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Our Business Analyst went abroad last week to meet a new customer who selected us to develop his Content Management System. What I just mentioned was an imaginary system development process, which has limited real world applicability.
There are good design methodologies out there, but very often due to time limitations (where clients push for quick releases, while developer struggles with extremely tight deadlines), solution providers aren't confident to apply them. Customers are also encouraging them, having a daydream of re-factoring the system, once it is running at a profit earning stage. Developers are used to starting the system development process with a scaled down version of the system, and gradually patching the rest of the system around it.
Properly architected systems always gain that strategic advantage over common issues of the software development life cycle. Let me highlight first that I do not draw the famous use case diagrams and sequence diagrams when designing systems. As I have reiterated many times, designing a system mainly depends on the designer's understanding of the problem domain.
In order to optimize the throughput, start to rethink the system with a fresh mind by forgetting all the information you gathered through various resources. As an example, let's try to apply this methodology to discover the feature list of a simple Document Management System (DMS).
If you get fairly good answers to all the three questions above, I would say that you have understood the system.
Marketing division, and the Administrative division can overlook any other division, apart from doing default functions of the system. In my early days, I always started by recognizing the full list of leaf level functions of the system (granular level use cases of the system). Once you design a couple of systems, the module breakdown will become easier and the concept will become friendlier. Think of a governing body of a country or a private organization, and how they are being managed.
Let's have a look at a typical organization as below and try to see, how it would respond to a typical request. CEO – Chief Operation Officer of this system is acting as the front end (User Interface of the software system) of the organization. In order to understand the organization well, let's see how this organization will respond to a typical request, made by the CEO. In our system design approach, we will also use the same concept to break and design the software systems. Initial analysis of the Document Management System has discovered a set of modules with their leaf level functions. The analysis of this system shows that a generic DMS system can be easily mapped to a real world organization. Object-oriented programming (well known as OOP) is the concept of defining and combining independent objects to form a software system.
Having these things in mind, designers are welcome to use any object oriented concepts as and when they are appropriate in software systems. As the OOP concept becomes widely popular in the software world, the designers start to encounter similar types of challenges in every other object-oriented design they do. This allows designers to visually model the system to capture the structure and behavior of architectures and components.
There probably isn't a 'best' way to build a computer system; much more important is to avoid choosing a terrible way.
HIPO - Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output, is a technique for use in the top-down design of systems, and was originally found by IBM in 1970s. The approach presented here for system designing, can be broken in to four main steps as listed below. It introduces a new concept that allows beginners to easily break and design complex software systems. This implicitly means time, followed by money, which threatens the customer who doesn't have an adequate visibility over the advantages of a properly designed system.
A well architected system is cheaper than a patched together system when it comes to dealing with changes and upgrades. In-fact I have another approach that lets you understand the system better and allows you to directly draw the class diagram. A well written System Requirement Specification (SRS) document can be used as the introduction to the system.
In case of a disagreement with a prototyped system, the designer should strategically drive the customer to write the specification for him. In this effort you are free to ask any question, but in order to get a better start, start the process with the three main questions (about input, process, and output of the system) listed below. It is a document management system and it will help my client to manage his documents properly.
Both of these complex organizations have hierarchical structures with many smaller departments (divisions) linked to the top.

