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Hazard Mitigation Planning in the United States: Historical Perspectives, Cultural Influences, and Current ChallengesAndrea M.
The four phases listed- mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery- serve as the current model of emergency management, are widely used among practitioners, and are considered the starting point for all policy and program design for all types of hazards at all levels of government. The Disaster Mitigation Act provided a legal foundation for FEMA to author an Interim Final Rule under the Federal Register (44 CFR Parts 201 and 206).
In support of the notion within emergency management that inter-organizational cooperation is crucial, [13] believes “the role of the regional council has been shaped by the changing dynamics in federal, state and local government relations, and the growing recognition that the region is the arena in which local governments must work together to resolve social and environmental challenges.”As emergency management evolves and becomes more advanced, the earlier quotation from [8] becomes more relevant. Because of increased globalization, a community that was once relatively isolated might now house critical facilities for a distant parent company.
All levels of government participate in some way in all levels of emergency management, creating a complex system of interlinked activities. An interesting similarity between both definitions is that they encourage cooperation with other jurisdictions.
Lindell’s results indicate that not only are planners reluctant to take action, but willingly rank themselves as such.
Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event threating to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. Crisis management is widely understood to be a multiple-phase process, with the phases often paralleling, rather than merely running sequentially, as implied by common cycle illustration. The planning phase starts at preparedness, where agencies decide how to respond to a given incident or set of circumstances. Following an occuring emergency, the agencies move to the response phase, where they execute their plans, and may end up improvising on some areas of their response (due to gaps in the planning phase, which are inevitable due to the individual nature of most incidents). Agencies may then be involved in recovery phase following the response phase, where they assist in the clean up of the incident or help the people involved overcome their mental trauma. The final phase in the circle is mitigation, which involves taking steps to ensure no re-occurrence is possible or putting additional plans in place to ensure less damage is done. Whereas there is general agreement on the phases "preparedness", "response" and "recovery", the EU puts an emphasis on "preparedness" (i.e. Crisis management activities are substantial for urban environments, critical infrastructure protection and civil protection respectively for the protection of the society. Views and interpretations of the phases vary largely in literature, according to disciplines and perspective; and there is a wide number of definitions available.
Comment: The adverse impacts of hazards often cannot be prevented fully, but their scale or severity can be substantially lessened by various strategies and actions.
Comment: Preparedness action is carried out within the context of disaster risk management and aims to build the capacities needed to efficiently manage all types of emergencies and achieve orderly transitions from response through to sustained recovery.
Comment: Disaster response is predominantly focused on immediate and short-term needs and is sometimes called “disaster relief”. Comment: The recovery task of rehabilitation and reconstruction begins soon after the emergency phase has ended, and should be based on pre-existing strategies and policies that facilitate clear institutional responsibilities for recovery action and enable public participation. As securing the safety of citizens is an important function of the urban planner, and crisis management functions as an important 'safety net' to ensure provide vital assistance in case all other preparation fails. Contact us with a description of the clipart you are searching for and we'll help you find it. Sometimes, autistic people can be a bit rigid in their behaviors and averse to new experiences.
Regardless of the specific reasons, the result remains the same: they are less adventurous or open to starting conversations. On the flip side, an EMT, I’ve already witnessed some nightmare calls as a result of this game. By the way, many of the calls we have seen have involved adults playing the game, not just kids. Counties and states may review summarized local plans to identify resource needs and coordinate multijurisdictional exercises. What is a hazard mitigation plan?Before discussing how Hazard Mitigation Plans are completed within the government, it is worth briefly considering: what exactly is a Hazard Mitigation Plan? As discussed in the previous section, the Rule provides specific clarification, based on the Disaster Mitigation Act, for receiving funding through FEMA under the HMGP. Ultimately though, the entire structure of emergency management in the United States, and within the Four Phase model, depends on preparedness at the local level.
Although this cooperation has appeared low on the list of priorities of local planners for reasons discussed later, recent research has shown multi-jurisdictional cooperation to be almost exclusively responsible for the creation of HMPs [15].As the understanding of emergency planning and hazards progressed, a number of researchers would recommend activities that led to an increased state of preparedness for local emergency managers (see [16]). The complex and infrequent nature of disasters compared with more familiar problems places them low on the list of priorities for many planners.
