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Increasing awareness of energy efficiency and climate change has led to new developments in the building sector, including the concept of passive house, low carbon buildings, and even zero emission buildings. The main market of passive houses is in Europe, with Germany and Austria taking the lead, with a smaller market in North America.
Passive house design and technologies bring benefits to environmental development, including energy saving for artificial lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
The implementation of passive house principles and technologies incurs some additional investment cost to provide high-performance envelope insulation, triple glazing windows, air-tight construction, heatrecovery ventilators, stringent construction details and so on.
Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Curzon family whose name originates in Notre-Dame-de-Courson in Normandy. The Chatsworth story began with Bess of Hardwick in Tudor times, who was a forebear of the Devonshires, and continues now with Peregrine, the 12th Duke of Devonshire who inherited the title on the death of his father Andrew in 2004. Chatsworth is all showbusiness: the ' Palace of the Peaks' is an attraction that not only dominates the glorious Derbyshire countryside but which has succeeded in outpacing its rivals. The Hawk takes pride of place in a completely new gallery created to display art and treasures from the vast Chatsworth collection. Though the house is filled with all sorts of extraordinary history, the Duke's pressing task is to keep focused squarely on the future. All the fun of the country fairThroughout the year Chatsworth stages several key events including an Easter Eggstravaganza from April 2-11 and the annual Country Fair from September 3-5A  -A  described by Alan Titchmarsh as the country's 'best outdoor show'.There are international horse trials on May 15-16 and a Tudor Fair where you can try your hand at archery or sample Elizabethan cookery from May 19-31.
Low carbon houses and zero emission buildings achieve their common objectives by applying all available green design techniques, strategies and technologies. As of May 2009, it is estimated that there are about 19,100 passive house projects in Europe (Lang, 2009).
Due to design optimisation for daylight and thermal comfort, passive house design and technologies offer building occupants better thermal comfort, indoor environment, indoor air quality and visual connection to outdoors.
However, it is argued that an incremental investment cost can be balanced by avoiding costs of investing in sophisticated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and their high operating costs.
Comfortably perched on their aristocratic pinnacle, however, they could barely have guessed at the financial horrors about to come.
But at a stroke, the noble families of Britain not only had to find ways of paying off huge tax demands (more than a few Van Dycks and other Old Masters went to the sale room to meet these bills), they also had to establish a way of trying to safeguard the future.Some opted out completely by handing over their homes to the National Trust, but others fought on. In between are successive generations of the family - some brilliant, many clearly bonkers - who have in various ways devoted themselves to the maintenance and improvement of the family seat.For most of its life Chatsworth was - in its magnificent way - the physical embodiment of their wealth and status. It was the first country house, for example, to open a Farm Shop, which last year was rated the best in the country. The new gallery is part of a A?15million programme of renovations which has opened up more of the house to visitors.Those arriving at Chatsworth next Sunday for the opening day of the new season will discover a new visitor route through the house that will reveal freshly restored rooms and elegant new displays not only celebrating the legendary Georgiana but also the 90th birthday of Deborah Devonshire, the present Dowager Duchess. He has personally overseen the A?15million programme of restorations and improvements which will take Chatsworth to a new level as a tourist attraction.
New this year will be a spectacular Tulip festival, in conjunction with de Jager bulbs, running alongside the Florabundance floral celebration in the house, during six days from Saturday, May 1.At the end of the year Chatsworth will be staging a Russian Christmas on the two lower floors of the house. Due to this broad definition, a building can be considered as low carbon or zero emission by installing onsite renewable energy technologies, or simply by tapping into off-site zero emission energy sources, such as hydro, wind farms, etc. Fresh air intake for ventilation is instead taken from energy-and-heat recovery ventilators, which transfer the thermal energy from discharged air to incoming fresh air to make the temperature of incoming air close to that of the indoor air temperature.
Passive house projects are anticipated to be widely adopted in the construction and property market in Europe.
