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The Iowa State Forestry Extension offers many educational opportunities and can also custom prepare forestry educational materials and programs to meet the needs of clients. Extension programs are available to all without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. All rusts are obligate parasites, meaning that they require a living host to complete their life cycle. Snapdragon rust (Puccinia antirrhini) is autoecious and is not a rampant disease in northern Arizona. Cedar apple rust (Gymnosporangium sp.) is heteroecious with one phase of its life cycle appearing on apple, quince, and hawthorn trees with the other phase occurring on various juniper species.
Catclaw acacia (Senegalia greggii or Acacia greggii) is regularly infected by Ravenelia pringlei: an autoecious rust.
Snapdragon rust (Puccinia antirrhini) on snapdragon leaves (Department of Plant Pathology Archive, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org). Cedar apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae) on juniper (Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org). Cedar apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae) on apple (James Chatfield, Ohio State University, Bugwood.org). Ravenelia rust on catclaw - normal growth on left - diseased growth on right (Jeff Schalau, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension). Orb spiders are common in backyards and gardens, but are especially common in tall grass prairie areas in late summer.


In most cases, they do not always kill the host plant but can severely reduce their growth. Flower gardeners may have noticed it at some point in their gardens because it causes leaves to wilt and yellow.
Loss of leaves on fruit bearing trees reduces vigor, decreases yields, and may make the plants more susceptible to other diseases and environmental stresses.
It is noticeable where it causes a distorted growth pattern commonly called a "witches broom" covered in brown, dusty, spores.
CBR is a heteroecious rust that normally colonizes ponderosa pine in our area, but was found to be especially destructive to Elderica pine after that species was introduced to northern Arizona by the landscape industry. I have included several photos of the above described rust diseases and linked some publications below. The most common rust species are those that affect grain crops such as wheat, oats, and rye as well as turf grasses. Here, it is not practical to remove all juniper hosts, but there are resistant fruit varieties. Home gardeners and nature lovers in northern Arizona may have noticed rust diseases on snapdragons, apple trees, catclaw, and Elderica pine.
In the past 18 years, I have not seen this disease do a lot of damage to either infected junipers or fruit tree host species. Comandra pallida, also called bastard toadflax, is a small herbaceous perennial plant found in close association with native oak stands in northern Arizona.


To further complicate matters, some rust fungi are referred to as “autoecious” and complete their life cycle on a single host plant species.
In areas with more humid climates, fungicides are often applied to prevent infections from occurring.
If you have it in an intensely managed area of your landscape, let it run its course over the summer and prune it out next winter discarding or burning the trimmings. These are referred to as “heteroecious” and usually have markedly different visual characteristics on each of the separate host plants they colonize.
Infections on Comandra, the alternate host, appear as orange or rusty colored pustules on leaves after summer rains. For this reason, planting of Elderica pine (also called Mondell pine, Quetta pine, and Goldwater pine) is discouraged in areas where the alternate host exists.
Since the Comandra plant is inconspicuous and it is associated with stands of oak, a distance of one mile or greater from native oak stands is often used to determine Elderica pine planting suitability.



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