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One hundred and twenty seven male and female elementary school, high school, and university students who were classified as high or low exercisers completed questionnaires that measured global self-esteem, body satisfaction, and body build.
Adolescent overweight is largely a product of familial obesity risk (4), but environmental influences can augment the expression of overweight in children with a family history of obesity, continuing into adulthood. Evidence for a strong genetic influence on childhood adiposity despite the force of the obesogenic environment.
Usefulness of cardiovascular family history data for population-based preventive medicine and medical research (The Health Family Tree Study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study).
Effects of a social-network method for group assignment strategies on peer-led tobacco prevention programs in schools. Health buddies: a novel, peer-led health promotion program for the prevention of obesity and eating disorders in children in elementary school. For all participants combined, high exercisers reported greater self-esteem than low exercisers, showing that the positive relationship between exercise activity and self-esteem is robust across sex and age. Self-esteem has been defined as the “level of global regard one has for the self” (Harter, 1993), or how well a person “prizes, values, approves, or likes” him or herself (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991). Indeed, body satisfaction might mediate any relationship between exercise activity and self-esteem. Participants indicated whether or not they were involved in each case, and if they were, how many days and how many hours each week they devoted to the sport or athletic endeavor, and for how long this had been occurring. Instead, they were classified as high exercisers if they spent 5 to 7 days per week on a sport or other activity, spent at least 4 hours per week on it, and had been doing this for at least the past 2 years.
Note that the total sample size dropped from 127 to 96 because some participants did not answer the questions about weight and height, which were necessary for the calculation of weight difference and BMI. This is not ideal, but we are confident that the two groups were clearly different in their amounts of exercise activity and that the high group met requirements demanded by other researchers. People who already have higher self-esteem for other reasons may be more motivated to exercise compared to those who have lower self-esteem. This was true for male participants in all three age groups and for female elementary school students, but not for female high school or female university students.
One reason may be that the relationship is weaker for women and girls than for men and boys and that the present sample sizes, which ranged from 5 to 12 for female participants, were not sufficiently large to detect the effect. It might be useful to do so because, in a study of female adolescents involving sport participation, exercise participation, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem, Tiggemann (2001) found that only sport participation predicted body dissatisfaction. Genomic risk information for common health conditions: Maximizing kinship-based health promotion. That is, exercise might have physical effects that lead to greater body satisfaction which in turn leads to greater self-esteem.


Sample sizes in each condition are shown in Table 1, although they were smaller for some analyses because not all participants answered the questions about weight and height. In other cases, it was unclear whether people forgot the second page or whether they did not engage in other athletic activity. These criteria, which demanded at least 8 out of 18 points on the complete exercise activity scale, are consistent with other guidelines for regular exercise.
Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) recommend using the stepwise procedure for separating dependent variables while controlling for Type I error. Sports participation and self esteem: Variations as a function of gender and gender role orientation. Self-esteem and sex roles among male and female high school students: Their relationship to physical activity.
Body image dissatisfaction: Gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise.
The impact of adolescent girls’ life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem. The effect of exercise on body satisfaction and self-esteem as a function of gender and age. Furthermore, childhood overweight contributes to type 2 diabetes, adult obesity, and heart disease, along with impaired self-esteem and depression (3).
However, in contrast to the findings for self-esteem, these results have only been obtained with male and female adolescents and adults; children have not been investigated. The exercise score could range from 0 to 9 for sport activity and from 0 to 9 for other athletic activity, for a total of 0 to 18. For those who simply forgot it, the total score may have underestimated their overall exercise involvement. For example, the American College of Sports Medicine states that psychological benefits accrue with 15 to 60-min periods of exercise three times per week at 60 to 90% of maximum heart rate (Iannos & Tiggemann, 1997). For male participants, scores were lower for high than for low exercisers, whereas for female participants there was no significant difference. When the difference in self-esteem scores was converted to the standardized effect size d, it was 0.51, which is a medium effect (Cohen, 1977). However, in the university students, they were almost identical and in the elementary school students, scores were higher for low than for high exercisers. It might also examine whether exercise activity has different relationships to different dimensions of body-cathexis and to different dimensions of self-esteem.
Self esteem as a function of sex of participant and body satisfaction in elementary school, high school, and university students.


For body image, the ANOVA was run with self-esteem and cathexis as covariates, but the results were the same as above – no significant effects of exercise.
Thus, despite the concerns over the measurement of exercise activity, our findings consolidate the generality of the relationship between exercise activity and self-esteem, particularly because the groups were compared under standardized test conditions.
This is consistent with the fact that there was also a positive relationship between exercise activity and body build for male participants. Physical activity, self esteem, and self-efficacy relationships in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Impact of intercollegiate athletic participation for African American and Caucasian men: Some further evidence.
An exception to this pattern is a study by Tiggemann and Williamson (2000), who found that the relationship between exercise activity and self-esteem was positive for men, but not significant for women and even negative for young women under 21. Body build may vary with exercise activity for men, perhaps because they engage in sports that enhance physique.
The ANOVA for weight difference was run the exact same way (no covariates) as the previous univariate analysis, because this variable was not correlated with self-esteem, body-cathexis, or body image. Of particular interest, they demonstrate that the positive relationship between exercise activity and self-esteem appeared in the youngest group, who were about 11 years of age. Given this evidence of a causal relationship between exercise and self-esteem, it is quite possible that the present association has a similar direction. Larger sample sizes might clarify the relationship between exercise activity and body-cathexis for female participants. In addition, another recent study found no significant relationship between exercise and global self-esteem for senior high school students (Bowker, Gadbois, & Cornock, 2003). Finally, although most research has considered self-esteem as a global concept, it has been argued that it should be decomposed into two dimensions: self-competence and self-liking, which respectively correspond to the instrumental and the intrinsic values of the self (Tafarodi & Milne, 2002). In view of these somewhat conflicting findings, we re-examined the relationship between exercise and self-esteem.
Given that self-competence reflects “abilities, skills, and talents” (Tafordi & Milne, 2002), it might be more strongly associated with exercise activity than self-liking.



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