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The Canberra Class Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD), also known as a Landing Helicopter Dock, project will provide the Australian Defence Force with one of the most capable and sophisticated air-land-sea amphibious deployment systems in the world. These 27,000 tonne ships will be able to land a force of over 1,000 personnel by helicopter and water craft, along with all their weapons, ammunition, vehicles and stores. The largest ships ever built for the Royal Australian Navy, the LHDs are being built as a collaboration between Navantia and BAE Systems - Maritime.
The construction is being done using the modular approach whereby the ship is divided into modules, which are built and fitted out as discrete units, before being welded together to form the completed ship.
Construction of the hull to the level of the flight deck, including the majority of fitting out will be undertaken at Navantia's Ferrol-Fene shipyard in north-west Spain.
Therefore the requirement is for a multipurpose ship able to operate in both these roles, but not necessarily simultaneously, owing to the differing configuration requirements. The first LHD, named HMAS Canberra, is due to be commissioned in 2014 and the second ship, HMAS Adelaide, is planned to commission in 2016.
The ship is a conventional steel mono hull design with the superstructure located on the starboard side of the flight deck.
The LHD has been designed with the shallowest possible draft to allow her to operate in secondary ports and harbours as well as manoeuvre tactically in the shallow waters common in the littoral regions. The flight deck has been configured with six spots on the port side for medium sized aircraft such as the NRH 90 or Blackhawk, which allows for simultaneous take off and landing operations; alternatively it can support simultaneous take off and landing operations of four CH-47 Chinooks.
There are two aircraft elevators – one aft of the flight deck and one fwd of the island on the stbd side - that can accommodate medium sized helicopters, with the after one able to accommodate larger helicopters such as CH 47. Between the flight deck and the accommodation deck is a contiguous hangar and light vehicle deck; the hanger (990m2) occupying the after section of the deck whilst the light vehicle deck (1880m2) is located on the forward section of the deck. There is a cargo lift that can be used to transfer 20-foot ISO containers and vehicles up to a weight of 16 tonnes between the heavy and light vehicle decks. Integrated Navigation System, including an integrated bridge, navigation sensors, AIS and WECDIS.
The LHD utilises an electric drive system similar to that used by major cruise companies such as Cunard.
Spray nozzle at a certain pressure, in the setting of the area will break down water droplets below 1mm in diameter according to the shape design of sprinkler spray mist. My company is mainly used in the production of ball-type spray nozzle cooling tank protection. Introduction of the inter-cropping has come as a saving grace for villagers who now stay back after the Kharif harvest as opposed to migrating to towns earlier during Rabi in search of work.
Myrada came up with the idea of establishing orchards in a bid to improve the quality of life of the tribals in the region. The idea of establishing orchards in the area, though sound, did not evince much interest among the villages as their mind was tuned to the concept of one crop a year (Kharif crop).
The idea of vegetable intercrop emerged out of the need to ensure livelihood sustainability for the tribals in the region during the non-agricultural season.
If the idea of orchard development was to pick up in the area, it was imperative to keep the farmer engaged in his field in some manner or the other so that he tends to the trees till it reaches the fruit bearing stage. In order to provide the initial impetus, Myrada helped in the establishment of participant groups in the village and through discussions with the participant group, it was decided to set up a revolving fund to help farmers deal with the initial fund crunch. Farmers took an initial loan of Rs.1500 per acre from the participant group corpus for the purchase of seeds and once the harvest was completed and the farmers have sold their produce, they were required to return the money, along with a minimum service charge, back to the revolving fund. The monetary effects of having orchards can be felt only after a few years and till that it is essential to provide the farmer with sustained income in order to keep the interest alive. Three things were essential to keep the orchard development programme alive in this region – one, the farmer must be made to stay back in his field after the Kharif harvest; two, he should be remunerated accordingly so that he doesn’t leave his field during the winter season and three, till the orchards bear fruit, the farmers should be provided with an alternate source of income for the period they stay in their farms during the non-cropping season.
