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Regardless of size, damage, service or repair Hot Headz Marine can meet all your needs to keep your watercraft safe while being transported. 100-150+ Year Old Restored Antique Steamer Trunks For Sale and Antique Furniture Restoration Services. Spring 2016 We are currently restoring antique steamer trunks for the 2016 Season and will have a wide array of fully restored small, medium, to very large flat tops, roll tops, and dome tops, and currently have over 80 to choose from. Many of Our Restored Antique Steamer Trunks are Purchased by Retiring Members of the Military and Navy and Used as a Combination Shadow Box and Storage Chest for Safely Storing and Displaying Memorabilia and Uniforms!
The Pirate's Lair offers expert information and is the world's largest single source for Restored Antique Steamer Trunks and Antique Trunks in general. All offered Antique Steamer Trunks have been carefully restored and refinished using the same craftsmanship, technique, and tools that were used during their original production.
It is our fervent hope and desire that the care we have taken in restoring these antique steamer trunks will not only be useful in providing both beauty and function to its new owner, but will eventually become a family heirloom and legacy for coming generations. It would give us no small amount of pleasure to think that we not only were able to rescue and save these 100+ year old trunks, but that we were able to restore them so as to be used for another 100+ years!
Note the two restored Antique Steamer Trunks in the above photos, both are Dome Top, Hump Back or Camel Back models and each is 100 to 150 years old. Every antique steamer trunk for sale as offered has been painstakingly restored so as to be beautifully and safely used in todays contemporary environments, and in unique "re-purposed" ways such as replacing a utilitarian filing cabinet with an antique trunk! It was a common practice that loyal and productive craftsmen would be allowed to bring their children to work with them to learn a craft, so many of the children in this photograph were more than likely sons of the men shown.
These antique steamer trunks after being fully restored have transcended their original purpose in both beauty and function as they are now fine furniture which can be displayed even in the most discerning of homes and household decor! Why take away from the beauty and sophistication of your home or office by having utilitarian looking steel filing cabinets and storage in your home or office when you can have these beautiful richly appointed and preserved antique steamer trunks in their stead! The Pirate's Lair always has between 15 and 20 of these 100+ year old antique trunks fully restored and awaiting shipment. If it's a genuine antique trunk by Jenny Lind or Lois Vuitton from the Titanic or Master and Commander theme or a Pirates of the Carirbbean decor you are seeking for your home, office or as a unique gift, this is it!
Each Steamer Trunk or Antique Chest were used during the travel heydays from the mid-late 19th and early 20th centuries by Americans and immigrants looking for a better life and adventure!
If it's a genuine original antique trunk by Martin Maier, Excelsior, Jenny Lind or Lois Vuitton from the Titanic or Master and Commander theme or a Pirates of the Carirbbean decor you are seeking for your home, office or as a unique gift, this is it! Each Antique Trunk or Antique Chest is the exact type used by the immigrants who travelled to and across America in the mid to late 1800's in seeking a new, better life, and adventure! These fully restored Antique Trunks will become your legacy and a family heirloom passed down from generation to generation! These Restored Antique Trunks would be perfect in a maritime ornautical decor, certainly in a waterfront home situation as they look just like naval "Sea Chests, Pirate Chests and Treasure Chests" we are all familiar with seeing in the movies! As you can imagine this can be overwhelming and take up quite a bit of our time as there is no "easy" answer, especially since all of these trunks are at best similar but not exact to each other.
BELOW YOU WILL FIND A TABLE AND LIST OF ALL AVAILABLE RESTORED ANTIQUE STEAMER TRUNKS FOR SALE WITH IMMEDIATE DELIVERY! Two forward-thinking organizations in Australia have partnered in the development of a unique design project titled, Create from A Crate.  The Victorian Woodworking Association and the Waste Converters Recycling Company organized the competition for the second straight year to promote the re-use of solid wood waste that is currently going to the landfill, particularly on post-industrial timber packaging waste.
The aim of the program is to make people aware of the potential that this waste material has for being re-used and recycled into more functional, higher-value ways rather than timber waste to be discarded or “mulched”.  The competition criteria requires contestants to design and construct functional or artistic objects from the USA-manufactured pallets and crate materials, while a maximum of 10% of the total amount of the finished work may be other materials such as, glass, steel, or other timbers. A Pallet is a structural foundation that is used mostly by the shipping industry to transport delicate materials. However, these pallets are catching the fancies of nature lovers and recyclers and are being used uniquely and elaborately in creating masterpieces which although might look naive yet carry a rustic appeal. The wooden pallets are segregated, stacked and made into benches or chairs, although these furniture do not look very appealing yet the thrill of making a furniture piece for oneself by recycling unused waste is surely satisfying. Turning those slats into an aesthetic shoe rack is another way of recycling wooden pallets. Either a ceiling hung or a standalone lamp, whatever one prefers can easily be made by joining the slats together and fitting lights on the underside. A unique concept to carry or transport items by simply building a trailer from stacked and nailed pallets fitted with tires to go along with the bicycle and attaching it to the seat handle, this mode of transportation is not only cheap and green but easy to drive since most of us are comfortable with bicycle rides rather than small carriage vans. This option although requires some amount of expertise due to being quite elaborate yet is surely a great idea to utilize the redundant pallets. Although tigers are displayed in most zoos, and they have a long history in captivity, surprisingly little medical data have been published. Previous documents on medical support of endangered species have been formulated under the usual heading of "Disease." This inadvertently places the veterinarian in a reactive rather than an interactive role as a member of the conservation team. The medical and surgical care of captive tigers has become easier with advancements in other areas, especially in anesthesia and anesthetic techniques. The present challenge to zoo staff, particularly the veterinarian, is to establish and maintain a strong and aggressive preventive medical program.
Medical management of captive tigers requires the integration of preventive medical programs, clinical medicine, nutrition, husbandry practices, and pathological surveillance. In dealing with tigers, it has been stated repeatedly they are just big domestic cats that share many anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and medical commonalities.
The long-term management of the health of tigers begins before the animal arrives with appropriate planning of the management program and with arrangements to transfer and receive the animal that protect its health. When a tiger is moved, one of its keepers should accompany it to care for it in transit if the transport involves more than one transfer en route, if travel time from airport drop-off to airport pick-up is more than 12 hours, and if it is a very young cub.
