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admin | Category: Container Cost | 07.02.2016
Water tanks are used to store water and are designed as crack free structures, to eliminate any leakage. Storage reservoirs and over head tanks are used to store water, liquid petroleum, petroleum products and similar liquids. In this paper, both types of reinforced concrete and prestesses concrete water tanks resting on ground monolithic with the base Are design and their results compared.
From the review of earlier investigations it is found that considerable work has been done on the method of analysis and design of water tanks.
Thakkar and Sridhar Rao [2] (1974), discussed cost optimization of non cylindrical composite type prestressed concrete pipes based on the Indian code. Al-Badri [3] (2005) presented cost optimization of reinforced concrete circular grain silo based on the ACI Code (2002).
Hassan Jasim Mohammed [4] studied the economical design of concrete water Tanks by optimization method. Chetan Kumar Gautam [6] Highlights the point named “Comparison of Circular Reinforced Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Underground Shelter”. In strength calculations the permissible Concrete stresses shall be in accordance with Table1. When steel and concrete are assumed to act together for checking the tensile stress in concrete for avoidance of crack, the tensile stress in steel as in table 2will be limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile stress in the concrete is not exceeded so the tensile stress in steel shall be equal to the product of modular ratio of steel and concrete, and the corresponding allowable tensile stress in concrete. All types of structure can be built with reinforced and pre-stressed concrete: columns, piers, walls, slabs, beams, arches, frames, even suspended structures and of course shells and folded plates.
In the construction of concrete structures for the storage of liquids, the imperviousness of concrete is an important basic requirement. Pre-stressed concrete is the most efficient material for water tanks and coupled with the circular shape, eliminates all stress conditions. 1) Low maintenance can be enjoyed throughout the life as these are built with concrete, durable material that never corrodes and does not require coatings when in contact with water or the environment. 2) Pre-stressing counteracts the differential temperature and dryness loads that a tank core wall experience. 3) Tanks are very ductile, enabling to withstand seismic forces and varying water backfill. 5) Pre-cast tanks can store or treat anything from potable water to hazardous waste to solid storage bins. Precast concrete walls usually consist of precast panels curved to the tank radius with joints between panels filled with high-strength concrete. IS: 3370 (Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage of Liquids) provides guidelines for the analysis and design of liquid storage tanks. The following types of boundary conditions are considered in the analysis of the cylindrical wall. Fixed: When the wall is built continuous with its footing, then the base can be considered to be fixed as the first approximation. Hinged: If the sub grade is susceptible to settlement, then a hinged base is a conservative assumption. Hinged: When the top is connected to the roof slab by dowels for shear transfer, the boundary condition is considered to be hinged. The hydrostatic pressure on the wall increases linearly from the top to the bottom of the liquid of maximum possible depth. The tanks to be consider having some common data such as the tanks are having same capacity, same diameter, same height, same grade of concrete i. Finally, a study of the same Table3 confirms that the RCC tank is cheaper only for 10 lac liter capacity.
1Tanetal (1966) “Minimum Cost Design Of Reinforced Concrete Cylindrical Water Tanks Based On The British Code For Water Tanks, Using A Direct Search Method And The (SUMT). 2Thakkar and Sridhar Rao (1974)”Cost Optimization Of Cylindrical Composite Type Prestesses Concrete Pipes Based On The Indian Code” Journal of Structural Engineering 131: 6. 3Al-Badri (2005) “Cost Optimization Of Reinforced Concrete Circular Grain Silo Based On ACI Code (2002)American Concrete Institute Structural Journal, May- June 2006. 6Chetan Kumar Gautam “Comparison Of Circular RC And PSC Underground Shelters” The Indian Concrete Journal April 2006.
7Precon “Designing Of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks To The Industry Standards Of The AWWA And ACI” journal of priestesses concrete institute vol.12,apr.
14B.N Dutta, 2009 “Estimating and Costing In Civil Engineering”, Twenty- Sixth Revised Edition UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt.