After a thorough study of the economics and the climatic conditions of the region, it was chosen that a vegetable crop would be sown during Rabi season. Beans sowing starts in late April and all the farmers in the village complete their last picking by mid July. Based on first hand data from 25 farmers in the region, it was found that the total yield after four pickings was 49,985 kg. On an average, when a family of three is employed by the Forest Department officials in collecting minor forest produce, the maximum that family could earn in three months was somewhere between nine and ten thousand rupees. But when the farmers took up beans cultivation in their own farms during the non-traditional cultivation months, their income rocketed during this very short period. Prior to the intervention, farm activities began in August when the land was cleaned, ploughed and prepared for the Kharif crop (Ragi, Maize and Potato). After the intercropping intervention, farm activities commence as early as April when the land is cleaned and the beans crop is sown early in the month of May after ploughing and preparing the soil. Increased participation of the women-folk: The women have evinced great interest in tending to their farms and taking care of the entire process right from sowing till the vegetable crop is harvested.
Reduced interference from wild animals: Wild animals are also kept at bay as the villagers maintain tight vigil when the crop is in the field. The bountiful harvest of the beans inter-crop has encouraged farmers to take up agricultural activity between the months of April and July.
One of the woman farmers from the village, Chennanjamma, aptly expressed, “When one person is seen watering the saplings, everyone else follows”; women folk actively engage themselves in farm activities and watering fruit trees is no longer seen as a burden.
This system has greatly helped in boosting the income levels of tribals in the region contributing to the sustainability of the livelihood intervention taken up.
Volunteers remove waste and clothes in large quantities from Sabarimala and Pampa in Kerala, during the cleaning drive. Authorities who were supposed to ensure prompt disposal of the waste collected, did not complete the arrangement, and the waste lies accumulated on the banks of the river,  even a month after the cleaning drive. State government writes to the Supreme Court-appointed central empowered committee (CEC) that restricting Goan mining from digging beyond the water table would be unfair to the state,  an impossible condition and would amount to indirectly banning all mining there. The Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) has moved a proposal to make available genetic material of various agriculture crops to seed companies. Central government may bear the medical expenses of those injured by bears straying into human habitation, thereby triggering man-animal conflict. In the times when tapped water supply is considered an absolute sign of development, the traditional water harvesting systems are losing their age-old relevance. A conference on Decentralised Wastewater Management in Asia was organized by the International Water Association (IWA) in Nagpur from 20-22 November 2012. Co-organisers of this event included BORDA, Germany - Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association, an organisation working towards the sustainable protection of natural resources, poverty alleviation and strengthening of social structures since 1977. CDD – Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society, a programme partner of BORDA for implementation of decentralised basic needs services (DBNS) in South Asia was also a co-organiser for the event. This event was also supported by GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), based in Nagpur. This conference was the fourth in a series of events organised by the IWA in Asia focusing on decentralised wastewater treatment systems. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems or DEWATS is a low-maintenance approach which aims to treat municipal wastewater in communities where centralised sanitation facilities are absent or have failed.
At the moment, India is behind target in providing sanitation for its people because of the challenge of providing sanitation in urban areas. He described the efforts of BORDA in piloting and dissemination of self-sustainable basic services and how experiences from Asian countries with anaerobic digestion technology and production of biogas can provide solutions to the water and sanitation crisis currently faced in several parts of the world.
He concluded by mentioning a call for responsibility to connect the society, businesses administration and academia to act and develop solutions to the present crisis. There were a total of three sessions on Technological Developments, with 11 speakers from 7 countries.
In the sessions on Design and Construction, similar discussions were held on standardising the design of DEWATS systems to increase their efficiency.
The sessions on Policies, Standards & Regulations focussed on experiences where decentralised wastewater treatment systems have been included in the legal framework at the local or national level.
The importance of community engagement was further enforced in the various talks in the Stakeholder Engagement session. It is also clear from various DEWATS experiences that if the users have a sense of ownership towards the treatment system, higher success rates can be achieved.
The session on Ensuring Sustainability presented success stories in which DEWATS systems are being successfully operated and also shed light on the kind of problems that a DEWATS project can run into.
In an extensive study depicting monitoring results of 108 DEWATS projects from Indonesia, survey responses were presented in an attempt to understand which factors, social and technical, affect the performance of a DEWATS system. A field study was conducted for the conference participants to the DEWATS site at the Vocational Training Centre in Lonara, Nagpur. The Vocational Training Centre at Lonara comprises of a training centre and hostels, accommodating around 110 persons. This successful effort made by teachers from Kasargod district to convert sixteen acres of barren land on a hill behind the school into a lush, green forest with thick patches of vegetation demonstrates how persistence and a deep commitment to bring about positive improvements in the environment through community effort can bring about positive results.