SAN DIEGO--A rare Malaysian tiger, one of only about 200 in existence, died while being flown from Kuala Lumpur to Los Angeles after being placed by Malaysian authorities in a crate that was partly wrapped in plastic and barely larger than the animal itself, said authorities.
The animal was ailing--if not already dead--when a Malaysian Airlines 747 stopped for two hours in Honolulu and ground cargo handlers said they smelled something foul. A shipping crate should be well ventilated, drain well, and absorbent bedding be provided to prevent the tiger from lying in urine. The following principles of design shall be met in addition to the General Container Requirements outlined by the U.S. The floor shall be constructed in grille form over a liquid-proof tray in a manner to permit the animal's excreta to fall into the tray. To ensure adequate ventilation, air inlets must be provided at heights which will provide through ventilation at all levels, particularly when the animal is in a prone position. To prevent disturbance to the animal and to provide protection for the handling personnel, wooden slotted shutters with adequate ventilation slots or holes should be placed over the front opening, approximately 7.5 cm (3 in) away from steel weld mesh or iron bars. The dimensions of the container shall allow the animal to turn completely around freely, or shall prevent it from turning at all.
Food and water containers with adequate safe access for replenishment must be made available by the shipper, taking into account the duration of the flight. Where more than one animal is to be carried in a container, multiples of the above provisions shall apply. Prior to the introduction of any new tiger to an existing population, the newcomer should be quarantined for at least 30 days. Quarantine protocol for tigers (see Table Checklist) should include a parasite screening, complete physical examination, collection of a blood sample including serum sample banking, and preventive medical procedures such as immunizations and dental calculus removal. The evaluation of a new tiger begins with a review of its past medical history, which should be part of the health certificate. When in quarantine, the tiger's diet is gradually changed to the new diet if different from the original. USDA introduced new regulations on 15 January 1980 relating to the importation of pet birds into the United States. No warm-blooded animals, including birds, can be presented to a carrier more than four hours before the aircraft's scheduled departure time. Animal shipments to, from or via the United States must have written instructions concerning the food and water requirements of the animal affixed to the outside of the container. All containers for dogs and cats must be of such a size to allow the animals to turn around. For the carriage of warm-blooded animals, there must be ventilation openings on two opposite walls, which openings are at least 16% of the area of each wall, or ventilation openings on all four walls, which openings are at least 8% of the area of each wall; and at least one-third of the minimum ventilation area must be in the lower half of the container and one-third in the upper half.
Animal shipments to, from, or via the United States must be marked or labeled on the top and on one or more sides of the container with the words "Wild Animal" in letters not less than 2.5 cm (1 in) in height and arrows or markings indicating the upright position.
A maximum of one live dog or cat, six months or more of age, or a maximum of one live puppy, eight weeks to six months of age and weighing over 9 kg (20 lb), shall be transported in a primary enclosure. The systematic gathering and recording of medical and pathological data in a uniform manner is mandatory to any medical program. The ability to absolutely confirm an animal's identification is essential to any species management program either within a zoo or on a regional, national or global level. Glass-encapsulated microchip transponders placed subcutaneously in the tiger provide a second permanent identification method. A bank of frozen serum samples stored in an ultra-low-temperature freezer at -70 C should be maintained at each institution. The serum bank permits retrospective epidemiological studies when a disease outbreak has occurred or new disease entities have been identified. Anesthesia is a critical component of the overall medical program in all nondomestic felids.
Usually two to three weeks into the quarantine period a complete physical examination should be performed under general anesthesia. For a more thorough physical examination, a complete set of survey radiographs is recommended to assist in the overall assessment of the tiger and as a reference set for the future. A thorough oral examination is an integral part of a physical exam, either planned or done whenever anesthesia is performed.
During the examination, the teeth and the soft tissue structures of the mouth and throat are examined for abnormalities. During quarantine, a blood sample should be obtained to evaluate the animal's health status and provide a baseline for future comparison.
The collection of blood samples for laboratory evaluation and serum banking should be a part of every immobilization or physical examination. An important portion of this preventive approach should include routine observation of the tigers in the collection, not only by the keepers, but also by the veterinary staff. Vaccinations given during quarantine allow time for antibody response prior to the tiger's release to the collection.
All vaccines used should be killed vaccines whenever possible in order to prevent the occurrence of vaccine-induced disease. Sound, regular prophylactic dental care is important in preventing bacteremia of oral origin that can contribute to or promote systemic disease (Fagen 1980a, 1980b).
During quarantine tigers are screened for internal parasites by repeated fecal examinations.
A parasite-monitoring program provides periodic, regular stool examinations to detect parasitic infections.
Well-maintained perimeter fencing provides an initial deterrent to the larger feral animals, particularly dogs.
Since feral cats are a reoccurring and difficult problem, a potential but untried solution might be to allow a vasectomized male domestic cat (vaccinated and wormed) to establish a territory in the vicinity to rebuke unwanted feral cats (from Jill Mellen, Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR). Rodent pests must be handled through a well-planned, supervised, continuous pest control program. Good sanitation aids in reducing insect populations, but all zoological situations experience insect pests, particularly cockroaches.
Inadvertent use or misuse of insecticides (and herbicides and miscellaneous toxic compounds not intended for use around animals) can lead to accidental exposure of tigers and possibly fatal results. Besides the aesthetic reasons for eliminating pests, a more important reason is eliminating potential diseases found in feral mammals, birds, rodents and insects. Certain gastrointestinal syndromes have been placed under general categories as "general adaptation syndrome" or "tiger disease" (reviewed in Seidel and Wisser 1987). Kidney, liver and respiratory diseases are recognized problems in aged tigers, and more information is needed (see Bush et al.
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has been a major disease problem in tigers in some settings (Michalska 1972). Systemic bacterial diseases have been seen in captive tigers such as bacterial meningitis from Klebsiella and Diplococcus (Wallach and Boever 1983).
Salmonellosis, caused by Salmonella typhimurium, is a recognized medical problem in tigers, occurring either sporadically or as outbreaks (Kloss and Lang 1976). Another source of salmonellosis may be a tiger that is an asymptomatic carrier of Salmonella spp.
