bundle to supply limbic structures (amygdala, septal area, and hippocampal formation) and the nucleus accumbens (which is embedded in the ventral stria-tum).
Glycine has been implicated as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord, lower brainstem, and retina.



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