Shree Padre ji, better known as the rainwater man for his pioneering work on farm journalism and documentation of traditional water harvesting methods for water conservation takes us to this school to meet the two teachers.
The Standing Committee on Water Resources (2012-13) has recently presented the Sixteenth Report of the Committee on ‘Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies' to the Lok Sabha. The Committee observed that water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. The Committee expressed their deep concern that an alarming number of water bodies are becoming permanently unusable due to salinity, dried up water bodies, water bodies destroyed beyond repair, sea water intrusion and industrial effluents, etc., The Committee, therefore, recommended that the Government compile a comprehensive and up to date information about the exact number and the status of water bodies spread all over the country State-wise to initiate an all-out, and integrated effort for repair, renovation and restoration of water bodies.


The Committee, therefore, strongly recommended that the Government in the first instance collect and compile such data and information at the earliest and place it on public domain such as WRIS and website of the Ministry so as to serve as a useful tool for policymakers, planners, bureaucrats, various water users and other stakeholders. Keeping in view the fact that pollution of surface water bodies like rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks etc., can  effect the quality of groundwater, the Committee recommended for issue of appropriate advisories to the State Governments to initiate an effective mechanism for monitoring the water quality in water bodies. The Committee have strongly recommended for early completion of the exercise of taking census of all water bodies and also allotment of unique code to them. The Committee noted that under the National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) initiated by the Government in 1987, the Ministry of Environment & Forests has identified 115 wetlands in 24 States and 2 UTs for conservation and management. Noting that conservation and management of the wetlands could contribute to the goal of repair, renovation and restoration of water bodies being carried out by the Ministry in 15 States of the country, the Committee recommended that the suggestions made by WII, Dehradun under MAPs for evaluation of work in 5 identified wetlands, viz. The Committee observed that regular monitoring of the physical and financial progress and the outcome of the projects is stipulated to be carried out at each stage. The Committee noted that the Government has made a plan for convergence of efforts made under other programmes such as MNREGA, Watershed Development Programme and scheme of Rural Drinking Water Supply. Amit Tiwari, an India Water Portal volunteer, interacts with Anupam Mishra ji during the recent Western Ghats meet at Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra. Amit: Anupam ji, I am confused after reading about the water crisis in India and it looks very complicated.
If you have read “Aaj Bhi Khare Hain Talaab”, there is a mention of Mysore, which had 31000 ponds and lakes. We are required to estimate the total cost of constructing an overhead water tank on an area. This allows the ship to be built at a number of different sites across the shipyard before being brought together for final joining. The hull will then be shipped to BAES' Williamstown shipyard in Victoria for the installation of the island structure. Maximum speed is in excess of 20kn with a range of 6,000nm, a sustained maximum speed of 19kn under full-load conditions and an economic cruising speed of 15kn with a range of 9,000nm. An additional four RHIBs can be carried behind the LCM 1Es, however this will be mission dependant rather than a normal load out.
Accommodation is provided for 1400 personnel; approximately 400 ship’s company including the watercraft and flight deck crews and 1000 embarked force personnel including the PCRF, embarked flight, HQ staff and landing force.
The hanger can accommodate up to 8 medium sized helicopters with 18 medium sized helicopters able to be accommodated if the light vehicle deck is also used. Spray mist spray nozzle to form around the nozzle expansion cone axis line, the cone angle of water spray nozzle spray angle. Initially, the Sholigas used to cultivate Ragi as the main crop along with lab lab and mustard as inter-crops. The climatic conditions along with other related factors such as soil type, rainfall, water availability and market potential were considered before zeroing in on the type of orchards that were to be developed in the region.
Though the initial push was provided by Myrada officials, the attempt failed to pick up as the villagers did not show much interest in taking care of the saplings.
When the land is left fallow after cultivation winds up for the season, farmers have little or no work in the field till the next cropping season commences. This system was designed to keep the community cushioned when it comes to critical fund availability. When optimum conditions prevail, an average of 1.5 to 2 tonnes of beans can be harvested in an acre at the end of the season. On an average, farmers were able to harvest around 1800 – 2100 kg of beans from their one acre plot. The yield from his one acre plot was found to be 2480 kg, fetching the farmer a gross income of Rs. The same applied when tribals took up other jobs as daily wage labourers in the surrounding areas of Sathy and Talavadi. The crop is sown during the second fortnight of August and harvested in the months of December and January. The beans crop is harvested by mid July and preparation for the Kharif crop start after a small break in the first fortnight of August.