There is a potential for zoonosis with Salmonella spp., as the organisms found in stool cultures from diseased tigers can also cause salmonellosis in humans (Rettig 1983). During 1992, canine distemper outbreaks in Panthera species occurred at three geographically separate facilities in the United States. Canine distemper virus was isolated from at least one animal at each of the three locations. During 1993 a large group of privately owned tigers developed symptoms of enteritis, primarily severe diarrhea. Panleukopenia has been proven by viral isolation in tigers (Woolf and Swart 1974, Montali et al. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) has been confirmed in one Sumatran tiger; it may be an emerging disease problem.
Microsporum canis is not an uncommon cause of hair loss in young tigers (Kloss and Lang 1976, Kymhapeb and Cam 1984).
Coccidioidomycosis was reported in two Bengal tigers with concurrent liver problems living in endemic areas (Hendrickson and Biberstein 1972). Tigers seem prone to central nervous signs with a wide variety of disease conditions (Blythe et al. Congenital problems have been reported, and in some instances, may be related to inbreeding (Leipold 1980). Abscesses should be clipped and prepped for a sterile culture in order to determine the etiology and guide the choice of antibiotic therapy.
The euthanasia of tigers is an issue that has become so polarized that it goes beyond the boundaries of whether it is in the best interest of the animal or the best interest of the species. The AZA has developed a thoughtful policy for the euthanasia of zoo specimens that can be used as a guide in this issue. A recommendation from the 1992 AAZPA Felid TAG Meeting gives some new direction on this issue (Policy of the Culling [Euthanasia] of Surplus Animals, AAZPA Felid Action Plan, 1991 and 1992).
Preventive medical programs also depend on the complete post-mortem examination of animals that have died in a zoological collection. Regional Tiger Coordinator contacted for specific instructions regarding tissues and carcass disposition. There is considerable concern that some contraceptives (MGA implants and Ovaban) are causing mammary cancer in zoo felids.
Largest Availability of Antique Steamer Trunk Models Available For Sale on the Internet: Dome Top, Camel Back, Hump Back, Foot Locker, and Flat Top, the rare Theatrical Trunk. Additionally, we have added many hard to find or one-of-a-kind Naval Antiques from many of the navies around the world to our collection for your review and interest, many available for sale. These beautifully restored authentic Dome Top (also known as hump back, humpback or camel back) and Flat Top Trunks are circa 1840 to 1900 and many have literally travelled around the world many times over before coming to you! These Antique Steamer Trunks and Steamer Chests would make the perfect complement to any home decor as antique coffee tables, storing military uniforms and military memorabilia, unique family room storage cabinets for videos, CD's, or games, or for your traditional antique hope chest!
Anyone who has restored these steamer trunks knows that it truly is a labor of love, every one of them being different and unique.
They are being used as office filing cabinets as they have hanging file folders in them and the lift out trays have all of the staplers, tape dispensors, pens, paper and other items normally used in an office! These restored trunks can easily hold up to 200 hanging file folders, staplers, tape dispenserss, pens, and other office items normally found on a typical desk. One of our 100+ Year Old Nautical Antique Trunks can be used for both a Shadow Box and Storage Chest for your Uniforms, Photograph Albums, and Memorabilia!
The possible owners and travels that each steamer trunk has taken, along with the high level of detailed craftsmanship in the original production of each and every steamer trunk with that individualized character giving both intrinsic and non-intrinsic value.
They stored what little treasures they had into these steamer trunks and steamer chests and set sail for a new world and a new life fraught with both danger and excitement - coming from Europe or by wagon train and locomotive in settling the American west.
They stored what little treasures they had into these trunks and set sail for a new world and a new life fraught with both danger and excitement. So for these business and legal reasons we cannot offer you help on items which we do not possess ourselves. Large Late 19th Century (1880s - 1890s) All Wood Flat Top Antique Trunk in an Even Light Golden-Yellow Finish to the 100+ Year Old Pine Body and Blackened Wide Oak Wood Slats; Contrasting Beautifully Against the Black Japanned Hardware. This Very Large Late 19th Century (1880s - 1890s) All Metal and Wood Humpback or Dome Top Antique Trunk Finished Off in Black and Gold Leaf Wood Body Contrasting Beautifully Against the Numerous 100+ Year Old Wide Hand Tooled Oak Wood Slats.
Large Late 19th Century (1870s-1890s) All Flat Top Antique "Theatrical" Trunk For Sale With a Rich Medium-Brown Patina to the Pine Wood Body and Wide Hand Tooled Oak Wood Slats. This would make a great addition to a home with a 19th century decor, and especially for someone in the Theater Industry!
Large Late 19th Century (1870s) All Wood Humpback or Dome Top Antique Trunk For Sale With a Rich Medium-Light Patina to the Pine Wood Body and Wide Hand Tooled Oak Wood Slats.
The Blackend Hardware Contrasting Beautifully Against the 100+ Year Old Seasoned Woods with Each and Every Nail Head Finished in a Gold Leaf! The Cast Iron Hardware Finished in a Flat Black Contrasting Beautifully Against the 100+ Year Old Seasoned Woods! Perfect Re-purpose and gift for a Civil War re-enactor to store period items and treasures! Perfect Re-purpose as a Miliary, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Navy Retirement Gift and Shadow Box Idea!
Has great character to both the wood and the abundant hardware and the pressed tin wheat floral design is beyond awesome.
All Original Detailed Hardware in a Black Finish Consisting of Edge Guards, Decorative Oak Slat Clamps, lid Lift.
Has great character to both the wood and the abundant hardware and the high arch gives it that definitive "piratey" look! Has great character to both the wood and the abundant hardware and the pressed tin floral design is beyond awesome. There's Great Character All Around in the Construction of this 110 Year Old Pine Body and Wide Oak Wood Slats. The Polished Silvery Heavy Duty Hardware Consists of Front Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts and New End Caps and New Leather Handles.
The Polished Silvery Heavy Duty Hardware Consists of Edge Guards, Front Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts, and Remnants of the Original Leather Strap Tie Downs.


This restored antique trunk would be great as a repurpose into a Military, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Navy Retirement Gift Shadow Box! The Polished Silvery Heavy Duty Hardware Consists of Edge Guards, Front Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts, Lid Guides.