These benefits lead to a healthier and higher quality of life.Due to the fact that passive house design and technologies do not rely on active systems and high-tech equipment to deliver environmental benefits, passive house design and techniques can also be considered one of the cost effective mitigation options. Instead of investing in HVAC systems, passive houses invest in better building envelopes, which also improves the building’s durability and its life span. The Curzon family have owned the estate at Kedleston since at least 1297 and have lived in a succession of manor houses near to or on the site of the present Kedleston Hall. Lord Bath famously established the Lions of Longleat and the Duke of Bedford followed his example with a safari park at Woburn Abbey, while Lord Montagu opened a motor museum at Beaulieu.But it is arguably England's most handsome country house - Chatsworth, ancestral home of the Dukes of Devonshire --which has survived most impressively. She is the last surviving member of the famous Mitford sisters whose number included famous writer Nancy, society beauty Diana (who married British fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley), Unity, who travelled to Berlin to pursue her devotion to Hitler, and communist Jessica.Deborah's role in reviving the fortunes of Chatsworth has been immense. Innovations this year include access to the restored stone courtyard at the heart of the house, improved access facilities meaning far fewer stairs for all visitors, and a new lift giving full disabled access to all three floors of the house for the first time.The Duke spends a lot of time chatting to visitors, finding out what they like and dislike about Chatsworth and what takes them there. There will also be seasonal shopping and food, special evening openings and gourmet feasts and live Nativity performances with animals from the farmyard. The resulting lower energy demand from passive houses helps reduce electricity peak load, and create further savings by avoiding additional investment to increase the capacity of the local power infrastructure and power plants.The promotion of passive house implementation also helps upgrade the skills of local construction work forces and improve building and living standards for the local residents.
As a rule of thumb, a passive house is considered to be cost effective when “the combined capitalised costs (construction, including design and installed equipment, plus operating costs for 30 years) do not exceed those of an average new home” (Passive House Institute, 2010). The present house was commissioned by Sir Nathaniel Curzon (later 1st Baron Scarsdale) in 1759.
In fact, it has not merely survived but has successfully recreated itself as one of the world's most extraordinary tourist attractions.
Tourism is an industry, like showbusiness, which depends on selling myths and dreams, and just as we queue to see blockbuster films, only the larger-than-life attractions draw the big crowds. The extraordinary story of Georgiana (compulsive gambler and tireless socialite) forms a key part of a new exhibition in Chatsworth devoted not only to her life but also to her tastes, reflected in displays of portraits, furniture and works of art that she commissioned or acquired, many not seen by visitors before.At the centre of the display is the famous portrait of her by Thomas Gainsborough.

Section with height comparisons to an Egyptian obelisk, the Pyramid of Cheops, the Eiffel Tower, and the Empire State Building, as well as a dedication to famous architects and engineers.
On the other hand, the concept of passive house focuses on the energy efficiency aspect of the building.
Among developing country regions, Eastern Europe has the highest market penetration prospects for passive house design and technologies, thanks to the similar climate and the geographical proximity to other European regions, where the passive house concept has been taken up and implemented.Passive house design and technologies are not limited to residential buildings.
The house was designed by the Palladian architects James Paine and Matthew Brettingham and was loosely based on an original plan by Andrea Palladio for the never-built Villa Mocenigo. The painting mysteriously vanished from Chatsworth in the 19th Century, but later turned up in the home of an elderly schoolmistress who had lopped off the bottom half of the full-length portrait so that it would fit above her fireplace.After the painting was found - by Allan Pinkerton of the famous Pinkerton's detective agency - it was put on display at London auctioneer's Agnew's.
Section and perspective cutaway of a duplex apartment with balcony and living-room floor plans, 1929.
Passive house takes the conventional passive solar building design principles as a starting point and combines them with an air-tight and well insulated building envelope to derive very low energy buildings.
