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CEFM is designed to provide visibility over key supply chain events in the Limited Brands' (LB) movement of Victoria's Secret and Express Brand items from Hong Kong, China, to Columbus, Ohio. CEFM then makes this information available to all supply chain partners using Web services. Figure 2 presents an overview diagram of the LB 11 supply chain events that occurred prior to using CEFM. During 2005-2006, the CEFM Evaluation Team conducted in-depth interviews with the supply chain partners, including personnel from the LB, StarTrans (Star), Hellmann Worldwide (Hellmann), ODW Logistics, and Barthco in Hong Kong, China, and Columbus, Ohio, to assess the existing data flows that support the supply chain operation. To compare the process of sharing and distributing supply chain visibility information with and without CEFM, the Evaluation Team analyzed the partner interviews to determine the actual supply chain events, the data that is shared between partners, and the means through which it is shared.
The Manufacturer receives Purchase Orders (POs) through EDI or ecVision (the LB's off-the-shelf PO system), schedules production, and assembles the items to be included in the shipment. When the Manufacturer is ready to ship, the consignment is booked, which may include all or part of the items listed in a PO.
The manufacturer uses the HAWB number and additional shipment details (such as ship quantity and piece count) to fill out the official packing list. When the freight forwarder physically receives the goods from the manufacturer, the forwarder provides a "Cargo Received" status update to LB. Once the consignment arrives at the freight forwarder's consolidation facility, the forwarder records the time that the shipment arrived in its internal IT systems.
The freight forwarder books the shipment with an airline and receives a confirmation from the airline. The booking information sent to the forwarder contains a "Goods at Consolidator" date, which indicates the expected arrival into the forwarder's Hong Kong facility. Similar to the process by which the forwarders generate a HAWB number, once the booking is received by the airline, the airline generates a MAWB number. To meet the required time for aircraft loading, the freight forwarder has the shipments transported by a local drayage company to HACTL, which then records the receiving information and official weight in its own system.
The forwarders are responsible for arranging the truck transportation between their consolidation facility and the air terminal, which are located about 1 hour apart. Based on information from the airline concerning the outbound charter flight, HACTL loads the shipments on the outbound aircraft.
When the cargo airline departs Hong Kong, HACTL captures departure time information that is provided to the freight forwarder. If the aircraft makes any stops after departing Hong Kong, FlyteComm will record the airport code of any location where the aircraft touches down.
Shortly before the aircraft departs, the forwarder prepares a "pre-alert email," which contains about 25 pieces of information related to the consignment. Next, the forwarder sends a separate email to the inbound trucking company containing the scanned MAWB and cargo manifest documents as attachments. The trucking company manually enters information from the MAWB into its legacy system for billing purposes. The forwarder prepares and sends a "Wheels Up" email to notify the Customs broker that the aircraft has departed. Approximately 4-8 hours after the "Wheels Up" email, the forwarder sends a second email, the "Notice to broker" (NTB) to the Customs broker. The forwarder also sends the shipment documents to the Customs broker about 24 hours before the aircraft arrives in Columbus. Within 4 hours of the aircraft's departure, the forwarder prepares an EDI 856 E4 message, which is an Advance Shipment Notice (ASN).
The freight forwarder in Hong Kong scans the Customs documents and sends them by email to the Customs broker (Barthco).
Customs clearance occurs after the aircraft arrives in Columbus, and CBP in Columbus will send an electronic clearance notification to the broker. As stated in Event 5, the Customs broker relies on the Hong Kong forwarder to provide these emails (some with attachments). After the aircraft arrives at its destination in Columbus, the ground handling agent transfers the consignments to the trucking agent, who moves the shipments to the CFS in Columbus.