Large Size Mid-Late 19th Century (Late 1870s-1880s) All Wood Restored Flat Top Antique Trunk For Sale With an Exceptionally Georgous Grain and Character to the 120 Plus Year Old Mahogany-finished Pine Body and Wide Red Oak Wood Slats. Great Polished Silvery Hardware Consisting of Heavy Duty Edge and Corner Guards, Front and Side Lid Guides, Front Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts, and Two Nicely Patterned Nail Strips Across the Body. Lots of character to this trunk and the polished hardware contrasts beautifully with the pine and oak woods. The Original Cast Iron Hardware Has Been Polished and Retains Much of Its Original Black Japanning and Consists of Original Decorative End Caps, Front Lid Lift, and Beautifully Polished Oak Slat Securing Clamps. The Original Cast Iron Hardware Has Been Polished and Retains Much of Its Original Black Japanning and Consists of Heavy Duty End Caps, Front Lid Lift, Intricate Lid Guides and Rear Hinges. Lots of character to this trunk and would make a great re-purpose into a Military or Navy Retirement Shadow Box!
This Century Old Seasoned Wood Has a Natural Pine Finish and the Oak Wood Slats Reveals All of the Fantastic Grain, Character, and Beauty of the Wood. The idea is to “emphasize” rather than hide the recycled origin of the material! We run network of high quality 50+ high niche websites with millions of regular visitors, Please connect with us.
These shoe racks, which are easy to assemble by any individual just require a bit of imagination, some nails and a hammer. These recycled pallet cases look chic and offer a rustic look to one’s drawing room, study or office. The lamp thus, can be made either with a stand or fitted with attachments to hang from the ceiling.
The blocks of pallets are fitted together in a square, rectangular or any desired shape, painted, or in original form and thus converted into a bedside, tea, ironing or center table depending on the size and the appeal of the piece of furniture. A tree house for children is not only a thrill for them but also a way to make them understand the importance of recycling, or a small bird house for the people who love to treat their chirping friends, or even a full sized wooden house standing tall in one’s garden can be a fun picnic spot to rejuvenate and relax in the natural sunlight and fresh air. Beautiful composite bins built by stacking pallets and further compartmentalizing them to store different kinds of composites or wastes is another pleasant premise. Most published reports concern medical problems that are preventable, given the present state of the science of zoological medicine, namely dietary related deficiencies and diseases or viral infections. Our approach is to consider an overall medical program for the tiger that will not only minimize disease but improve overall viability.
Major nutritional problems are almost nonexistent due to the increased understanding of dietary needs including proper ratios of vitamins and minerals. Once this is instituted and functioning, the major medical problems encountered will be the geriatric problems of an aging collection.
Specific preventive factors relate to diet, exhibit design, behavioral needs, cleaning procedures, pest control and the more medically oriented procedures such as vaccinations, parasite control and quarantine. Fortunately, this allows veterinarians to extrapolate from experiences and expertise dealing with the domestic counterpart.
The 100-pound female tiger was one of two 10-month-old sister cubs that were destined for the San Diego Zoo. 19, concluding the 24-hour trip, the cub was dead, either from dehydration or because it apparently had overheated in its small wooden cage, said Dr. The crate must be strong enough and large enough for the tiger, but the size should allow easy movement and access through doorways. It is essential that adequate handles are provided along the full length of each side of the container and that the bottom is raised with skids to allow the use of mechanized lifting equipment (fork lift).
The bars must be spaced in a manner which will prevent the animal from pushing its forelegs through the spaces between the bars. When a grill floor is not feasible, the floor of the container must be liquid-proof and be covered with sufficient material to absorb the animal's excreta. Ventilation holes, of approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) diameter, shall be positioned on the sides and top as indicated in the diagram.
Loosely woven burlap or fine nylon or similar mesh, stretched over the front opening, with a batten on the bottom, can be used in lieu of the wooden shutters.
The height shall provide adequate space for the animal to stand upright with head extended, the length shall permit it to lay in the full prone position. Ideally the tiger will be held in a separate facility and cared for by keepers that do not care for other felids. An animal should be observed carefully during the quarantine period, and factors such as the animal's behavior and appetite, and subtle symptoms of potential disease should be recorded daily. It is unacceptable to send an animal to a new collection without sending its medical history. In addition, for dogs and cats, if there are ventilation openings on three walls they must be at least 8% of the area of two opposite walls and 50% of the area of the third wall: the total combined ventilation opening area must be at least 14% of the total combined area of all four walls.
Two live puppies and kittens, eight weeks to six months of age, but not weighing over 9 kg (20 lb) each and of comparable size, may be carried in the same primary enclosure.
Animal Welfare Act, Section 3.86(a), requires that one-third of the container ventilation holes must be in the lower half of the container.
These records contain vaccinations, diseases, surgeries, anesthetic episodes, parasite problems, weights, medications received, blood and other clinical pathology data, etc. Individual identification is also essential to the accuracy of medical and animal management records.
The use of a standard system and transponder location simplifies the identification of tigers transferred between institutions.
This serum bank should contain a 5 to 20 ml sample of serum from each procedure in which blood samples were collected from any tiger in the collection.
Individual serum chemistry analyses can be evaluated on banked samples to evaluate health parameters that may not have been performed when samples were initially collected. Anesthesia allows the veterinarian safe access to the patient for diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical and research procedures. Checklist of routine examination procedures for felids during quarantine, the ongoing preventative medical program and prior to shipment (ACN=as clinically needed).
In addition, semen collection via electroejaculation is recommended for unproven adult males destined to be breeders. As a tiger ages, this examination becomes more important for prevention of dental problems causing systemic diseases.
An initial blood sample can be taken prior to anesthesia by placing the tiger in a squeeze cage and bleeding it from the lateral tail vein. It is important to continue this concept as an ongoing program in the captive maintenance of the tiger. Routine rounds through the cat area should be made to remain familiar with the tigers, to evaluate their overall appearance, activity, and facility conditions, and to talk with the keepers. Severely stressed animals may not mount appropriate titers and should be re-vaccinated if conditions indicate.
Panleukopenia (feline distemper), rhinotracheitis and calicivirus are the most common viral infectious diseases of domestic cats.
The canine distemper virus has historically been considered largely insignificant as a felid pathogen. Vaccination of tigers and other nondomestic felids with feline leukemia vaccine produces good titers.
Calculus accumulation should be removed from the tooth surfaces, with care taken to remove material from the subgingival sulcus. If present, parasites should be eliminated, with appropriate anthelmintics, before the tiger is released into an exhibit.