They have taken up cultivation of beans between April and June, which usually, was not the case. As a consequence the orchard has also been saved as the farmers tend to take care of the trees along with the beans crop.
If the fruit trees were planted in isolation, there is a good chance for it to be run over by wild animals if farmers do not maintain the same amount of vigilance as they would if a crop is sown.
This has come as a saving grace for the fruit trees as the farmers stay in the village to tend to the trees and water them regularly.
This has also lead to increased agricultural production, food security and improved quality of life of tribal families in the region.
High Court  suggests a slew of measures to rid the city of its garbage woes.Mayor also suggests setting up of garbage segregation units in the space available under the flyovers in the city. Reduction of human conflict with bears will be a priority scientists who drafted the national bear conservation and welfare action plan.
Since water is not easily available in Rajasthan, nomadic tribes like that of Lakha Banjara used to dig such ponds on their travel routes, which could also be used by the locals,” says Girdhari Singh, who belongs to Mundwa and works with community on traditional water harvesting techniques in Jaisalmer district. We have been drinking this water just by putting it through a cloth sieve,” says Deepak Sharma, who owns a medical store in the town. The IWA is a network of water professionals spanning the continuum between research and practice, and covers all facets of the water cycle from water resource management, drinking water treatment and supply to collection and safe disposal of wastewater. BORDA aims to disseminate Basic Needs Services in the areas of decentralised sanitation,water and energy supply and solid waste disposal.
CDD Society consists of 22 organisations in this region and is headquartered in Bangalore, India.
GIZ is an initiative of the German government which works in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development.
Its central theme was to develop the concept of DEWATS on a number of topics arising from the previous conferences namely, the “Sanitation Options” Conference in Hanoi, 2008;  the "DEWATS in Developing Countries" Conference in Surabaya, 2010 and the "DEWATS for Urban Environments in Asia" Conference in Manila, 2011. Susmita Sinha, the current Director of Training, Knowledge Management and Research & Development with CDD Society.
Stefan Reuter, the Director of BORDA, on the increasing focus on water and sanitation as a basic human right and various water and sanitation (WATSAN) initiatives of BORDA in collaboration with for-profit, non-profit and academic organisations.
He highlighted some of the benefits of DEWATS, like for instance DEWATS can be implemented in regions where electrical infrastructure is not available and proper operation and maintenance (O&M) cannot be ensured. He raised some pertinent questions as to how we can enable robustness and capacity of our cities and towns; develop cooperation and economic rationale, organise priorities, direct investment and renovate policies and develop our inner convictions towards becoming actors of change in the present urban sanitation scenario.
The primary focus was to share experiences of practitioners and researchers in DEWATS from different parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Research on new materials for wastewater treatment such as coco peat, coconut fiber and nutrient removal by algae culture was also presented. A standardised design process helps engineers to avoid an elaborate design procedure, especially in times of emergency.
Instances from Afghanistan depict how decentralised treatment systems have been incorporated into the infrastructure in the post-Taliban era. Active participation of the community which will use and maintain the DEWATS system is essential toward ensuring its sustainability. This can be achieved by charging them a minimal, affordable fee and making them a part of the planning phase. For example, problems with community participation, lack of interest and cooperation by city authorities. This visit was organised to highlight the concept of DEWATS in an institutional setup and also as a technical option in an area with water scarcity under difficult soil conditions.
In order to overcome the water shortage problem and also to demonstrate the treatment and reuse of sewage, the DEWATS unit has been implemented by the Indian Institute of Youth Welfare, Nagpur.
It consists of three treatment units connected in series: a primary settler, an anaerobic baffle reactor (ABR) which acts as the secondary treatment unit and a planted gravel filter that provides tertiary treatment. Traditional water bodies have through the ages been providing sustenance to Indian agriculture and serve as storage reservoirs of water in monsoon dependent areas where there exist a shorter period of rainfall and a long dry spell with very high deviation of annual rainfall.
