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admin | Category: Shipping Storage Containers | 27.09.2013
In 1969 Richard F Gibney, working at Shipbuilding and Shipping Record in the UK, simplified the statistics involved with comparing differing container sizes he coined the phrase Twenty Foot Equivalent (TEU) and this is the term that is still used to describe containers. The shipping container floors are made of planking or plywood wood, which is very strong and resilient, does not dent, and may be easily replaced during repairs. The forklift pockets of standard ISO steel shipping containers are easily visible and allow handling of empty shipping containers with forklift trucks. Gooseneck tunnel of standard ISO steel shipping containers: Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to center the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. Grappler pockets of standard ISO steel shipping containers: Most all shipping containers are handled by top spreaders using what’s called corner fittings or corner castings. By the 1950’s McLean had developed a large haulage business on the East Coast of the USA but had never forgotten the days of being a driver waiting for a whole day for goods to be loaded and unloaded at the port of New Jersey. In 1960 a new agreement was reached between the dockside unions and shipping companies where the companies could bring in new machinery but a large pension fund was set up for longshoremen and they were given reduced working hours. At the time Matson’s on the west coast were using 24 foot containers and Sea-Land on the east were using 35 foot containers.

Forklift pockets are installed only in 20' x 8’ x 8’ standard ISO steel shipping containers and are arranged parallel to the center of the container in the bottom side rails. This was manual work carried out by “longshoremen” using pulleys, cargo hooks and a significant labor force.
He patented a container with reinforced corner posts that could be craned off a truck chassis and had integral strength for stacking. This modularization of cargo reduced the time required to load and unload, it also reduced the number of longshoremen required, which resulted in the strike of 1971-72. The military were interested in containers but in a time of war the varied sizes would not be efficient.
Most containers are sprayed for insects because when lumber is used, it must comply with the quarantine regulations in most countries. An average ship had 200, 000 individual pieces of cargo and it would take around a week to load and unload. Since there were specific docking requirements, namely large cranes, containerization required investment.

Longshore jobs were allocated on a rota basis by the unions but containerization saw the needs for specialist crane operators thus the ports wanted to hire staff on a permanent contract. This is due to the fact that the location of the pockets are relatively close together and such large containers would be difficult to balance. The New York Harbour Authority realized this need and the potential of containerization and so built the first container port 'Port Elizabeth' in New Jersey in 1962. The shipping owners won their rights to employ the specialist staff and the containerization of shipping continued to move forward  .

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