In a follow-up study [21], Lindell found that the largest contributors to the time commitments needed for plan completion were: committee member input, available planning resources, and community support. There are several models of the crisis management cycle, among which the 4-phases cycle became widely accepted. This should ideally include lines of command and control, and division of activities between agencies. This should feed back in to the preparedness stage, with updated plans in place to deal with future emergencies, thus completing the circle. In urban systems they are every-day business; and all phases of the crisis management cycle may be experienced simultaneously in different parts of the city. Mitigation measures encompass engineering techniques and hazard-resistant construction as well as improved environmental policies and public awareness (UNISDR 2009). Preparedness is based on a sound analysis of disaster risks and good linkages with early warning systems, and includes such activities as contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, the development of arrangements for coordination, evacuation and public information, and associated training and field exercises. The division between this response stage and the subsequent recovery stage is not clear-cut. Recovery programmes, coupled with the heightened public awareness and engagement after a disaster, afford a valuable opportunity to develop and implement disaster risk reduction measures and to apply the “build back better” principle (UNISDR 2009: 23). It is therefore important to consider the needs of the emergency services in the urban planning.
COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS. My daughter, especially, who has a high level of social anxiety, has a really hard time with any type of change or new experience.
According to this article, Pokemon GO seems to be successfully encouraging some individuals with ASD to explore the world a bit — and, just as importantly, to engage in conversation with other Pokemon fans in the process.
My son proudly did a class presentation on Satoshi Tajiri in 2nd grade as soon as he found out they shared autism in common. Beruvides2[1] Advanced Analytics & Optimization, IBM Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA, USA[2] Texas Tech University Department of Industrial Engineering, USA1. FEMA may review state plans and adjust resources accordingly, as well as facilitate coordination between states.Hierarchy proceeds from city, to county, to state, to federal.
Beginning at the state level, a state can either have a Standard or Enhanced Mitigation Plan that will result in a 15% or 20% increase in HMGP funding, respectively. This concept is aptly publicized by the planning requirements within the Disaster Mitigation Act and FEMA’s Interim Final Rule. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, [16] revisited these activities, summarized and combined the work that had been done previously, and suggested ten guidelines for increased preparedness within the newfound context of terrorism as a viable threat.
This lack of enthusiasm is compounded by local politics, turf protection, and ambiguity caused by shared governance. Staffing and structure within the government and the city’s vulnerability to hazards were not found to be significant (see [21]). The term is closely related with disaster and emergency management and in the context of this wiki, the terms will be used as synonyms.
This avoids potentially negative situations, actions, and use of valuable resources like time and finance. Examples include dams or embankments that eliminate flood risks, land-use regulations that do not permit any settlement in high risk zones, and seismic engineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a critical building in any likely earthquake. Some response actions, such as the supply of temporary housing and water supplies, may extend well into the recovery stage (UNISDR 2009: 24-25). A particular consideration in this is the speed with which they can access possible locations of emergency (under all possible circumstances). My son is more open to new opportunities, but due to being more susceptible to sensory overload our options outside the home are more limited. IntroductionPlanning for disasters at the federal, state, and local level is a relatively recent area of focus within the practice of emergency management in the United States.
At the local level, responders make regular reports on status of life and property, assistance requests, at regular intervals. The state is also allowed to use up to 7% of the HMGP funding to cover the expenses of writing state, local, or tribal plans. Despite general consensus that local preparedness is essential, its execution has traditionally been of minimal quality, low priority, and host to a multitude of administrative problems.
These reasons for resistance to planning efforts can cause both vertical and horizontal fragmentation of government.Documenting this type of cultural phenomenon poses a challenge of a sociological nature.

For example, poor planning may result in three separate agencies all starting an official rest centre for victims of a disaster.
Very often the complete avoidance of losses is not feasible and the task transforms to that of mitigation. The related term “readiness” describes the ability to quickly and appropriately respond when required (UNISDR 2009: 21). It is a great way to announce to predators that you are an easy target. Get into the habit of frequently looking up while you are on the phone. Historically, emergency management as a practice was focused on response to a disaster, with little attention paid to preparation, recovery, or overall and ongoing activities to reduce the effects of disasters.
FEMA’s Interim Final Rule (The Rule) provides much more specific requirements based on these guidelines. As of November 2007, 48 states had approved Standard Plans, and two states were waiting for approval on submitted plans.
Presented below are the results of preliminary studies that have begun quantifying these barriers to success.
This is inefficient as this will deplete resources of money and time, as well as potentially adding to the confusion of the public, and creating competition rather than cooperation among agencies.
