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For adults in the state of rest or semi-activity, optimal synchrony between HRV and breathing rhythms occurs at a specific frequency, this being 1 cycle in ~12 seconds, or 5 cycles in ~1 minute. Referring to FIGURE 1, when in the state of rest or semi-activity, the autonomic nervous system takes its cue from the breathing frequency. Figures 2 and 4 are records of the same person breathing at 7.5 breaths per minute and 5 breaths per minute respectively. At this point, it is necessary to look more deeply into the relationship between heartbeat rate and breathing. 2) The fascinating thing about this is that increasing the breathing frequency by as little as 2.5 breaths per minute results in a dramatic shift upward in HRV valleys.
3) Contrasting the red and green lines representing the highest and lowest breathing rates, in relative terms, rapid breathing results in the heart working on a continuous basis much faster than slower breathing.
4) The average heartbeat rate, by definition being the HRV mean, shifts upward as breathing frequency increases.
The critical issue is not that more rapid breathing results in increased sympathetic emphasis. If we accept that the valley represents the moment of maximal cardiopulmonary rest and relaxation and minimal arterial pressure, and that it represents the moment of minimal action on the part of the autonomic nervous system at large, then it is this rest period that is sacrificed. In other words, 15 breaths per minute yields 6% less sympathetic influence (a positive effect in the context of throttling sympathetic action), and 40% less parasympathetic influence (a negative effect in the context of parasympathetic influence and autonomic nervous system balance).
It is very important to understand that these measurements are taken while seated and completely at rest with the exception of consciously breathing at different rates.
This particular spectral signature is of special significance because it is representative of optimal autonomic nervous system balance, spectral components to the left of the peak being reflective of sympathetic activity and spectral components to the right being reflective of parasympathetic activity.
Again, in order for HRV amplitude and coherence to be maximized, the breathing cycle must be highly aligned with the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm. Motion of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which provide the mechanical action of breathing, is governed by both autonomic and somatic branches, the autonomic function facilitating the unconscious breathing process and the somatic function facilitating the conscious breathing process.
See the special report: Galvanic Skin Response, A Window Into Breathing and Autonomic Nervous System Function.
Maximal autonomic balance with resulting maximal coherence requires that The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, as evidenced by the heart rate variability cycle, and the breathing rhythm be synchronized. Breathing rate strongly influences sympathetic nervous system emphasis, the higher the rate, the higher the sympathetic emphasis. With this in mind, there is a specific breathing frequency, with commensurate depth that yields optimal autonomic nervous system balance, this being the frequency of resonance. The second method is based on a fundamental breakthrough, this being the fact that the intrinsic autonomic rhythm - The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, will synchronize with the breathing cycle if the breathing cycle is highly tuned with the natural frequency of the autonomic rhythm.

Optimal autonomic balance - with optimal coherence, is a result of synchrony between the breathing cycle and this Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm. Rapid breathing while at rest results in autonomic nervous system imbalance, specifically a shift toward sympathetic emphasis. Because, while at rest, the average adult breathes at a rate of 10-20 breaths per minute, they exist in a state of persistent sympathetic emphasis. By breathing at the frequency at which the cardiopulmonary system (inclusive of central nervous system aspects) naturally resonates, one can achieve optimal autonomic balance and avert sympathetic dominance. COHERENCE provides Breathing Pacemaker products for the purpose of synchronizing the breathing cycle with an external reference signal operating at the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm of ~12 seconds, resulting in Coherent Breathing and optimal autonomic nervous system balance. This new science is based on a breakthrough in the understanding of autonomic nervous system balance and its relationship to subtle heart and breathing rhythms. For adults in the state of rest or semi-activity, if the breathing cycle is synchronized with the heart rate variability cycle, the resulting center frequency and primary component of the heart rate variability frequency spectrum is .085 cycles per second or 1 cycle in ~12 seconds. The relationship between the heartbeat rate and the breathing cycle is such that heartbeat rate tends to increase coincident with inhalation and decrease coincident with exhalation.
For completeness, FIGUREs 5 and 6 present HRV signatures while breathing at 15 and 30 breaths per minute. Note that while this heart rate variability difference is very large, there is only a 12% difference in average heartbeat rate, 5 breathing cycles per minute being 12% lower than 15 breaths per minute. From this observation, it appears evident that the cardiopulmonary system inclusive of central nervous system aspects, takes its cue from the breathing rate, i.e.
FIGURE 11 presents a spectral analysis of the heart rate variability signal while breathing at the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, plotting HRV frequency vs.
If the frequency of the breathing cycle occurs even slightly to either side of the 5 cycles per minute center frequency, HRV amplitude and coherence will not be maximized. The importance of this dual control is obvious, for without both autonomic and somatic control, either we would have no ability to breathe consciously, for example hold the breath, a function that is vitally important to survival, or we would have to breathe consciously 100% of the time! This condition is one wherein the breathing rate is not exacerbating sympathetic nervous system emphasis, but parasympathetic emphasis is not being elicited. The first method involves consciously synchronizing the breathing cycle with the actual heart rate variability cycle. COHERENCE asserts the theory that the root cause of sympathetic dominance is in fact suboptimal breathing.
If we once again examine the HRV corresponding to 5 breathing cycles per minute, we see that its sympathetic aspect (peak) is just as pronounced as that of 30 breaths per minute, both approximating 93-95 beats per minute.
15 breaths per minute, the breathing rate of the average adult, it would look something like this.

Consequently, it stands to reason that breathing frequency and depth play a key role in moderating blood pressure.
An example of this is depicted in FIGURE 12 where the breathing rate is 4 cycles per minute.
When one breathes at the prescribed rhythm with appropriate depth, it results in autonomic nervous system balance and cardiopulmonary resonance. With this, the optimal state of coherence is achieved and will persist as long as the breathing cycle persists at this rate. All measurements depicted in this document with the exception of FIGURES 3 and 8 are measurements taken on this author under differing breathing circumstances. Breathing at the The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, brings about autonomic nervous system balance, correcting the state of sympathetic over activity and parasympathetic under activity and its consequences including internal tension, anxiety, and potentially the myriad of other psycho-physiological challenges to health and well being resulting from this imbalance. Consequently, FIGURE 2 represents a modest heart rate variability with relatively shallow synchronous breathing. Even now , HRV(av) is difficult to calculate for chaotic signatures without sophisticated processing techniques. Again, FIGUREs 2 and 4-6 are HRV signatures of the same person deliberately breathing at 4 different frequencies and otherwise seated and at rest. On the other hand, the valley relating to 30 breaths per minute as compared to 5 breaths per minute diminishes by over 30 beats! While, generally speaking, the oscillator will synchronize with the breathing cycle as long as the breathing cycle is synchronous, the amplitude of the output is maximal when the frequency and phase of respiration are identical to that of the oscillator.
This spectral signature is highly symmetrical, demonstrating that theassociated HRV signal possesses a high degree of spectral purity, frequencies being largely contained to a relatively narrow band around the center frequency of .085 cycles per second. This second method is the basis of the COHERENCE Breathing Pacemaker(TM) series of audio-visual products. As noted in the figure, this HRV signature was recorded while consciously breathing at 7.5 cycles per minute. For this reason, most HRV investigators have their subjects employ some form of synchronous breathing so as to take advantage of respiratory sinus arrhythmia effects.

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