In recent years, other building types, such as schools and offices have also applied passive house design and technologies, which deliver good energy efficiency results. At the time a relatively unknown architect, Robert Adam was designing some garden temples to enhance the landscape of the park; Curzon was so impressed with Adam's designs, that Adam was quickly put in charge of the construction of the new mansion. It was immediately stolen by the master criminal Adam Worth (who provided Sir Arthur Conan Doyle with the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes's nemesis Moriarty). When they took it over it was a bit of a millstone but they turned it into a really successful, really popular place. My parents deserve all of the credit.'While the Deborah exhibition inevitably reflects some of the Mitford history it also highlights her other passions, which include Elvis Presley. The Passive House Institute defines a passive house as “a building in which a comfortable interior climate can be maintained without active heating and cooling systems” (Passive House Institute, 2010).A typical passive house is a well-insulated and highly air-tight building, with stringent design and construction standards. Although the concept of passive house has been expanded to other climatic regions, the principles of air-tight construction and super-insulation are still being debated, especially their application in warmer climatic conditions.
But the unlikely connections between Chatsworth and the world of fiction don't stop there.When I met the Duke in his study, he was cradling the fabulous Kniphausen Hawk, a 17th Century statuette made of silver and silver gilt and set with precious gemstones, which has been at Chatsworth since 1819. On view will be her cherished Elvis phone - Elvis swivels the famous pelvis at the touch of a button - and her authentic piece of Graceland, a length of garden fence presented to the Dowager Duchess by Elvis's former neighbour.A more sombre American connection can be seen in the graveyard of St Peter's, the Chatsworth parish church. It is primarily heated by passive solar and other internal heat gains, and equipped with an energy recovery ventilator for a constant and balanced fresh air supply. The following application requirements are discussed within the proven application parameter in temperate climatic context, which is where passive house design technologies were originally developed.In order to achieve its objectives, a passive house has to first deploy all design strategies to meet climate responsive design principles.
This extraordinary bird is said to have provided the inspiration for the priceless statuette at the heart of the intrigue in The Maltese Falcon, the 1941 movie which stars Humphrey Bogart.
Here lies the body of JFK's sister Kathleen 'Kick' Kennedy, who in 1944 married William Cavendish, the heir to the Duke of Devonshire. It's amazing how it's endured --we've had lots of good luck.'As someone arrives to return the Kniphausen Hawk back to its secure home, I think of a line from the Humphrey Bogart film that this bird inspired.
The central, largest block contains the state rooms and was intended for use only when there were important guests in the house.
He was killed in action just four months later.Kathleen died four years afterwards when the plane she was travelling in crashed in France.
As Kasper Gutman, played by Sydney Greenstreet, prepares to dispense with the services of Wilmer (Elisha Cook Jr), he says: 'I couldn't be fonder of you if you were my own son.
The East block was a self-contained country house in its own right containing all the rooms for the family's private use, and the identical West block contained the kitchens and all other domestic rooms and staff accommodation.
Five months before he was assassinated in Dallas, JFK came to Chatsworth to visit his sister's grave - and the present Duke vividly remembers the day the President came to the Peak District.
Therefore, air quality control measures should be undertaken during design and construction stages. Plans for two more pavilions (as the two smaller blocks are known) of identical size, and similar appearance were not executed.
These further wings were intended to contain, in the south east a music room, and south west a conservatory and chapel. It is also important to locate the warm air ducts inside the heat envelope and cold air ducts outside (Passive House Institute, 2010). Externally these latter pavilions would have differed from their northern counterparts by large glazed Serlian windows on the piano nobile of their southern facades. Then, in movie style, we all seemed to run to lots of cars to come back over here to lunch.
However, in warm climatic regions, the opposite is recommended.To achieve the above key stringent standards, many building science research projects related to passive houses have been carried out, leading to the development of software called Passive House Planning Package (PHPP). Here the blocks were to appear as of two floors only; a mezzanine was to have been disguised in the north of the music room block. PHPP is an energy modelling programme that projects energy usage in the building design by taking into account almost every aspect related to energy consumption, including the site’s weather data, orientation, type of construction, materials used, window designs and locations, ventilation system, appliances, lighting and other electrical equipment used in the building. The linking galleries here were also to contain larger windows, than on the north, and niches containing classical statuary. If the great north front, approximately 107 metres in length, is Palladian in character, dominated by the massive, six-columned Corinthian portico, then the south front ( illustrated right) is pure Robert Adam.

Even within the temperate regions, the difference in extreme temperature, humidity, opportunity for geothermal, etc., can still be identified.