Most internal parasites found in stool examinations are relatively common and ubiquitous in captive situations, with some less frequent infections reported (see Bush et al. The tiger may be serving as a transport host depending on what it has been fed or what feral animals it consumed. However, climbing animals, such as feral cats, can easily defeat such barriers; therefore, areas around tiger enclosures should be monitored regularly for feral animal activity. Safe rodenticides are available for use around tigers when applied according to their directions. Insecticide applications can be made around tiger enclosures with chemicals that are safe when applied in a proper manner. The ectoparasites of mammals such as fleas, ticks, and mites, can be transmitted to tigers; as well, internal parasites of these same feral animals can be acquired by tigers and cause infection.
Other species of Salmonella are implicated in enteric disease affecting both young and adult tigers with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal upset to death.
These tigers serve as sources of infection for others, especially young tigers, and may break with the disease themselves if stressed. Potential zoonosis risks can occur with the diseases listed above, such as tuberculosis, rabies and anthrax; therefore it is necessary to take routine preventative precautions when working with a sick tiger.
Two leopards (Panthera pardus) died in Illinois with symptoms of depression, anorexia, ataxia and seizures (Dierks). The isolated viruses were indistinguishable from the naturally occurring type of the virus isolated from dogs and other species.
Teeth fracture longitudinally or transversely, thus exposing the pulp tissue and periapical structures to infection.
In past years, the euthanasia of tigers suffering severe injury, contagious diseases or other life-threatening ailments was a relatively straight-forward decision by most zoos. This policy on euthanasia does not address the removal of surplus SSP animals in order to meet the genetic and demographic goals of these programs (see Chapter 7, Tiger Policies). This recommendation was also endorsed by the AAZPA Tiger SSP at the 1992 Annual AAZPA Meeting in Toronto).
This service should provide rapid tentative diagnosis from the gross pathological examination to allow immediate medical care of the remaining collection if indicated. In order to determine if these contraceptives increase the risks of developing mammary tumors, the types and prevalences of mammary tumors in both contracepted and non-contracepted felids needs to be evaluated. Antibody response to an inactivated vaccine for rhino- tracheitis, caliciviral disease, and panleuko- penia in nondomestic felids. Adaptational gastro-enteritis in Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Bucharest Zoo.
Measurement of creatine concentration in blood serum -- importance to early diagnosis of functional disorders in kidneys of zoo animals, with particular refer- ence to felids. HANDBOOK OF ZOO MEDICINE: DISEASE AND TREATMENT OF WILD ANIMALS IN ZOOS, GAME PARKS, CIRCUSES AND PRIVATE COLLECTIONS.
A brief review of salmonellosis as a veterinary zoonosis and a case history of (Salmonella pyometraina) in a Bengal tiger performing in a travelling circus.
Klinische labordi- agnostik bei grosskatzen unter besonderer berucksichtigung der tigerkrankheit.
Enzootic occurrence FV rhinotracheitis in large feline animals of Zoological Garden of Leipzig.
Antique Trunks by Excelsior, Martin Maier, Louis Vuitton, with Many Styles and Models to Choose from: Dome Top, Humpback, Camel Back, Flat Top and Roll Tops, Saratoga Trunks and Others. Many of our purchased restored antique trunks are re-purposed as Military, Army, Air Force, Marine Corpos Retirement Gifts and US Navy Retirement Shadow Box ideas!
What a great treasure to give someone who has just moved and relocated here to the United States!
What better way to honor and remember those who settled this nation and have come before us! If this website can help you identify something you own yourself, help you with a restoration, or with how much your trunk is worth then that is great and we are glad to help in that way. Beautiful Original Victorian Lithograph of a Young Woman in Period Dress and Whimsical Floral and Lake Scene. All Sheet Metal and Edge Trim is Done in a Decorative Style Adding Lots of Character and that "Piratey" Look and Feel.
The Polished and Blackend Hardware Contrasting Beautifully Against the 100+ Year Old Seasoned Woods. Two Functional and Decorative Wide Nail Strips Across the Body Providing Additional Character. Decorative Heavy Duty Hardware Consists of Edge Guards, 4 Rear Hinges, and Original End Caps and New Leather Handles.
All Original Detailed Dated Hardware (March 1880) in a Black Finish Consisting of Decorative Oak Slat Clamps, Rosettes, Edge Guards, and lid Lift. All Original Detailed Hardware in a Black Finish Consisting of Decorative Oak Slat Clamps and lid Lift. There's Great Character to this 120 Plus Year Old Antique Trunk with the Pine Body and Wide Oak Wood Slats Contasting Beautifully with the Black and Gold Highlighting.
There's Great Character to this 120 Plus Year Old Antique Trunk with the Pine Body and Wide Oak Wood Slats Contasting Beautifully with the Black and Gold Leaf Highlighting. The Blackened and Gold Highlighted Heavy Duty Decorative Hardware Consists Edge Guards and Protectors, Multiple Oak Slat Clamps, Front Latches, Original End Caps and New Heavy Duty Thick Leather Handles. Mid 19th Century Civil War era (1850s-1860s) Large All Wood Restored Dome Top Antique Trunk For Sale With a Fantastic Victorian Lithograph, Working Lock AND Key, Original Lift Out Tray, and Brass Capped Nail Heads! The Heavy Duty Cast Iron Hardware Retains Much of its Original Black Japanning and Consists of Very Kewl Edge Guards, Corner Guards, a Unique Single Front Latch, Two Nail Strips Across the Body, and Lid Lift.
The Heavy Duty Cast Iron Hardware Retains Much of its Original Black Japanning and the Front Latches are Very Unique and Dated - May 16, 1875. This 120+ Year Old Antique Trunk has Fantastic Character and a Magnificent Grain Along with Original Cast Iron End Caps and New Leather Handles. This 140+ Year Old Antique Trunk has Fantastic Character and a Magnificent Grain Along with Original Cast Iron End Caps and New Leather Handles. 130+ Year Old Seasoned Natural Pine Body, Wide Red Oak Slats with Decorative Grooves, and Circular Impressions on the Inside Planks From the First Cut at the Saw Mill.
The Victorian Lithographs of Women in Period Dress are absolutely beautiful and perfectly detailed.