As stated in Event 7, once the inbound trucking company receives the attachments via email from the forwarder in Hong Kong (the MAWB and cargo manifest), the MAWB number is manually entered into the trucking company's billing system. The CFS receives consignment-related documents, including cargo manifest, HAWB, Customs documents, and a packing list. The CFS creates truck shipments for delivery to consignee at the Limited Brands distribution center. The CFS receives specific data through the forwarder -the pre-alert as an Excel spreadsheet, and the EDI ASN, which are critical for the CFS's operation. Although the CFS receives the ASN automatically, there may be errors in the message receipt, or there are errors or missing fields within the EDI message, which can cause numerous problems. After the CFS receives the load from the inbound trucking company scans the load on the warehouse floor, the CFS closes out the shipment in its legacy system.
The freight remains in the CFS, a bonded warehouse, until the CFS and LB receive a copy of the Customs clearance as an email attachment from the Customs broker. The in-bound trucking company, in this case ODW itself, delivers consignments to the LB's DC.
The LB's gate guard representatives validated the shipment, signed the truck manifest, and directed the truck to the appropriate building for delivery. Due to the geographic proximity between the CFS and the LB DC, it takes approximately 30 minutes to travel between the two locations. The CEFM test data flows design is built upon the LB's 11 supply chain events discussed in section 2.2.
The foundation for Web services is a service-oriented architecture (SOA), which serves as the environment in which Web services are run.
As a note of clarification, within the CEFM system, the term "consignment" can be used interchangeably with the term "shipment," but is defined as a single unit of goods being moved.
Within the CEFM test, LB sends the PO to the manufacturer using EDI or ecVision, an LB legacy off-the-shelf apparel sourcing system, which makes POs available to the manufacturer via the Web portal. Figure 4 presents a sample view from the manufacturer's booking screen to create a consignment to track a shipment in CEFM.
The tendering date and time are automatically entered by CEFM when the manufacturer's staff submits the information. Figure 6 shows a sample of a transportation status message for this event in the XML style sheet view. For all CEFM partners, information pertinent to CEFM shipments entered into the freight forwarders' existing IT systems is automatically pushed to CEFM via each partner's shadow database. Three transportation status messages looking similar to the one presented under Event 2 in Figure 6 can be generated from the forwarder's cargo receipt information and associated documents in Hong Kong. It is important to note that once the freight forwarders enter the cargo information into their existing systems, a HAWB is generated and added to the consignment information within CEFM. While the freight forwarder arranges truck transportation from its Hong Kong consolidation facility to the HACTL, there is no information about this movement within CEFM. As with Event 5, since HACTL is not a participant in the CEFM deployment test, there are no status messages within the system to reflect HACTL's involvement with freight movement.
Within 4 hours following aircraft departure from Hong Kong, the forwarders create and send an EDI 856 message (ASN) to the broker, the CFS, and LB. Once the aircraft lands in Columbus, the ground handling agent unloads the cargo and transfers it to Forward Air, which then transports the cargo from the airport to the CFS in Columbus. Once the warehouse receives the cargo, the CFS generates a "Receipt Advice" message, which is sent to LB via EDI. The CFS receives shipment-related documents, including the cargo manifest, HAWB, Customs documents, and packing list, from various supply chain partners. After the shipment is received and broken down for delivery to the LB, ODW generates a second robust message, the "Dispatch Advice," or EDI 861, which is sent to LB. For this particular supply chain, ODW acts as its own inbound trucking company and delivers the shipments to the LB DC. It should be noted that all status and robust messages are available for viewing from the partners' CEFM portals by selecting "View Message" from the main menu. In addition to the CEFM status and robust messages described within the 11 supply chain events, CEFM also provides users with access to three on-demand reports: "Consignment Status," "Open Consignment Status Report," and the "Request Supply Chain Partners" report. For each consignment, CEFM retains all status and robust messages that occur as the consignment moves from Hong Kong to the DC in Columbus. The "federated" report is created by querying each partner's shadow database (or in ODW's case, its actual shipment database) for status messages they have sent, combining them, and sharing them with the requesting user. The second on-demand report, the "Open Consignment Status Report" (OCR), was originally prepared in a similar manner to the Federated Status Report by polling each partner for status. The third on-demand report available to all users through the CEFM "Status" menu is the "Request Supply Chain Partners" report.