The theoretical framework and literature demonstrates the importance of planning as an activity which impacts the success of many other emergency management activities, yet practice has shown that planning is not always a valued or highly prioritized practice at the local level. Seven of the 48 states with approved plans had also elevated their status to having approved Enhanced Plans, showing the state-level implementation of plans was highly successful.
What constitutes preparedness?Returning to the Four Phase model of emergency management proposed in 1979 by the NGA, the report failed to provide definitions for the phases; instead, suggested activities were included.
The results indicate that an aversion to planning is frequently present among local government officials.
The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 marked the first legislative emphasis on planning and mitigation and recent studies by the authors have shown mixed results for the implementation of planning laws.
Vulnerability should be described in terms of: (A) types and numbers of existing infrastructure, (B) an estimate of potential dollar losses to vulnerable structures, and (C) a description of land uses and development trends. The Rule explicitly states that “[t]o be eligible to receive HMGP project grants, local governments must develop Local Mitigation Plans that include a risk assessment and mitigation strategy to reduce potential losses and target resources. As previously discussed, a preliminary examination of FEMA data on Hazard Mitigation Plan completion has shown that over 90% of the “plan writing” phase of preparedness has occurred at the multi-jurisdictional level, especially within counties and COGs [15].
The reason is twofold: the process itself is ongoing, expensive, and time-consuming, and the background of many professionals in emergency management is one of trained rapid response. County, state, and federal offices should monitor incoming reports and progress, allocate necessary resources, identify opportunities for inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and report to the next highest level. It would appear that these five activities within preparedness can occur with varying success at different levels of local government. By asking city planners to rate their own successes in the formation of mandated local toxic chemical emergency planning committees (LEPCs) under SARA Title III, five years after the policy went into effect in the state of Michigan, M. Hazard mitigation before and during the cold warUnderstanding hazard mitigation in the United States first requires an understanding of how emergency management activities evolved historically. Waugh, 1990 [6]Activities that develop operational capabilities for responding to an emergency (e.g. The history of multi-government bodies in emergency management is discussed in the next section. The second study [23] surveyed local emergency managers to determine the composition of the field with regard to education, background, age, sex, and previous job experience.
Because the legal style of The Rule can be tedious and lacking examples, FEMA published a series of how-to guides for state and local mitigation planning [10]. Local Mitigation Plans are also referred to as Hazard Mitigation Plans (HMPs), or Mitigation Action Plans, by FEMA and local planners alike. The results demonstrated a lack of value placed on education or academic training, with preferences given to practical experience in defense or response-oriented jobs. FEMA, 2012 [7]Actions that involve a combination of planning, resources, training, exercising, and organizing to build, sustain, and improve operational capabilities. An important note for later discussions on the cultural influences in local planning, The Rule further specifies that “[m]ulti-jurisdictional plans may be accepted, as appropriate, as long as each jurisdiction has participated in the process and has officially adopted the plan. The role of counties and councils of governmentsWith rare exception, emergency management literature has followed the governmental design of the NGA model to the letter; the four phases are to be carried out at the federal, state, and local level. One of the motivations for the study was what the authors described as an informal “notion…that those doing the job were older men from a military or emergency services background, who having retired from their service were embarking on a second career in order to boost their pensions” [23]. Preparedness is the process of identifying the personnel, training, and equipment needed for a wide range of potential incidents, and developing jurisdiction-specific plans for delivering capabilities when needed for an incident.Immediate actions to save lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs. All of the guides have a similar format of listing the specific subsection of The Rule, and then provide an explanation, a list of required activities, recommended activities, and examples for how to implement the specific part of The Rule in a clear, non-legal style. However, in the NGA report and subsequent literature, local government is seldom defined and assumed to mean primarily city, or occasionally, county government. In the United Kingdom, the study found that 76% of local planners looking to hire a new emergency manager were not even considering recent graduates or degree holders [23]. The eighth volume of the How-To Guide, published in 2006 (386-8), is titled “Multi-Jurisdictional Mitigation Planning” and provides guidelines for this specific type of local plan authorship.
To encourage a fast response to the new local-level planning requirements, The Rule originally set a deadline of November 1, 2003.
Very little literature exists on the role of councils of governments in the preparedness phase. The planners estimated they would fill their positions using employees with significant experience or those looking for a transition into retirement. He notes that these “organized research activities [occurred] from about 1950 to 1965” and their primary goals were civil organization in wartime situations, under the assumption that “morale is the key to disaster control,” and “effective disaster control includes the securing of conformity to emergency regulations” and “the reduction and control of panic reactions” [1].