The Victorian Lithograph of John Tyler by Nathan Currier (of Currier-Ives) is Extremely Rare. Perfect as a Military, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps or US Navy Retirement Gift Shadow Box. All Original Polished Heavy Duty Hardware Includes Edge Guards, Lid Lift, and Heavy Duty Front Latches and 3 Dated Rear Hinges: "June 10, 1879". A fully functional sturdy bed can also be made by using and stacking the pallets together and adding additional cabinets or storage boxes according to one’s requirement. Shoes can be either stacked or fitted between the panels in the painted or original pallet racks. Many innovative permutations and combinations can be made to give these tables different looks, feels and appeals. The emerging role of medical programs is to shift strategies from the care of individuals to the care of species, subspecies, and populations. It is best not to be overzealous in utilizing this comparison since tigers are unique animals; new problems and new techniques should be approached through careful planning and good clinical judgment. If possible, the animal should have access to its shipping crate for two weeks prior to shipment to become familiar with it. Husbandry, dietary and medical records should be transmitted to the receiving institution prior to shipment, and complete copies of these records should accompany the tiger during shipment.
Department of Agriculture could arrive at the airport to check on the animal's condition, the airliner already had taken off for Los Angeles.
Particular attention should be paid to the size of doors on all airplanes on which the tiger may be transported.
A sliding door shall be constructed at the rear, of the same material as the container, adequately secured to prevent accidental opening. These holes may be screened on the exterior with fine nylon or similar mesh if such covering will not unduly restrict the amount of air entering the container. Compatible animals need not be separated by a partition when it is probable they will not harm each other during shipment.
Animals newly captured from the wild may require a longer quarantine, particularly when treatment of parasites or disease problems is required. These data will alert the clinician to previous and potential problems and document past vaccinations, anesthetic doses, medical procedures, identification methods, fecal examinations and blood values. It is not unusual to have a newly arrived tiger stop eating because of the environmental change. Weaned live puppies or kittens less than eight weeks of age and of comparable size, or puppies or kittens which are less than eight weeks of age, and litter-mates accompanied by their dam, may be shipped in the same primary enclosure to research laboratories.
It is vital to start this during the quarantine period and continue it through the animal's life in the collection and then, if the animal dies, the necropsy findings will be part of the record. Surplus banked serum can be used as an antibody source to provide passive immunity to tiger cubs when there is a failure of passive antibody transfer from the dam of the cubs such as in hand-rearing situations. The state of the art and science of anesthesia in this species has advanced so that the procedure is expected to be routine and safe.
This exam should include evaluation of each organ system following a regular protocol to assure completeness. Complete physical examinations should also be performed at the time of more targeted examinations for specific health problems. The oral examination should include dental structures for fractures and periodontal disease.
Foreign bodies lodged between oral structures, such as bone fragments or sticks can be incidental findings but predisposes the animal to oral disease. This will help evaluate the animal's status prior to anesthesia for a complete physical examination. Tigers that have never been vaccinated previously will require at least two vaccinations, three weeks apart, to produce adequate antibody levels. There is one vaccine that provides good antibody titers to these three major infectious viral diseases. However, recent cases identify canine distemper as a potentially significant pathogen in captive tiger populations (Appel et. In areas endemic for rabies, a killed vaccine (Imrab, Pitman-Moore, Inc., Washington Crossing, NJ 08560) is recommended for protection of the animal.
In environments where leptospirosis occurs, vaccination of tigers with a bacterin may be indicated.
The use of this vaccine as a regular procedure, however, requires more consideration since no tigers have been found to be positive for this virus.


If power equipment is available, the scraped surfaces should be polished to smooth dental surfaces, which deters future calculus accumulation.
Rodents, birds, domestic cats or dogs, or other pests that have access to the tiger or its enclosure may serve as a source of contamination for microorganisms or parasites.
Live trapping provides a method of removing feral animals acceptable to the public and humane animal interest groups.
Care must be taken in choosing compounds that are effective, yet not highly toxic, especially when considering secondary toxicities. There are many chemicals available, both primary insecticides and newer growth regulator compounds, that have low toxicity potential when used correctly. Phillips) has personally experienced loss of several tigers due to incorrect application of insecticides by inexperienced personnel due to a breakdown in communications. Feral animals also serve as potential sources of pathogens such as the feline viral diseases, rabies, yersiniosis, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis, feline infectious peritonitis, and others.
The proposed etiology of "tiger disease" has been reported to be a pancreatic dysfunction (Eulenberger 1981, Straub and Seidel 1983) or disruption of gastrointestinal flora (Kloss and Lang 1976). To prevent salmonellosis in captive groups of tigers, there must be quality control at the production source, the diet should be maintained frozen prior to feeding, and the thawing process and feeding method must reduce possible contamination (see Chapter 4, Nutrition, Food Preparation and Feeding). Historically the canine distemper virus as a cause of chronic encephalomyelitis in a Bengal tiger (P.t. No evidence was found of other concurrent viral infections such as feline immunodeficiency virus which might have predisposed the cats to canine distemper infection. Circumstantial evidence indicates that this outbreak may have been due to a primary canine distemper virus infection or a concurrent infection, however canine distemper virus was not isolated. 1981) and have signs similar to those reported in the domestic cat and usually have a high morbidity and low mortality. It is our procedure to give antibiotics orally for 7-10 days after such fights to minimize local infection and bacteremia that may shower to other organs.
The canine teeth are especially prone to fracture or wear because of their location and length.
Histopathological examination of tissues is mandatory and should be done in a timely manner to make those findings relevant to the health care of the collection. For this evaluation, all available information on any species of felid that has had a mammary tumor, regardless of its contraceptive history needs to be collected. Feline panleukopenia virus and subsequent canine distemper virus infection in two snow leopards (Panthera uncia).
Yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydro- chloride immobilization of bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries. Scroll Down To Review All 100+ Available Restored Antique Steamer Trunks Each with a Unique Trunk #, Mulitiple Photographs, Description, Measurements, and Price!
These fully restored Antique Steamer Trunks will become your legacy and a family heirloom passed down from generation to generation!
However we cannot help you if you call us with questions about something we do not have in our possession. Makers Label on the Underside Lid of the Famous "SHR & Co" as well as the Beautiful Victorian Lithographs Make this a Special Trunk.Working Lock and Key!