This section provides a comparison of the two data flows (non-CEFM and with CEFM) and highlights the improvements in supply chain visibility that are attributable to CEFM. Based on calculations of the mean transit time of 82.3 hours using CEFM deployment test event data, and verified through the Evaluation Team's interviews with the supply chain partners, it is evident that the majority of the LB shipments originating in Hong Kong meet the 96-hour time standard. The period of the CEFM deployment test fell during the LB's peak shipment period that precedes the holiday season. The main difference between CEFM and non-CEFM data flows is that the CEFM data flows are initiated by a single point of data entry. In addition, the on-demand reports in CEFM, particularly the federated status and OCR reports, provide much of the information provided by the manually created and sent reports in the non-CEFM model.
Table 9 contains a list of all data elements contained in each of these three documents: the OCR, the pre-alert, and the DSR. With respect to the DSR, CEFM may contain much of the visibility information that the forwarders must gather to complete this form. CEFM is unique in that it includes airline-tracking information, especially the information on the location and timing of interim stops between Hong Kong and Columbus. Another unique aspect of the CEFM data flows is that certain pieces of information are now visible where they were not before as per the pre-CEFM model.
Using CEFM, each supply chain event and the robust messages that support the event are available to all authorized supply chain partners.
It also is important to understand that except for the booking and tendering events, all CEFM events are automated. Earlier in this section, the LB's key 96-hour transit time performance measure for direct flights from Hong Kong to Columbus was discussed.

Although the partners could not view the data contained in their partners' shadow databases, the CEFM Evaluation Team was provided access to all partners' shadow databases. The diagram in Figure 14 will be presented again in section 4 to visually explain the benefits of using CEFM information on the LB supply chain.
The CEFM "As-Is" analysis and other industry research indicates that it is difficult to obtain visibility data from multiple partners along a complex, international supply chain. The current LB supply chain is described in detail within this section, in particular, the information that accompanies each physical event.
The six boxes contain all the data information that is transferred during the shipment's departure from the origin at the manufacturer's factory in southern China to the destination at the LB's distribution center (DC) in Columbus, Ohio. The transit time standard states that there will be no more than 96 hours between the forwarder's cargo receipt in Hong Kong (the later of "Cargo Received" or "Documents Received") and delivery to the container freight station (CFS) in Columbus.
These interviews supplemented interviews by other project team members used in preparing "As -Is" and "To Be" analyses, as well as the CEFM Concept of Operations (ConOps).
As the diagram in Figure 2 shows, although some of the information exchanges are automated within the supply chain, many rely on manual data entry to a spreadsheet or email.
Once the consignment and associated documentation are loaded onto the truck for shipment to Hong Kong, the Manufacturer "tenders" the freight, indicating that the truck is proceeding to the freight forwarder's facility in Hong Kong.
The freight forwarder receives the Master Air Waybill number (MAWB) and unit load device number (ULD) from the airline.
This number is provided to the forwarders for entry into their existing IT systems and is included on the shipment and Customs documents. Once the shipment is received at HACTL, the air terminal company confirms the shipment receipt and the shipment weight back to the forwarder via telephone, fax, or email. The pre-alert is an Excel spreadsheet attached to an email and sent to the inbound trucking company, the CFS, LB, the Customs broker, and the forwarder's Columbus office.
This notification notifies the Customs broker to begin preparing the Customs documentation.
The Customs broker must receive this form (usually via email) to submit the Customs clearance application to U.S.
Typically, these documents are provided as PDF attachments that must be printed out so that the broker can manually input the pertinent information into the EDI system used to prepare the Customs application.