Prior to that date, writing plans and applying for funding through the HMGP could be done simultaneously.
An important note from the literature in emergency management is that “inter-organizational” or “multi-jurisdictional” coordination is considered essential among disaster researchers; even if the terms are broad, encompass many types of coordination, and refer almost exclusively to the response phase of emergency management.
The federal government took further action during the 1950s by undergoing several reorganizations within the Department of Defense (see [2]).
Mitigation activities occur in all phases of a disaster, and frequently are most evident during reconstruction, which has since been informally added by practitioners as a part of the long-term recovery phase. In other words, the number of activities for which the costs would fall exclusively to a single jurisdiction has already been reduced. In October 2003 the deadline was changed to November 1, 2004 with an amendment in the Federal Register, stating that “local governments must have an approved mitigation plan in order to receive project grants under any Notice of Funding Opportunity [including PDMs] issued after November 1, 2003 [fiscal year 2004 and later]” (p.
Like [14], Louise Comfort argues that due to the increasing complexity of society, not only are effective local responses critical, but are also “necessarily inter-organizational and interdisciplinary” [17]. Prior to, and during that time, the federal government was mainly concerned with civil defense, so that “private, voluntary agencies such as the American National Red Cross, the Salvation Army, and many others bore the primary responsibility for disaster relief; and state and local governments coped as best they could” [2]. The ongoing, ubiquitous nature of mitigation activities makes this the hardest phase to clearly define with a beginning and end point. If a plan is to be submitted as a multi-jurisdictional HMP, 386-8 provides specific requirements that must be met at each stage of the process. Comfort had previously proposed specific roles for county emergency management within the preparedness phase. Local emergency managers appear to subscribe to the war-oriented approach described by [1] above. Federal assistance was available as an absolute last resort by way of “special assistance acts passed by Congress” [2]. As reconstruction and recovery near completion, lessons learned from these phases are incorporated into preparedness activities with additional mitigation in mind, which in turn are set aside when a response becomes necessary. FEMA 386-8 makes recommendations for how to implement the requirements, and tips and examples for following the recommendations. Interestingly, this legislation used a limitation of access to federal grants to motivate local governments to create HMPs.
Often police and fire departments closely resemble the military in structure, training, and operation, with all groups placing high emphasis on the ability to act rationally and maintain order in emergency situations. Hazard Mitigation Plans are easiest to study within the context of the Planning phase, instead of Mitigation. Since the recommendations are not mandatory, and each jurisdiction is unique, the recommendations are not included in summary table. From this sequence of bureaucratic re-organization and policy implementation, it is clear that planning for disasters at the federal level has involved maintaining a reliable response and relief capacity, and passing the planning responsibilities to state and local government. As indicated by [23], this leads directly to hiring preferences that value the experienced responder above all other candidates.
According to the federal policy described later, mitigation, recovery and even some response activities are directed by state and local Hazard Mitigation Plans. One critical component for multi-jurisdictional plans however, is “documentation” or “proof or adoption” is required from participating single jurisdictions. This is not counterintuitive however, as local residents have a better understanding of their areas, and would be the first to respond during a disaster. Waugh argued that counties should be the exclusive home of local emergency management, because county offices generally: are geographically close to environmental problems, have larger resource bases than municipalities, have ambiguous administrative structures that encourage inter- and intra-organizational cooperation, are local agents of state administration, have close administrative ties to state agencies, provide forums for local-local cooperation, and serve as general-purpose governments representing local interests and have strong local identification (adapted from [3]).

It also leads to a second inhibitor to local planning: the difficulties of implementing inter-jurisdictional cooperation.
This militaristic approach – managing a disaster as enemy attack – would shape emergency management significantly in later years.
Although risk assessment, defined here to be part of the mitigation, is a critical step in authoring a HMP, the entire process will be grouped into the Preparedness phase for simplicity.
This refers to city or county resolutions that were passed in the individual jurisdictions to adopt the regional or multi-jurisdictional mitigation plan.
Waugh’s reasoning may provide some insight into why the success rates for Hazard Mitigation Plan authorship are so high for counties and COGs.
Policy research has shown that because of differing priorities of various agencies, such as police and fire, “bureaucrats tend to avoid communication with their counterparts in other agencies, even when their responsibilities clearly overlap or interface… In general, the more coordination required to implement a policy, the less chances of its success” (Edwards, 1978, as quoted in [24]). This is also due to the complex nature of risk assessment as a separate activity, and a tolerance for imprecision in the HMP approval process.