Heavy Duty Hardware Consists of Edge Guards, Lid Guides, Front Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts. The Cast Iron Hardware is absolutely beautiful and this trunk was well made with extra heavy duty pine wood planks and oak wood slats. This Restored Antique Dome Top Trunk has Fantastic Grain and Lots of Character with Hidden Functional Compartment Under the Lid. The compartment doors under the lid and on the liftout tray are constructed of wood, not the regular cardbard found on most trunks.
The 120+ Year Old Seasoned Natural Pine Body, Wide Red Oak Slats, and Circular Impressions on the Inside Planks From the First Cut at the Saw Mill. Once the goods are transported, these pallets become redundant and find their way into the waste bins, landfills or in garages and storehouses where they lie unutilized and wither away with time. Many multipurpose chairs, picnic sets, loungers or garden beds can thus be made depending on the creativity of the individual. A single unit book case just to stack books or a multi-purpose case which can store books, papers or have a study area with cabinets can be easily constructed by anyone having a bit of carpentry and creative skills. Sculptures, wall decorations, Christmas decorations and even guitars are being made from recycled wooden pallets.
Parasites (external and internal) can be effectively controlled or eliminated with newer drugs. The following protocols outline the necessary components of such a program for the medical management of captive tigers. It is important that any tiger tranquilized for shipment be completely awake and standing before it travels.
It was a solid wooden crate except for one end, the tail end, where there was heavy gauge wire.
While loosely woven burlap may also be used when it is necessary to quiet the animal, great care must be taken to ensure that air circulation is not restricted.
In these instances, the tiger should be separated from other cats as much as possible, and keepers should work with it after they have finished all work with the existing collection.
The Minnesota Zoo reported an adult female that refused to come into holding from her exhibit and did not eat for 19 days; an adult male from the Moscow Zoo never did switch over to zoo diet for its entire life.
Travelers Trail, Burnsville, MN, USA 55337; phone 1-800-INFOPET, or 612-890-2080) with transponders placed at the base of the left ear in tigers. However, passive immunity transfer requires large volumes (100 ml) to be effective, and extra serum should be banked for this purpose.
A protocol for regular physical examination should be established in order to monitor health over time as a component of an overall preventative medical program. A common problem reported in exotic felids relates to wear or trauma from fighting between tigers or contact with enclosure material. It is recommended that all zoos participating in the AZA Tiger SSP have access to a squeeze cage. Familiarity with normal conditions in tigers will allow a better comparison when the animal is suspected of having an abnormality.
Subsequent vaccinations to maintain protective antibody levels should be provided at least annually throughout the animal's life and in some cases more frequently.
This is a killed product, (Fel-o-vax, Fort Dodge Lab Inc., Fort Dodge, IA 50501) and provides apparent protection at a 1-ml dose (domestic cat) in adult tigers (Bush et al. We realize this recommendation is at odds with the Compendium of Animal Rabies Vaccines, which was prepared by the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, but we view it as necessary to protect our patients, particularly in areas where rabies is enzootic in the wildlife.
Neoplastic and immunosuppression syndromes, as occur in domestic cats with feline leukemia virus, have not been documented in tigers. At this time, the subgingival sulcus, gingiva, and teeth should be examined for evidence of gingivitis or periodontal disease. These eggs subsequently reinfect the tigers and are extremely difficult to eliminate from the exhibit. This emphasizes the need for specific identification of parasite stages seen in stool and an awareness of the tiger's diet. Stress was documented as the cause in one report which correlated the digestive upsets with sudden changes in the tiger's environment (Cocin et al. On post-mortem examination there are blood clots reported on the spleen that in the earlier literature were called tumors. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) were considered the source of the virus in two cases, and dogs were the source in one case (Appel et al.
A second cutaneous pathogen, Dermatophilosis cargolensis, has been cultured from skin lesions in polar bears and tigers (Kitchen and Dayhuff 1977). Powerful animal rights lobbyists have sufficiently influenced the general public, many of whom are also the visiting public, to the point that it is now not clear what constitutes an acceptable euthanasia, regardless of the reason, over what is an unacceptable euthanasia. Medetomidine and detamine anaesthesia in zoo animals and its reversal with atipamezole: A review and update with specific reference to work in British zoos. This Antique Trunk Was Found at the End of our Driveway One Fine Spring Morning and was "Restored" Sometime in the Way Distant Past. The Gold Leaf Highlighted "Shamrock or 4 Leaf Clover" Rosettes and Tin Slat Clamp Hardware is Dated March 16, 1880. There are Four Heavy Duty Latches with Built-in Lid Lifts for the Fold-up Lid Along with Edge Guards.
Original Lift Out Tray with Multiple Fantastically Detailed Victorian Lithographs all Professionally Sealed.
The Extra Thick Planks on the Pine Wood Body and Oak Wood Slats Have Great Character and a Beautiful Grain! This would make a GREAT Military and Navy Retirement Shadow Box!Working Brass Lock and Key! The large compartment lid on the liftout tray is not attached but could possibly be or even put into a frame (which would be our first suggestion)! This Restored Antique Dome Top Trunk has Fantastic Grain and Lots of Character with Two Nail Strips Across the Body. All Original Polished Heavy Duty Hardware Includes Edge Guards, Front Lid Lift, Heavy Duty Front Latches and 3 Rear Hinges.
Another adventurous concept is of fitting the slats together and mounting them on a base with attached wheels to serve as sledges in snow capped areas for easy transportation. Tigers are lost even under the best intentions, as shown in this excerpt from the Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, March 25, 1992.
Personnel working with or near a quarantined cat should wear coveralls and rubber boots designated for the quarantine area.
It is recommended that each cat be individually identified with a subcutaneous microchip (transponder) and a tattoo of the studbook number. In some cases it is advantageous to have some of the animal's previous diet accompany it if the food is not available locally. If computers are not yet available, then complete written records should be maintained and thought should be given to developing codes that will help entering these data into a computerized record system at a later date.
The most common dental finding is calculus accumulation, especially along the buccal surface of the upper molars and premolars. Clinical parameters of primary interest are total WBC count and differential, hematocrit, BUN, creatinine, liver enzyme values and an examination for red blood cell parasites.