The DSR is similar to the pre-alert spreadsheet and contains about 25 data elements by PO, HAWB, and MAWB numbers. When the Customs broker receives notification of "Wheels Up" in Hong Kong, the broker files for Customs clearance with CBP. Depending on when the clearance occurs, the freight may be at the in-bound trucking company (Forward Air) or the CFS. The Customs broker also receives the pre-alert email, and although the broker cannot begin Customs clearances processes, the broker is aware of the freight in the queue. The Trucking Agent (Forward Air) creates an Airfreight Waybill number and generates an EDI 214 status message. Once the CFS's existing system receives the data, it allows cartons to be scanned when first received in the warehouse, and then later enables the carton to be identified and located within the warehouse when ready for delivery to the DC. For example, if the inbound trucking company makes the appointment for delivery and there is no related information found when the CFS searches by the MAWB number, when the truck shows up, the CFS staff have to manually enter all shipment information from the Excel pre-alert. Once the Customs clearance email is received, the CFS arranges for shipment delivery to the LB's DC.
On a daily or near daily basis, CFS management staff queries its legacy system with a defined past 30-day date range to include approximately 14 data fields related to the shipment.
For the supply chains involved in the Deployment Test, although there are two LB companies with two separate warehouses, the consignments were entered via the same gate. The truck driver carries a hard copy of the shipping manifest to present to the LB DC gate guard representative, who stamps the paperwork and returns it to the truck driver. In the CEFM test, the Freight Information Highway (FIH) was the SOA used since it relies on standard processes, schemas, and definitions that are unique to the freight transportation world. Following this figure, how CEFM gathers and shares data among the supply chain partners is explained in detail within the context of the 11 LB supply chain events. Therefore, for the purpose of explaining how the 11 supply chain events are executed within CEFM, the term "shipment" is used in the text to designate a single unit of goods being moved. In addition to this existing transaction, a Web service also sends a PO in XML format to the manufacturer's shadow database in CEFM.
CEFM publishes a new status, "Freight tendered," which is available to authorized partners via Web services. When the forwarders receive the freight in Hong Kong, they enter the time of receipt for both the cargo and its associated export documents into their systems. Two messages, "Received" and "Documents Received," indicate that the cargo receipt information and associated documents are received without issue. Once the booking is completed with the airline, the MAWB number is generated by the airline's system and provided back to the forwarder via phone or email for entry into the forwarder's existing system. In addition to the forwarder's arrangements for this move, HACTL records the truck receipt and its cargo information, along with the consignment's official weight into its existing system. In the pre-CEFM operations, the forwarder would notify its Columbus partners of "Wheels Up" in Hong Kong. As with the other partners, Barthco uses an existing IT system to track certain events required to obtain clearance by CBP. While Customs clearance is being obtained, the freight continues to be processed until it reaches the CFS.
Forward Air receives MAWBs scanned from the forwarders, and then uses the information from the MAWBs to enter information into its existing system for financial tracking purposes.
Once ODW receives these documents and updates its existing system, this generates the CEFM status "Documents received," which is available to all partners using Web services.
Again, within CEFM, the robust text of this message is available as a hyperlink to the XML style sheet with the full content. Although there is hard copy verification of the driver's paperwork upon arrival at the LB gate, neither LB nor ODW records a delivery time in either of their existing systems. Once the partners select this action, they can view numerous transportation status messages, ASNs, and Receipt and Dispatch Advices. Since these reports are available any time the user would like to view them, the reports are shown on the bottom of Figure 2 in a separate box. After a logging in to CEFM, the users may select the "Consignment Status" report, which is considered to be the "federated" status for an individual consignment. This is a unique means of providing shipment visibility, which is "asking" each partner's shadow database individually for what information the partner knows about a shipment and sharing it with the requesting user, as opposed to storing the statuses in a centralized database. This method of gathering and displaying each partner's status caused excessive timing delay issues, where CEFM could take more than 5 minutes to return the information.