Central prestressing is normally required during construction in Incremental Launching method. Should mild steel or high yield steel be adopted as reinforcement of water-retaining structures?
The force analysis of the reservoirs or tanks is about the same irrespective of the chemical nature of the product. He applied the optimization technique to the structural design of concrete rectangular and circular water tank, considering the total cost of the tank as an objective function with the properties of the tank viz.
Rashed [5] rationalized the design procedure for reinforced and prestressed concrete tanks so that an applicable Canadian design standard could be developed.
The stresses in non-prestresssed steel are higher, but remain below yield under service load. The behavior with a small load eccentricity, less than about half the thickness, the section may be treated as a flexure member.
Choosing the ratio such that both non-prestress and prestressed steel reach their strength simultaneously utilizes both types of steel at the ultimate limit state effectively. Where the calculated shear stress in concrete a lone exceeds the permissible value, reinforcement acting in conjunction with diagonal compression in the concrete shall be provided to take the whole of the shear.
By placing the steel of the pre-stressed strands in tension and the concrete in compression, both materials are in an ideal states and the loads are uniformly distributed around the tank circumference.
The tank walls are wet on the inside and dry on outside and the temperature varies between the two sides. Vertical prestessed reinforcement near the center of the wall thickness, or vertical non prestessed reinforcement near each face, may be used.
Since the actual rotational restraint from the footing is somewhere in between fixed and hinged, a hinged base can be assumed. If the vapour pressure in the free board is negligible, then the pressure at the top is zero. The thumb rule passed on in the field from one generation of engineers to the next, fixes a value around 10 lac liters. Rashed “Rational Design Of Priestesses And Reinforced Concrete Tanks” Dept Of Civil & Environmental Engineering. Potable water tank design includes strategically-placed seams which are filled with an industry-approved sealant provided by a member of the Chevron Family of Companies.
We understand that whether you need a small potable water tank for agricultural applications or as part of a municipal wastewater treatment system, or whether you require potible water tanks upwards from 300,000 gallons, you want professional, experienced help, and the highest quality product you can get. Both reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PSC) alternatives are considered in the design and are compared considering the total cost of the tank. The paper gives idea for safe design with minimum cost of the tank and give the designer the relationship curve between design variable thus design of tank can be more economical ,reliable and simple.
In general there are three kinds of water tanks-tanks resting on ground Underground tanks and elevated tanks.
The study investigates the concept of partial prestressing in liquid containing structures. If not properly accounted for, these moisture and temperature differential will cause a tank wall to bend and crack. Non priestesses reinforcement may be provided vertically in conjunction with vertical prestressing. The base can be made sliding with appropriate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) water-stops for liquid tightness.
The typical variations of CT and CM with depth, for two sets of boundary conditions are illustrated. In India at least, most of the small & medium sized water tanks are constructed in RCC. Therefore, this study encompasses tanks from 10 lac liter capacity to 90 lac liter capacity. It should be noted that an increase in tank wall thickness results in decreased flexural steel in case of RCC. The paper helps in understanding the design philosophy for the safe and economical design of water tank. Here we are studying only the tanks resting on ground like clear water reservoirs, settling tanks, aeration tanks etc. From the analysis it is conclude that for tank having larger capacity (greater than 10 lakh liter) prestesses concrete water tank is economical.

From the study he concluded that an increased tank capacity leads to increased minimum total cost of the rectangular tank but decreased minimum total cost for the circular tank. The paper also includes experimental and analytical phases of total of eight full scale specimens, representing segments from typical tank walls, subjected to load and leakage tests. TYPE-I structure).A reinforced concrete member of liquid retaining structure is design on the usual principle ignoring tensile resistance of concrete in bending. The forces generated in the tank due to circumferential prestress are opposite in nature to that due to hydrostatic pressure.
Senior engineers and those in the know maintain that prestressed concrete water tanks are not worth trying for smaller capacities. However, in case of prestressed concrete, an increased thickness leads to a greater prestressing force & consequently more prestressing steel. Custom potable water tanks fabricated from precast concrete are also popular with Government, State, County, City, and private facilities. As an objective function with the properties of tank that are tank capacity, width &length etc. The cost function included the material costs of concrete, formwork and steel reinforcement. In analytical study a computer model that can predict the response of tank wall segments is described and calibrated against the test results. Besides cost, other reason may be that prestressed concrete construction involves skilled labor & supervision. Water tank Resting over Firm Ground vis-a-vis Pre-stressed Concrete Water Tank Resting over Firm Ground. Over 30 years of experience have gone into our potable water tank designs, and it shows in the quality of the product and in our roster of clients. The wall of these tanks are subjected to pressure and the base is subjected to weight of Water. He proved that the minimum total cost of the corbel increases with the increase of the shear span, and decreases with the increase of the friction factor for monolithic construction.
The minimum cost is more sensitive to changes in tank capacity and floor slab thickness of rectangular tank but in circular type is more sensitive to change in all variables.
The study conclude that the feasibility of using the vertical casting process of making the modules of shelters as it is suitable for manufacturing of large diameter pipes. Prestressed concrete tanks are used in water treatment and distribution systems, waste water collection and treatment system and storm water management. Furthermore, prestressing is a closely guarded technology in this country & information is not available that easily.
Similarly, the cost of a tank of 90 lac liter capacity is less than 9 times the cost of a tank of 10 lac liter capacity. More steel is required to generate this higher prestressing force resulting in higher cost.
It is applicable for fully prestressed, fully reinforced and partially prestressed concrete water tanks. He also suggested that the incorporation of fibers, specially steel fibers improves a host of properties of concrete, including its crack resistance, flexural strength, ductility, etc. Other applications are liquefied natural gas (LNG) containment structures, large industrial process tanks and bulk storage tanks. It can be clearly established that the grade of concrete hardly makes any difference in the costing. Strand Wrapped circular pre-stressed concrete tanks are long life liquid storage structure with virtually no maintenance.
Because of its nature, the water tank design is never an impending or boundary line design.
Concrete construction makes for a substantial, sturdy tank structure that easily contain the internal liquid pressure while comfortably resisting external forces such as earthquake, wind. The factor of safety is high & the actual stresses are much lower than the permissible ones.
An increased permissible stress for a higher grade of concrete hardly makes any difference to the final outcome.

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