A good relationship with the keepers promotes open communications between the animal and veterinary staff, which is vital to any medical program. The use of a killed rabies vaccine at the recommended dose (1 ml) produced serum titers, in captive tigers, equivalent to those reported to be protective in domestic species (Bush et al. Screening for enteric bacterial pathogens should be performed occasionally because salmonella, shigella, and others are shed intermittently. It is seldom possible to eliminate ascarids totally in the tiger, but they are controllable with periodic administration of oral anthelminthic. Removal of captured wildlife may be coordinated through state agencies or local rehabilitation groups.
The residual chemicals in cracks and crevices should have no contact with the tigers but, if so, exposure levels should be minimal.
Situations like this must be avoided by carefully planned pest control programs and subsequent correct applications of pesticides. At a separate facility in California, enteric, respiratory and central nervous system symptoms developed in a large group of cats. 1985) with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridens as potential problems in tiger bites. Topical fly repellents applied to these sites will prevent secondary fly larvae infestations.
A variety of endodontic procedures provide an option to extraction, which is laborious and disfiguring, especially with canine teeth (Van De Grift 1975, Tinkleman 1979, McDonald 1983).
Appropriate tissues not formalin fixed may be frozen for viral, toxicology, and genetic studies.
Your participation will be recognized in any reports or publications resulting from this survey. Someone Dropped it Off so we Rescued it From Certain Destruction After We Made Some Repairs! Trunk has that Sought After "High Arch" to the Dometop Giving it that Distinctive Piratey Look!
Department of Agriculture (USDA) requirements and be strong enough to safely hold the tiger (see Crate Specifications below). The animal was 43 inches long from the crown of its head to the base of its tail, and the cage was just 46 inches long, a USDA inspection showed.
The placement of transponders and the location of tattoos have been directed by the American Zoo and Aquariums Association (AZA) Tiger Species Survival Plan (SSP) but may undergo review (especially the transponder placement). There are potential limitations to these visits, since many large felids including tigers recognize the veterinary staff and associate them with some past negative situation usually involving a manipulative procedure. The European Endangered Species Program (EEP) recommends 1 ml of Fel-O-Vax be used for boosters in adults; juveniles should be vaccinated at 8, 12, and 16 weeks, repeated at six months, and then given annual boosters. At the present time no vaccine is available that has been tested as effective and safe in Panthera species. These agents can be more effective when the full recommended dosage is given for more than one day, such as three consecutive days, rather than as single treatments. Trapping does not provide a total eradication of pests; therefore, the design of the tiger enclosures reduces exposure to feral animals.
When rodent populations become unmanageable or resistant to anticoagulants, other more toxic compounds, such as zinc phosphide may be needed, requiring extra care in their application. All personnel involved with the tigers must participate in the planning stage of the pest control program so everyone is aware of the compounds being used, where and how they are applied, and knowledgeable of the safety of the compounds. Gastrointestinal upsets should be investigated as being caused by diet, infectious agents (Salmonella spp., Clostridium), or concurrent kidney failure. In collections with severe problems, cubs have been vaccinated with BCG starting at four weeks of age, but BCG vaccinations may not be indicated in most situations. Seventeen animals died including one jaguar (Panthera onca), four leopards, five tigers, and seven lions (Panthera leo).
Pasteurella multocida usually shows good sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics with cephalosporins being the drug of choice. Teeth can be salvaged by performing vital or non-vital pulpotomies and filling the root canals.
Each zoo has its own "unstated" position that is influenced by the prevailing political and public relations climate. Besides determining the cause of death, a complete post-mortem examination allows review of anatomical structure, assessment of nutritional status and parasitic burden of the animal. Please contact the AZA Tiger SSP Coordinator concerning any clinical case or necropsy of a tiger where mammary gland tumors are detected. For international shipments, International Air Transport Association (IATA) requirements must be met, and these provide reasonable guidelines for most tiger transfers.
This location is large enough to permit large, legible tattoos to be placed while not normally being visible when the tiger is on public display. Ronald Tilson, Conservation Department, Minnesota Zoo, 13000 Zoo Blvd., Apple Valley, MN 55124. It should be recognized that values may differ between various laboratories, and the best set of values is the one that your laboratory compiles.
These tigers can react aggressively, which masks the subtle first signs of many medical problems; therefore the medical staff must carefully consider keepers' observations concerning subtle changes in their tigers.
Post-treatment fecal examinations are necessary in assessing efficacy of the initial treatment. It may seem too obvious, but it should be emphasized that at no time should tigers have primary access to any rodenticide. Shaving the hair from around all puncture and laceration sites is important to allow drainage and prevent abscess formation. For that reason, it is difficult to make a consensus recommendation for the euthanasia of tigers. A copy of the tiger necropsy report should be sent to the AZA Tiger SSP Coordinator, who will then forward copies to researchers analyzing causes of tiger mortality. If an extended trip is anticipated (more than 12 hr), provisions should be made for someone to offer water and food to the animal while in transit.
The tattoo placed must be an identification number unique to that individual tiger, such as the animal's permanent studbook number. Modified live vaccines carry the risk of inducing the disease in species in which they have not been tested. Follow-up treatments to remove larval stages not susceptible during the initial treatment may be required.
Two adult snow leopards (Panthera uncia) died in 1988 with symptoms of weakness, hemorrhagic feces, seizures, head tilt, ataxia, nasal discharge and dyspnea. In reality, however, tigers are unlikely to feed in transport and can easily go for a few days without food. For the present, the protection of captive felid populations from contact with potential sources of infection, such as dogs and free ranging wildlife capable of carrying the infection, is the most effective method of prevention. Thorough daily cleaning and disinfection of housing facilities and housing tigers in quarters with sanitizable surfaces will substantially reduce reinfections. Feline panleukopenia virus was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ante-mortem in one of these leopards. Water is more crucial, and arrangements must be made to provide an adequate water supply for tigers in transit over 12 hours. In addition to lesions consistent with feline panleukopenia virus found on necropsy, evidence of interstitial pneumonia was found in both animals.
Rotterdam Zoo reports surgical apex resection solved an upper root canal infection in a 19-year-old male Sumatran tiger. Although virus isolation attempts were negative, canine distemper virus was confirmed in the affected lung of one animal by multiple fluorescent antibody tests. Radiological examinations of the teeth and adjacent bony structures are invaluable in determining the extent of disease or trauma and the course of therapy to pursue. In addition, both snow leopards developed positive serum titers for canine distemper virus during the course of the disease (Fix et al.



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