Each UCR number is presented as a hyperlink, and when selected, CEFM displays the federated status for that consignment. A simple query, once the user enters the individual PO, HAWB, or MAWB number, CEFM returns the name and functional role of each partner involved in the transport of goods. Figure 14 on the following page combines the processes presented in Figure 2 and Figure 3, respectively, to show how and when the CEFM data flows occur as compared to the pre-CEFM data flows. In fact, many shipments were found to arrive sooner than the 96 hours, especially priority shipments. During the peak period, there is an increase in "hot" or priority shipments, which also helps verify the CEFM transit time calculation as being less than the required 96 hours. With CEFM, these EDI messages are replaced with XML-based messages that contain essentially the same information, but are sent to other partners via the Internet using Web services.
In particular, the OCR report has similar data elements to both the Hong Kong forwarder's pre-alert Excel spreadsheet and the Columbus forwarder's DSR spreadsheet. It is important to note that there is a second header row in this table denoted by the shadow and double line border; below this second header row are the unique data elements found in each of the three reports. Using this report instead of current email-based processes could significantly reduce the need to manually key information into the pre-alert and DSR by using the cut-and-paste functions within Excel to move the information from the OCR to the pre-alert or DSR (this process is discussed in more detail in section 4). One key function that the Columbus forwarders must complete is researching the airline status. In addition, occasionally time-sensitive Columbus-bound freight is booked on a charter flight to John F. In particular, the interim aircraft stops and inbound trucking receipt were pieces of information that were nearly invisible to most partners.
As the supply chain "owner," during the deployment test, LB had the ability to denote which partners were "authorized," and then CEFM would distribute the information to only those partners. With the pre-CEFM events, many of the information exchanges are manual (as indicated by the computer or telephone icon next to the exchange), and require not only manual data entry but also re-keying of information previously entered.
This measure is what each of the LB's Hong Kong freight forwarders work toward (see section 4.3 for more details).
This allowed the Evaluation Team to calculate the time between each of the events along the supply chain for all consignments. The following section 3 defines the CEFM architecture and Web services, and how they worked together to achieve the data exchanges during the CEFM deployment test. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly.
CEFM collects information on these events from each partners' operational databases, which are linked to CEFM through a "shadow" database. This also section provides a comparison of the means by which these events were completed before CEFM and during the CEFM deployment test.
These six boxes are categorized by the data "owner," in this case, LB, the party that creates and transfers the data to the other partners. Some supply chain partners had existing systems that contain pre-CEFM shipment information, while others maintained manual records, such as Excel spreadsheets.
Information exchanges associated with the 11 LB supply chain events are described as follows. Once the freight forwarders receive the booking, they enter the details into their existing systems and automatically generate a House Air Waybill (HAWB) number. These hard copy forms are provided to the manufacturer's driver, who is trucking the shipment to the freight forwarders' consolidation facility in Hong Kong. Sometimes, the manufacturer provides hard copy shipment documents as an electronic "Portable Document Format" (PDF) attachment to an email, in which case the documents would arrive before the shipment. There may be multiple consignments and HAWBs on an airline's MAWB, depending on how the shipment is consolidated.

Once the forwarders receive the booking with this date, they contact the airline by phone or email to complete the air booking. The freight forwarder accesses HACTL's system via the Web and generates a "confirmed on board" notice to the broker.
The forwarder next sends an Advanced Ship Notice (ASN), which includes the "Wheels Up" information, to other authorized partners within 4 hours of the wheels up event. For the CFS staff, the ASN provides detailed information on the shipment, which assists them in populating their legacy system with these facts.
The forwarders in Columbus use several internal reports and the pre-alert email from their Hong Kong office to prepare the DSR. The three pieces of information the Customs broker needs from the forwarder to prepare and submit the Customs clearance application are the "Wheels Up" email, the NTB form, and the cargo documents. Depending on when the cargo arrives at the airport in Columbus, the inbound trucking company will either pick up the load and return to it to the company's complex to hold the freight overnight, or proceed directly to the CFS.
