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admin | Category: Container House | 18.08.2015
My tutorials mostly use PSI, although I use Feet Head in parts of the pump related tutorials and metric for drip systems.  OK, now it’s class time!
Since water is essentially a non-compressible liquid it exhibits the unique trait of transferring pressure horizontally when in a confined space.
Looking again at the picture above, we see that the ground level is 40 feet below the water level in the tank. Because elevation changes effect the water pressure we must take this into account when determining pressure loss in our water system.  If the area to be irrigated is lower than the water source we will gain pressure, so we may be able to gain some beneficial added pressure to our system. On the other hand if portions of the irrigation system are higher than the water source you will always need to subtract out the pressure loss created by the elevation gain. By using this tutorial you agree to be bound by the conditions and limitations listed on the Terms of Use page.
Pressure water tank are used on the water treatment equipment ,such as household RO water purifier and ,commercial RO water purfier . What this means is that water in a pipe (which is a confined space) exhibits the same pressure as it would if the pipe were perfectly vertical, even if the pipe isn’t. In the drawing above, the water enters the house at a level 100 feet below the water level in the tank. It would seem simpler, then we would not have to prepare a separate calculation for friction loss, right? Pressure gained can be easily disposed of, pressure lost however, is very difficult to replace.
So the static water pressure at the house is 100 feet of head, or about 43.3 PSI, using the formulas in the previous paragraph.

Well, that is correct, however dynamic pressure is extremely difficult to measure accurately! Just remember that  whenever you measure water pressure with a gauge you need to turn off all the water outlets so the water is static, that is, not flowing.
So, for every foot of elevation gain (higher) in the irrigation system, you should subtract 0.433 PSI from the design pressure.
With too much pressure the sprinkler heads might not work as well, or they might even blow apart! You have to get the flow just right, and then hold the flow at that level for a minute or two while the pressure stabilizes. If the pipe goes up a slope the vertical distance is how high the slope would be if the pipe were going straight up. If portions of it are not lower, or are higher than the water source, then those portions aren’t going to be getting that extra pressure. At the bottom of the column the weight of all the water above is resting on the bottom of the column, this weight creates pressure.
It is safest when doing initial design work to just not add pressure for elevation changes unless you’re really sure. But the pressure added can only be the difference between the water source and the highest part of the irrigation system. For rotors it varies, but most small systems shouldn’t have more than 70 PSI at the rotor sprinkler head. Have you ever swam down to the bottom of a deep swimming pool and felt your ears pop or hurt?

The water level is not just 100 feet above the house there is also easily 180 feet of pipe between the tank and the house!
Our professor spent a week drilling this concept into us back in college and a lot of people in the class never did understand it!
If you don’t want to accept my word for it then you’re going to have to go back and read all that boring Hydraulics 101 stuff above!
The answer is that the length of a pipe does not matter when the water is static in the pipes. So, the result is that we almost always will work by using static water pressure and then use calculations to determine the dynamic pressure.
I know I keep saying the same things over and over in different ways, but I’m trying to drive home some important, but hard to understand, principles! So you would subtract this amount from the total system pressure required.  In other words you would enter a negative number in your Pressure Loss Table for Elevation Pressure Loss. Because the water is a non-compressible liquid it transfers the pressure horizontally along the pipe route for pretty much any distance without any loss of pressure!
Cool, right?  You bet it is, it is a principle that is very handy and makes all sorts of neat gadgets used on machines work.  This is why a small hose filled with hydraulic fluid can cause the brakes on every wheel of a mile long train to apply when the engineer hits the brakes!

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