Shockingly, the Ministry has not undertaken any study for identification of water bodies and has also not evolved any criteria for categorization of water bodies as large or small and the expenditure incurred on their upkeep and maintenance. The Committee have also strongly recommended for taking appropriate measures to heighten national awareness and for building a strong national programme for removal of encroachments on water bodies. The Committee were informed that the Scheme for RRR of water bodies does not cover 3.17 lakhs water bodies spread across the country.
Pong Dam (Himachal Pradesh), Harike (Punjab), Deeper Beel (Assam), Chilika Lake (Odisha) and Tso Morari (J&K) may be taken up by the concerned Ministry for early remedial action.
The Committee noted with displeasure that despite the efforts being made on the monitoring front by the Ministry and State Governments, little tangible progress has been made given the number of Schemes sanctioned. Almora is at 6000 ft above sea level and it gets its water from Kausi river, which is at 3000 ft above sea level. It was said that any drop falling over any mountain, was collected in ponds on either side. The island modules will be constructed at a number of sites around Australian before being moved to Williamstown for final installation on the flight deck.


Vehicular access between the heavy and light vehicle decks is achieved via a fixed ramp located on the port side. The well dock has been designed to handle water craft of allied nations, including LCUs, amphibious vehicles and LCACs. The LHD will be jointly crewed with personnel from Navy, Army and the Air Force forming the ship’s company.
When the pressure flow into the nozzle, the wall movement is broken down into the rotation along the water, under the centrifugal force formed by the spray nozzle atomization. Our village of interest, Bejaletti in Erode district, is dominated by Sholigas tribals, where farmers mainly engage in agricultural activity for almost 6-7 months of the year. Post harvest, the entire village is absorbed in festive activities and when this ceases, most of them move out to neighbouring areas in search of work till the next season begins. As tribals tend to move out of their village looking for employment, it was important to keep them engaged in their own farms to ensure higher incomes.
Beans was best suited as the crop thrives in hill areas and being a short duration crop, the vegetables can be harvested within 90 days filling the income vacuum during the Rabi months. Only farmers who had their lands along the stream used to take up vegetable cultivation, that too, only in a small scale.
Alagesan, Programme Co-ordinator, MYRADA Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gobichettipalayam, Erode district for taking care of the trips to and from Bejaletti village and for arranging interviews with the farmers there. The bear hasn’t received the focus it deserves, says Jayanthi Natarajan, at the 21st International Conference on Bear Research and Management in New Delhi. The town population has now grown up to around 15,000 but Lakholaav remains the major source of drinking water despite there being 12 other big and small ponds in the town. At the ghats, village women come in groups the whole day while small ox-driven tankers also offer home delivery on payment of a small fee. It works to develop strategies and market Community-Based Sanitation (CBS) solutions, Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATSTM) and Solid Waste Management (SWM).
NEERI is a research institute under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India. This was the first time that IWA chose to focus on DEWATS from a management point of view rather than simply from a design or technology point of view. These systems can withstand variations in organic and hydraulic loading as well as extremely high or low temperature conditions, and could contribute to infrastructure optimisation by pre-treating stormwater and ensuring treatment closer to the point of discharge.
It included presentations on the potential of natural technologies for decentralised wastewater management in India such as subsurface flow constructed wetlands, planted filters, duckweed ponds and waste stabilisation ponds. A post-tsunami experience from Tamil Nadu was presented in the Management session to illustrate the importance of DEWATS in a state of emergency.
Policy-makers presented experiences of incorporating DEWATS into their country's water and sanitation laws. A case study from Bangladesh presented lessons from such a project where community involvement and awareness programs have led to a decrease in open defecation and consequently, lesser incidence of disease. This project was funded by BORDA, and CDD provided technical support in design and implementation.
Finally, the treated effluent is collected in a tank from which it can be reused for gardening and horticulture.
Also, traditional water bodies are used in rural areas which, inter-alia, include various purposes, viz.
The Committee deplored exclusion of private water bodies from the RRR Scheme of the Government, which dents a gaping loop-hole in the otherwise laudable scheme, particularly as it is a necessity to preserve the water bodies. Without those detailed structural analysis, what sizes and shape are commonly used in similar steel constructions like this? We greatly appreciate any help you can provide to us. Myrada Krishi Vigyan Kendra, in a bid to improve the farm income and nutritional security of the villagers, introduced the small orchard development and beans intercropping which transformed more than just the landscape of the village.
