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This article offers step-by-step instructions for nine insight meditation exercises, as well as a detailed explanation of mindful eating, hints on dealing with problems such as wandering mind, sleepiness, disturbing mental images, unpleasant emotions, and more. If you can watch your abdomen rising and falling one time, you can practice insight meditation.
If meditation seems very difficult or you lack self-discipline, try this strategy: decide you will meditate just one minute per day. Put your hand in your lap, noting "placing." Now you are back in the original meditation posture. Here we'll describe how to change from sitting to standing in a step-by-step manner, enabling you to maintain mindfulness. Once the body is upright you should observe the standing posture for a few moments, noting "standing." This means to focus awareness on the position or shape of the body, being aware of how it feels. Since mindfulness sometimes gets "bored" or slows down when observing the same object for a long time (especially during a meditation retreat), changing to another primary meditation object can help mindfulness maintain strength and continuity. In this exercise your attention switches back and forth between two primary meditation objects. Although vipassana is a very simple method, many aspects of meditation only become clear by actually doing it.
If you want to meditate longer than an hour, it is best to alternate this exercise with walking meditation. It doesn't matter whether a thought is good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant; the conventional meaning is irrelevant in meditation.
If you are sitting, get up and practice walking meditation or do the hand motions exercise. For example, you might repeat the word "Buddho," or another mantra (a mantra is a special word or phrase repeated aloud and focused on in concentration meditation). In the context of vipassana meditation, some mental forms are "real," such as the intention to move the body, or a feeling of aversion or desire.
But again, we need to understand how to focus from moment to moment during vipassana practice.
You can use your own words, but the spirit of the aspiration should be something like this: "By this practice of insight meditation may I reach the end of suffering.
The practice of mental noting helps keep the mind on the meditation object and prevents you from getting distracted. Then thoughts will get stirred up—distracting, delusive thoughts about how difficult or boring meditation is. But even if you don't end up meditating longer, keep practicing one minute every day, without exception, and your attitude will gradually change. Whether good or bad in conventional terms, all objects are treated equally during meditation practice.
Soon those thoughts will force you to stand up and walk away from the cushion without having finished your meditation session. All we need to do is label the event with an appropriate mental note, such as "memory," "planning," or "imagining," and lightly bring the mind back to the main meditation object.
During a single meditation session mindfulness may jump back and forth from one object to another many times. Although these Buddhist meditation exercises come from the traditions of the Burmese teacher Mahasi Sayadaw and the Thai teacher Chao Khun Bhavanapirama Thera, you don't have to be a Buddhist to practice them.
However, although the labeling technique is mainly for beginners, even advanced meditators benefit from using it when mindfulness and concentration are weak.

By practicing insight meditation we gradually realize there is no bodily position comfortable enough that we can always maintain it.
There are a couple of Pali words worth remembering, because you will hear them over and over again in discussions about vipassana meditation. In meditation these movements are called, respectively, "rising" and "falling." They never cease to alternate as long as you live. If a secondary object makes only a faint impression on the periphery of your awareness and does not strongly hook your attention, ignore it and continue observing the primary meditation object. That doesn't mean you have to observe one object exclusively for the entire meditation period. The basic walking meditation exercise is similar to normal walking, only slower and more deliberate. Having identified the appropriate meditation objects, we need to understand precisely how to observe them.
The same applies to the motion of the feet in walking meditation, the movements of the hands in Exercise 3, and so on. Just keep observing the primary meditation object and ignore the thoughts, which will fall away on their own. In short, a secondary object is anything you're aware of that is not the primary meditation object.
This is one of many aspects of meditation that only truly becomes clear with practical experience.
On the other hand, background noises like the sound of traffic, the bark of a dog or a ticking clock should not be considered hindrances, and in fact can be legitimate objects of mindfulness.
The instructions for noting secondary objects apply to all the meditation exercises in this article.
Generally speaking, when feelings arise during meditation they should be observed and labeled with a mental note.
Intermediate or advanced meditators may practice this exercise for the entire meditation period, or for a few minutes before practicing the rising-falling exercise.
This means to focus awareness on the posture of the body as you stand (for a more detailed description of how to observe posture, see Exercise 4). Even though we won't be able to do it clearly at first, our eventual aim during meditation should be to observe every object in this manner, knowing it with mindfulness from the instant of its arising all the way through to its ending, right in the present moment. You will find, however, that once you get "over the hump" of your initial resistance and actually sit down to do it, you might sometimes want to meditate longer. After one or two moments of noting "hearing," return your attention to the primary meditation object and forget about the sound.
To know an object during vipassana meditation means to experience it with bare, nonverbal awareness. In the beginning your mind will often wander during meditation, spinning out thoughts about the past and future. If an image occurs, try to focus on the primary meditation object again (such as the rising-falling motions), ignoring the image.
As soon as you're aware of an emotion during meditation practice, label it with a mental note. By focusing on a different part of the body, however, you give mindfulness a larger repertoire of objects, just as a weightlifter trains different muscles in rotation. Students sometimes get confused because we say a meditation exercise such as the sitting posture can be practiced as long as forty-five minutes.

The strategy is simple: When you catch yourself thinking, silently say the mental note "thinking" for a moment or two, and then gently return your attention to the rising-falling movements (or whatever primary meditation object you were observing). Be careful to follow the meditation techniques correctly so that mindfulness and concentration stay as balanced as possible.
Here's how to use the mental noting technique with this exercise: As the abdomen expands, say the word "rising" in your mind.
When no thoughts or other secondary objects distract you, your attention should stay with the primary meditation object.
Insight meditators usually alternate a period of sitting with an equal period of walking meditation, especially during an intensive retreat in which vipassana is practiced many hours per day.
The insight meditation method is a middle path between 1) suppressing an emotion and 2) indulging it by expressing it in words or actions, trying to feel it more deeply, or thinking about it further. Here you will observe a stationary object—the sitting posture itself (strictly speaking, however, movement is still present, because the mind moves). When unpleasant memories arise we focus on how we were wronged, getting more and more upset. But it should be understood that in any two consecutive moments the meditation object may be different. After noting the emotion for one or two moments, let go of it and gently bring your attention back to the primary meditation object. Letting go of the previous meditation object happens automatically every time we focus in the present again. Sleepiness may bother you more during an intensive meditation retreat than in your daily practice.
As a result of meditating, you begin to see that uncomfortable bodily sensations arise much more often than you had thought.
But we should understand that during vipassana practice we won't always be able to focus on a "real" or "correct" meditation object, even if we try hard to do so. No matter how comfortable the position is initially, we are always forced to move because of the changing nature of the physical elements. The way of focusing on objects in vipassana practice differs from that of concentration meditation, and it's important to understand the difference.
Emotions are valid meditation objects, too, objects of the fourth foundation of mindfulness. So when we say, for example, "be aware of the rising motion," what should be observed is, "knowing rising," or "the-act-of-knowing-rising." That is true for all meditation objects, not just the abdominal movements. Sooner or later, mindfulness must learn how to handle emotional objects or we won't be able to make progress in insight.
Although not all meditation objects will have such clearly distinct phases as a single step does, we can use this example as a paradigm of how to observe other objects, too, even mental events. In all the exercises except walking meditation your eyes can be either open or closed (in walking meditation your eyes must be open).
Please don't misunderstand: we don't mean you have to change to a different meditation object every single moment. Most of us have seen jugglers at festivals or street fairs, and their touch-and-go skill is a perfect example of how to focus on objects in meditation.

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