A "Dispatch Advice" message is sent to the buyer from the ODW system as an EDI 861 message. If data is missing, when the inbound trucking company makes the delivery and the carton is scanned, the warehouse floor staff must stop work to check with their supervisor to resolve the missing or incorrect data. Since the CFS has its own trucking company, once delivery is arranged, a CFS staff enters a "shipped" time into its legacy system, which generates another EDI message, the Dispatch Advice, which is then sent to notify LB that the freight has left the CFS. After delivering the consignments, the truck driver brings the stamped paperwork back to the CFS.
Web services and the CEFM architecture are described in detail in section 3, but a brief overview is provided here to provide the reader with an understanding of a few key concepts that are referred to in this section. SOAs, including the FIH, utilize extensible markup language (XML) to describe both document-oriented and procedure-oriented messages such as the EDI messages that are a part of CEFM. Once the manufacturer's staff reviews the PO, fulfills the order, and is ready to book the shipment's transportation, the manufacturer logs on to the CEFM system via the Web, selects the PO number from a drop-down menu, or clicks and selects the PO from a list of all POs available for booking.
These events, along with their associated times of occurrence, are automatically included in CEFM as a status update and made available through the Web services?no manual input is required from the forward to update these status messages within CEFM.
Once the number registers within the existing system, it is also added to the consignment record within CEFM without any required manual data entry. While originally envisioned in the CEFM design that these events would be included, HACTL's overall reluctance to participate in the test resulted in omitting these status messages from the final CEFM system design. Using CEFM, the information is automatically available through the forwarder's shadow database, and partners are notified by a "Departure, completed" status message via Web services. Unlike the previous events, which were status messages only, the ASN is considered a "robust" message within CEFM.
CEFM receives updates on the airlines used by the CEFM deployment test forwarders (Atlas, Evergreen, and Kalitta) from FlyteComm, which populates the airlines' shadow databases so that the system may update status messages on the final stop and any intermediate stops that may occur (Alaska, for example). These events appear as status messages in CEFM, and are available to all partners using Web services.
Once this information is entered, Forward Air generates an EDI 214 message in its existing system, where it is consumed, or integrated, into the CEFM shadow database. As with the forwarder ASN, the event of ODW sending the Receipt Advice appears in CEFM as a status message with a date and time.
This robust message is accompanied by a status message indicating the date and time when ODW sent the Dispatch Advice message.
To view the message or status, the partners click on the number available to view a complete list by sender, or by individual PO, HAWB, or MAWB number (if assigned). Therefore, this report provides all status information from multiple partners available on a particular shipment at a particular point in time. Several weeks into the test, the OCR was redesigned to pull the most current status information directly from LB's shadow database rather than running separate, federated queries of all the other partners. The OCR report provides a complete picture of all freight that is en route from China to Columbus.
This combined diagram also shows the timing of the pre-CEFM and CEFM events with the LB's 96-hour transit time standard, and the timings between respective events, as calculated using archived CEFM data.
The final LB supply chain diagram displayed in Figure 14 contains background shading to illustrate the time of each supply chain partner's possession of the freight; these times represent each partner's mean time of possession, as calculated using archived test data from CEFM. In the case of the pre-alert, the OCR contains 65 percent of the data elements within the pre-alert. In reviewing this table, it is evident that much of the data within the Pre-Alert and DSR is also contained in the CEFM OCR. In the Evaluation Team's interviews with the Columbus forwarders, the respondents estimated that they spent approximately 1 hour per day on airline-tracking Websites such as Red Berry, or in calling the airlines directly. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York if the departure date is sooner than the Columbus charter. Also, under the pre-CEFM data exchanges, the data was frequently flowing from one partner to another, or sometimes from one partner to two or three partners, but there were no instances where every partner had access or visibility to each piece of information. Particularly significant is the simplicity of the CEFM process as compared to the pre-CEFM exchanges.
CEFM tracks the key events used to calculate this metric; in addition, the on-demand OCR contains a data field listing the transit days of each consignment. A shadow database is a separate data storage file that contained each partner's exclusive data within the CEFM deployment test, thereby protecting the partner's production data from the deployment test. This diagram identifies each piece of data as manual (phone, email, or fax) or automated (Electronic Data Interchange [EDI] or legacy Information Technology [IT] systems). The freight forwarders typically contact the manufacturer within 24 hours of receiving the booking to provide the manufacturer with the HAWB number.