A complex organization may have several levels of managers (super senior managers, senior managers and junior managers).
As explained before, it is important to break the system into smaller modules before designing them; the better you modularize the system, the easier the system maintenance will be.
The Manager Operation will coordinate all functions of the system while helping each division interact with one another as and when it is appropriate.
In this attempt the system has used two divisions to complete the task and these two divisions have being controlled by the Manager Operation. You can continue the process to build the whole DMS to form an organization that manages documents.
Some of the famous modules that can be reused are, Logging, Notifications, Exception, File Directory IO etc.
The Data Access Layer (DAL) consists of classes that directly operate with the database, so it is like the engine of the system.
The whole idea behind this approach is to be able to replace the front layer (User Interface) without hurting other parts of the system. In that case the front interface of the application is the set of ASPX pages and their code behind files. Visual abstractions help you understand the bigger view, while opening hidden areas of the system. Designers are expected to keep their knowledge up to date with the most recent technologies, so that they can utilize them early in their designs. If there is anything new about the function of a system, the first implementation will have to be redone completely to achieve a satisfactory (that is, acceptably small, fast, and maintainable) result. In an interactive or real-time system, it is good to do as little work as possible before responding to a request. The software designing methodologies are still evolving and can be considered as fairly new. The second step of the above proposed design technique is some what equal to HIPO technique. I have found it is extremely practical and helpful to deal with current day system designing requirements. This article is a challenging attempt to introduce a concept (model) that holds onto all extreme cases of modern day system designing requirements. Expanding a system which is developed for a limited set of features is just adding more problems than features. However in modern days, it is less probable to assume that designers get a sufficient time frame to fully investigate the system, before starting to design. The system designer should read it repeatedly and should carefully understand each and every important feature hidden in odd corners of the document. The traditional advice is to wait till you get to the depth of the system before starting the design. This is another crucial area, where a client could be extremely rigid and even decide to reject the system, complaining that the solution provider delivered a wrong product. And those that are not answered by the client have to be creatively handled by the system designer in a way that doesn't affect the solidity of the system. A user of this system *can be from four different divisions*, namely Administrative, Accounting, Marketing, and Development.
So any update to an existing file will run through a version handler that assigns the correct version number.
This process needs to be repeated (go through the questioning and answering process again and again) several times to fully discover the system. The ones who do not have experience will always find it harder to recognize the modules of the system initially. The CEO will directly map to the front interface of our sample Document Management System (DMS). Following that concept, let's modularize our DMS system horizontally as well as vertically. This approach will produce a consistent system that has distributed its functionality across several modules, allowing easy maintenance. Just to understand the relation between the two, let's think of the functionality of a part of the human body (let's say a hand) and a well architected software module of a system.
The Design Patterns describe a set of recurring solutions to common problems in software design.
This separation will better modularize the system and also helps developers edit the data access layer (this causes lots of changes at the early stage of a project) without hurting other part of the system. If you have followed the concept above as you were implementing the system probably you should have set of ASPX pages that are free from application logic and also another set of modules which contains the core application logic. But the superiority of the new technology may also lead the overwhelmed designers to overuse the technology.
This process will help us uncover all use-cases or rather, in simple terms, leaf level functions of the system. As I reached this point, the deep understanding automatically guided me to identify the modules of the system.

In this application designing technique, we treat the software system as a real world organization. As the number of workers of the organization increases, you add managers to manage the worker group. This will allow us to design each module separately by treating each as a separate division of the main organization.
In real world organizations also you find common divisions, such as company library, company canteen, reception etc. According to the diagram, firstly, you have the system user interacting with the DMS interface.
This method can be used to design any system, including a web site, web service, other types of services (windows service etc), form based application (windows form etc) or library.
This simple breaking allows you to introduce a web service interface (ASMX file) to distribute the system across two machines to expand the system. In my practice I draw an activity diagram and a System Architecture Diagram (as drawn in Figure -4) if the system is very complex but only the second, when it is not so. But now there is another emerging technique named HIPO-II, which competes with the most advanced design methods while maintaining its original simplicity.
So this means that each user of this system will have different privileges and access permissions. A private document will not be supported by this system (confirmed by the client software requirement specification). Careful study finds that all software systems can be easily mapped to a real world organization. Even though we didn't fully analyze the DMS system, what we have discovered is detailed enough to explain the concept with an example. It is recommended to have separate sub modules inside each module to handle leaf level operations such as accessing a database, accessing a file server etc.
This will happen until you correctly define the specification of the module or until you learn to design truly object oriented modules, but it is recommended to expand the functions of the module until they are rich enough. This unfortunate circumstance is the ideal case for a designer to think of a throw away prototype or even two.
As the third step of designing a system, we will draw a system architecture diagram as below. The modules can be designed using the expertise you have on various design patterns and object oriented programming concepts. This will separate the heart of the application to a separate application server and ASPX files to a web server as the above diagram explains. The system designers can take advantage from observing available manual systems when designing a software system to automate such process.
The customer uses the first few releases of the system to understand the direction of the project and to apply corrections.
When you have that luxury of visualizing a software system via a pure manual real world organization (more friendly) you can quickly and accurately respond to requirement changes without hurting the stability of the system. However during this process, you need to carefully group classes of the system to form modules as well. This diagram will help us visually abstract the system and understand the key modules with their interaction in our DMS system.
They can first study the manual system and automate the manual system with a software system.
Unfortunately, some of these changes shake the whole foundation of the system, forcing designers to rethink the initial design. They have to have clear definition and should fully cover the specific sections of the system.
Inside the DAL you can see there are three classes to handle three basic types of data related operations named Edit, Add and Remove data (In this sample all handlers are same as workers of the above described organization). This approach will be better suited for complex systems, but will obviously work for simple systems too.
The drawing of the class diagrams completes the fourth and final step, of our approach to design the system.
In order to successfully map a software system to a real world organization, you need to correctly analyze the software system in a way that explains how it would process in a purely manual environment. These modules will be treated as separate divisions of an organization, where each module will be controlled by one or more managers, positioned considering the complexity of the system.
It is highly recommended to keep similar modules, communication pattern, rules and naming conventions in between manual systems and software systems for better visualization.

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