After the Kharif harvest in January it is common practice for tribals to move out of their village in search of work outside to keep them going for the next few months till the next cropping season begins. After deducting the input costs, the net income of this particular farmer was found to be Rs.
After the introduction of community irrigation, glitches with respect to water availability for the beans crop, in addition to the fruit trees is taken care of.
As ponds in other towns have shrunk due to encroachments and dumping of garbage, Lakholaav is providing drinking water to the town the whole year round.
High fluoride content in the groundwater also makes rainwater harvesting a necessity rather than just a traditional practice. Several peepal and banyan trees dot the ghats which also feature four temples thus ensuring the sanctity of the area. The research divisions of NEERI span a breadth of environmental disciplines such as water treatment technology, wastewater treatment, environmental materials, air pollution, solid waste management, genomics and environmental biotechnology. Sinha has over 14 years of experience in urban environmental management and applied research activities related to monitoring and analysis, especially in the field of decentralised sanitation services. Reuter talked about the story of sanitation starting in Rome, where aqueducts first introduced the concept of linear water streams and mixing of the water and nutrient cycle.
Studies discussing the assessment of the success and feasibility of these technologies in Asian countries such as India, Nepal and Indonesia were looked at, specifically from a technical, financial and managerial perspective. Various gaps in the DEWATS programme also came to light, such as lack of involvement of the local government, ambiguity among the community members with respect to operation and maintenance due to lack of information. A case study from Thane depicted how attempts made by Thane Municipal Corporation have been successful in bridging the gap in sanitation facilities created due to increasing population and limited funds. High School always noticed the vacant and barren mountainous land just behind their school premises and often wondered of doing something about it. The Committee also recommended to highlight on multiple and huge benefits arising out of the RRR of water bodies through appropriate measures. They are employed temporarily by the Forest Department officials to aid in the task of collecting minor forest produce (MFP) from the resource rich forests. Apart from this, trees bordering the plots were also to be planted which included silver oak, tamarind and cassia species. When rains fail during critical periods, irrigation from a perennial stream close by comes to the rescue. Citizens as well as the municipal committee take utmost care ensuring cleanliness and efficient management.
In her presentation titled 'Coverage, delivery and development – urban sanitation challenges', Ms. He then moved to Edo, the former name of Tokyo, where nearly 400 years ago, waste was dumped onto agricultural land for use as fertilisers, thus saving the rivers and streams from anthropogenic contamination. Discussion on the successes and failures of different case studies would prove useful in up-scaling and disseminating DEWATS, especially in developing countries. This is how they gradually came upon the idea of planting trees on this piece of land that extended to about sixteen acres.
The Committee were of the considered view that there is an imperative need to ensure proper, efficient and sustainable management and development of water bodies all over the country through sustained inputs of efforts, funds and programme. Boards warning against open defecation within 2 km of its catchment area have also been erected.
Sinha set the theme of the conference by highlighting key aspects of sustainable development and equality and what steps are needed to ensure a balance between ecological and social equality, something that India lacks. She concluded by highlighting that centralised sanitation cannot provide a solution to these issues alone.
In order to put in place a comprehensive legislative framework, the Committee reiterated the need for inclusion of the subject 'water' in the Concurrent List.
Though most people obey these restrictions, two guards appointed by the municipal committee also keep a watch.
Different technologies have to work hand in hand and decentralised approaches can complement centralised solutions to solve India’s urban challenges. A 3 km long channel has been constructed connecting the catchment area on a nearby hillock with Lakholaav ensuring good water inflow even during weak monsoon as was the case this year. A few years ago when the pond dried up due to drought, the municipal committee decided to desilt the pond. Local farmers chipped in with their tractors and used the fertile soil in their fields.One of the reasons why ponds are still revered at Marwar Mundwa is the fact that the underground water is heavy with fluoride. Besides getting their supplies from Lakholaav, around 50 per cent homes also harvest rain water in a small underground structure called tanka,” informs Atma Ram, a lower division clerk at the Marwar Mundwa Municipal Committee.Lakholaav is not just a traditional water source but a great social binder. The ghats also host the whole village during festivals, especially for Teej and Dussehra celebrations. With this amount of civic sense and utmost respect for a natural resource, it seems contaminated underground water is a blessing in disguise for this town.



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