The manufacturers also send an email message to notify LB that the freight has left the factory. Typically, the shipments that were part of the CEFM test were moved by charter aircraft, although a near-term "iN Distribution Center" (NDC) date may result in using an express carrier such as UPS.
If the aircraft departs on a weekend, however, the NTB is not sent until Monday morning, which is about 24 hours after the aircraft departs.
For either method, the trucking company must call the CFS to make an appointment to drop off the freight. The CFS identifies discrepancies during this "unstuffing" and sorting operation and updates its own system.
When there is missing data within the EDI, the CFS staff must pull the hard copy shipping documents (such as the HAWB or packing list) to verify the correct information, and then enter it into its legacy system. After the appropriate PO number is selected, the manufacturer's staff enters the quantity to be shipped (designated in pieces), and presses the "Submit" button.
No status message is pushed using CEFM to notify the partners that the shipment has been booked with an airline. The CEFM system is updated with a status message of "Inbound Trucking Received" that is now available to all supply chain partners via Web services.
Rather, through ODW's integrated system and per LB guidance, CEFM automatically creates the final shipment status message, "Delivery, completed" by adding 30 minutes to the "Dispatch, complete" status time.
The partners can elect to view either the XML language or style sheet version to view the message content. A sample OCR is presented in Figure 11 and Figure 12 (due to the number of horizontal field values, the report is presented in two screen captures). CEFM only requires the manufacturer to log in, select the PO, and enter the piece count; the process is streamlined and requires no paper transfer. Before CEFM, the Columbus partners (especially LB, the inbound trucking company, and the CFS) were unaware that the freight was arriving in JFK rather than Columbus, and when this occurred, the airline would arrange for trucking to Columbus. Where the pre-CEFM information exchange relied on 22 separate information exchanges (as shown on Figure 14), CEFM achieves the same level of visibility with only 2 points of manual entry and 13 status messages, plus 3 on-demand visibility reports. Again, this 96-hour "clock" begins when the forwarder receives either the cargo itself or its documents in Hong Kong (whichever occurs later), and ends when the consignment is received at the CFS in Columbus (the time of the CFS robust "receipt advice"). The shadow database was largely populated automatically through either CEFM Web services message content, or from the partner's existing IT system.
In addition, the interviews focused on the performance measures used by each partner, which are reported in section 3.5. The airline bookings are usually completed between 12-48 hours after the goods are received in Hong Kong. Since the Customs broker in the United States works on Sundays and the forwarders do not, this can sometimes delay the Customs documentation preparation and create a backlog of applications on Mondays.
These 25 data elements are entered manually into an Excel spreadsheet that is provided to LB as an email attachment. After the Customs broker receives the release from CBP, the broker provides copies of all Customs-related documentation as email attachments to the CFS and LB. For morning appointments, the inbound trucking company representatives can call the CFS anytime up to 5 p.m. When the booking is submitted, CEFM assigns a unique consignment reference (UCR) to the shipment. FlyteComm also captures the final arrival or "Wheels Down" in Columbus, published as "Arrival Complete" into code for Rickenbacker Airport (LCK) in Columbus, Ohio. Although manual entry input was allowed via the user Web interface for the manufacturer, or by the CEFM Deployment Team, this method only was used when automatic population was not feasible. Currently, there are two charter flights per week moving these brands from Hong Kong directly to Columbus. It takes the Columbus forwarder between 4-6 hours to prepare the DSRs and their associated multiple updates each day. When the partners view their messages by PO number, the ASN appears as a hyperlink to enable access to shipment details. Since the data population was automatic in most cases, CEFM provided near real-time data to the supply chain partners. The event of the forwarder sending the ASN message also appears as a status message within CEFM.

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