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07.06.2013

Amygdala fear and stress response,declutter house checklist,healthy breakfast items list - Plans Download

The amygdala detects whether a stimulus (person or event) is threatening and the hippocampus, the center of short-term memory, links the fear response to the context in which the threatening stimulus or event occurred.
The young child has limited capacity to manage this overwhelming stress and experiences increased arousal — fear and anxiety (physical and emotional sensations).
These quite concerning consequences of overwhelming stress must be considered in a larger developmental context — including aspects of the child and the availability of supportive adults. This website was made possible by grant number 90YD0268 from the Office of Head Start, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, U.S.
Scientists have only begun to understand the wonders of the nervous system, using increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques.
Learn the basics of how the brain’s 100 billion nerve cells are born, grow, connect, and function. Discover causes of disorders of the brain and body, as well as the science enabling prevention or treatment. From birth through old age, brain cells and the connections between them change in response to the environment. The study of the brain and nervous system applies to countless facets of daily life, from decisions about money and education, to the way we view ourselves and others. Basic scientific research on the biological basis of fear is unlocking the mystery of post-traumatic stress disorder and suggesting new treatments. Exposure therapy using virtual reality technology helps soldiers returning from war confront and overcome fearful experiences. Researchers are testing new drug treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and debilitating fears. In a given year, about 3.5 percent of Americans suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a punishing disorder marked by intense fear, anxiety, and flashbacks that follow a traumatic experience. Surprisingly, what researchers know about the psychology of fear has its basis in studies of the stomach. Fear conditioning occurs outside the laboratory as well — we all have fears based on experience. To find out how the brain processes fear, researchers lesioned brain regions and circuits in laboratory animals. Making the association between a neutral stimulus and a frightening event is a learning process.


One research group found they could disrupt fear memories in rats without drugs by conducting extinction therapy during memory reconsolidation. But as researchers learn how fear memories are encoded in the brain, and as animal research helps to identify new treatments, there may be new therapeutic options. Traumatic events activate the body’s stress response, strengthening and coloring subsequent memory. Drugs called beta blockers are used to treat people with high blood pressure — they stabilize the body's response to a stressor, preventing the fight-or-flight response.
Debra is the former director of public information and outreach at the Society for Neuroscience and oversaw content production for BrainFacts.org.
Ivan Pavlov received the Nobel Prize for research on digestion, but along the way, he accidentally revolutionized what was known about the brain and behavior. It turns out that just as Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate, animals and humans learn to fear. For example, many children learn to fear the doctor's office where they previously received a shot. When they lesioned a region called the amygdala, the animals failed to associate a neutral stimulus, like a tone, with a fearful event, like a shock. In fact, brain cells in the amygdala show electrical and chemical changes that are associated with learning in other parts of the brain.
Rewriting fearful memories or forgetting them altogether might therefore help conquer fears. Two research groups have shown that treatments that affect enzymes called kinases are effective in disrupting fearful memories in rats and mice if they are given when the fearful memory is recalled, during a stage of memory called reconsolidation. Up to 7.7 million Americans suffer from this punishing disorder in a given year as a result of traumatic experiences, including natural disasters, violent attacks, and war. Many try cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which teaches new ways to think about and cope with symptoms. Some researchers are testing the idea that reducing the body's emotional response during the reconsolidation of frightening memories might reduce or prevent PTSD.
A recent human study showed that, when given during recollection of a frightening memory, the beta blocker propranolol reduced fear but did not affect knowledge of an event.
While completing a PhD and postdoctoral fellowship in neuroscience, she discovered a knack for explaining tough scientific concepts to general audiences.


Activation of the amygdala, parallel structures on the left and right sides of the brain, is shown. Surmising that the dogs learned to associate the lab coats with the technicians who fed them, Pavlov investigated whether he could "condition" the dogs to salivate in response to other unrelated stimuli.
When afraid, rats and mice show increased heart rate and blood pressure, and they freeze all movement, perhaps in an attempt to hide from predators. Although this fear memory and many others are relatively benign, some traumatic events like natural disasters, war, violent attacks, and serious accidents can cause lasting associations and effects that interfere with daily life. Furthermore, people who had surgery to remove the portion of the temporal lobe that contains the amygdala, a treatment for some forms of epilepsy, had difficulty learning to associate a flash of light with an unpleasant noise.
However, unlike some other types of learning, lasting fear memories can be acquired quickly, often after a single experience, and can last a lifetime. In fact, a common therapeutic technique to counsel people with phobias and PTSD is called memory extinction — patients are repeatedly exposed to formerly frightening stimuli in a safe environment, without harmful consequences. The idea is that memories are written and rewritten every time we recall them, so modifying the brain's memory machinery during recall might change a memory for good.
Then they waited several hours and replayed the tone over and over without any accompanying shock. By uncovering the biological basis for fear memory, these studies are paving the way for new clinical therapies, approaches that may offer hope to people with PTSD. Researchers have conditioned mice and rats to freeze with fear when they hear a tone that they learned to associate with a mild shock. However, new basic science and clinical research on the biological basis of fear suggests promising new therapeutic avenues. Researchers in the 1920s also showed that humans can be conditioned to fear everyday items associated with a loud noise.



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