It is divided into three distinct sets of bays, the central section is a four-columned, blind triumphal arch (based on the Arch of Constantine in Rome) containing one large, pedimented glass door reached from the rusticated ground floor by an external, curved double staircase.
Therefore, while the principles of passive houses and related technologies can be applied in various temperate regions, the actual quantitative standards and construction detailing can vary. It is useful for a local area to have an overall feasibility study and to undertake research on the most suitable practices and standards for passive houses. This whole centre section of the facade is crowned by a low dome visible only from a distance. Flanking the central section are two identical wings on three floors, each three windows wide, the windows of the first-floor piano nobile being the tallest. Importing these components and materials are too expensive and increase the embodied carbon of the products. Adam's design for this facade contains huge "movement" and has a delicate almost fragile quality.
Therefore, it is important to extend capacity building and institutional settings to support and nurture local manufacture’s uptake and upgrade for the production of passive house components and materials. Entering the house through the great north portico on the piano nobile, one is confronted by the marble hall designed to suggest the open courtyard or atrium of a Roman villa. Twenty fluted alabaster columns with Corinthian capitals support the heavily decorated, high-coved cornice. Matthew Paine's original designs for this room intended for it to be lit by conventional windows at the northern end, but Adam, warming to the Roman theme, did away with the distracting windows and lit the whole from the roof through innovative glass skylights. If the hall was the atrium of the villa, then the adjoining saloon was to be the vestibulum.
The saloon, contained behind the triumphal arch of the south front, like the marble hall rises the full height of the house, 62 feet to the top of the dome, where it too is sky-lit through a glass oculus.
The decorative theme is based on the temples of the Roman Forum with more modern inventions: in the four massive, apse-like recesses are stoves disguised as pedestals for classical urns. The four sets of double doors giving entry to the room have heavy pediments supported by alabaster columns, and at second floor height, grisaille panels depict classical themes. From the saloon, the atmosphere of the 18th-century Grand Tour continues throughout the remainder of the principal reception rooms on the piano nobile, though on a slightly more modest scale. The "principal apartment", or State bedroom suite, contains fine furniture and paintings as does the drawing room with its huge Venetian window; the dining room, with its gigantic apse, has a ceiling that Adam based on the Palace of Augustus in the Farnese Gardens.
The theme carries on through the library, music room, down the grand staircase (not completed until 1922) onto the ground floor and into the so called "Caesar's hall".
On the departure of guests, it must sometimes have been a relief to vacate this temple of culture and retreat to the relatively simple comforts of the family pavilion. Also displayed in the house are many curiosities pertaining to Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India at the beginning of the 20th century, including his collection of Far Eastern artifacts. Designed by Worth of Paris, it was known as the peacock dress for the many precious and semi-precious stones sewn into its fabric.
In addition to that described above, this great country house contains collections of art, furniture and statuary.
Adam was asked by Nathaniel Curzon in 1758 to "take in hand the deer park and pleasure grounds". The landscape gardener William Emes had begun work at Kedleston in 1756, and he continued in Curzon's employ until 1760; however, it was Adam who was the guiding influence. It was during this period that the former gardens designed by Charles Bridgeman were swept away in favour of a more natural looking landscape.
Those that were include the North lodge which takes the form of a triumphal arch, the entrance lodges in the village, a bridge, cascade and the Fishing Room.
In the neoclassical style it is sited on the edge of the upper lake and contains a cold bath and boat house below. Some of Adam's unexecuted design for follies in the park rivalled in grandeur the house itself. A "View Tower" designed in 1760 " 84 feet high and 50 feet wide on five floors, surmounted by a saucer dome flanked by the smaller domes of flanking towers " would have been a small neoclassical palace itself.
A design for a pheasant house (a platform to provide a vantage point for the game shooting) became a domed temple, the roofs of its classical porticos providing the necessary platforms; this plan too was never completed. In the 1770s George Richardson designed the hexagonal summerhouse, and in 1800 the orangery. The Long Walk was laid out in 1760 and planted with flowering shrubs and ornamental trees.
In 1763 it was reported that Lord Curzon had given his gardener a seed from rare and scarce Italian shrub, the "Rodo Dendrone" ( sic).

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