With regard to plan participation, the organization of multiple jurisdictions generally follows three models: Direct Representation, Authorized Representation, and a combination of the two. Planning at the local levelWhile federal and state governments are easily recognizable, it is worth considering the definitions of local government when considering the planning that occurs there. Yet in many rural areas, counties only encompass a small number of sparsely populated municipalities, which raises the question of when county governments or COGs are more appropriate in the planning process.
Kartez and Kelley [25] supported this finding with their own survey of local emergency planners. The first involves sending “direct representatives” to the plan author, who coordinates the creation of the plan.
Only one example of a successful COG exists in the literature, and it receives a brief mention in a report by Thomas Drabek [18].
The planners were asked to rank seven strategies for implementing preparedness policy, based on perceived likelihood of adoption, perceived benefits of strategy, and perceived effort of adoption. A reactive war approach may seem antiquated outside of the Cold War context, but it is essential to understanding the development and decisions of current sentiments toward planning within local governments.
Planning for disaster in federal, state, and local governmentThe role of local-level emergency planning within the national emergency management framework is one of great importance. For the second, the individual jurisdictions will authorize the plan author to act on their behalf, usually through city or county resolution [10]. Census Bureau provides rigorous definitions for city governments, and a certain set of criteria that must be met for a local government to be considered legitimate.
In 1990, Drabek published the results of a study of twelve highly successful local emergency managers.
Among other strategies, such as citizen education and creating a media information center, inter-jurisdictional forums ranked third and second respectively in benefit and effort, but dropped to fourth for the likelihood of adoption [25]. As will be discussed in later sections, the defense mentality is still the dominant approach to loss prevention at the local level, and helps explain actions at all levels of government, in all modern aspects of emergency management.3. Federal government provides direction and goals for local planners, but primarily serves as a financial supporter when governments are unable to meet these goals.
FEMA accepts plans from a wide variety of local governments, including tribal governments and individual school districts. The authors surmised that the planners recognized the benefit of inter-jurisdictional collaboration, but deemed it too difficult to execute. Likewise, the state acts as a regional conduit between federal and local government, providing aid to its local jurisdictions as needed. When conducting any analysis on HMPs, a distinction should be made for which types of governments are under consideration.
In practice at the local level however, both the preparedness phase of emergency management and the concept of shared governance even at a regional level is resisted and viewed with suspicion and disdain. Drabek’s study [18] of successful emergency managers also supported these conclusions, highlighting the political reasons for avoiding working with other jurisdictions and even departments within their single jurisdiction. This concept, known as shared governance, is a reflection of American attitudes about self-governance. Councils of governments are not defined by the census bureau, and may take a variety of forms depending on the needs of localities within a region.
Drabek sited “turf defense” as a major barricade to what he called the “sensitive ground” of “coalition building” [18].
In their book exploring policy implementation issues within the federal government, May and Williams [8] cited, as an example of this mindset, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which marked the first time in U.S. Cultural issues in local governmentPlanning for disaster in local government has traditionally been a neglected and misunderstood part of emergency management. Drabek specifically cited an emergency manager that had tried to start a smoke detector and fire extinguisher campaign in his jurisdiction, much to the irritation of the fire department, who felt such a campaign was their responsibility and resented the emergency manager for making them look unconcerned about prevention.
The primary goal of the Disaster Relief Act was to update the federal response and relief system described earlier, and to grant more power to the federal government to provide aid in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. In 1979, following the Disaster Relief Act, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was formed. Summary of planning for disaster in federal, state, and local governmentThe previous sections provided a history of the planning subsection of the preparedness phase of emergency management.
While FEMA remains the national organization for emergency management, past structuring of the federal bureaucracy has shown that these institutions are frequently replaced. Planning at the federal level is limited; federal government is primarily a financier and supporting partner of response, recovery, and mitigation efforts.
Predecessors to FEMA include: The Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (1958), the Office of Emergency Preparedness (1961), The Civil Defense Preparedness Agency (1972), and finally the Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979 (see [2]). The most recent federal policy, the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and FEMA’s subsequent Interim Final Rule (44 CFR Parts 201 and 206) have required that all local jurisdictions have an approved Hazard Mitigation Plan in order to be eligible for any federal funding opportunities. Each of these contained multiple sub-organizations concerned with different areas of emergency management, and operated within a wide range of government groups, from the Department of Defense (DOD) to Housing and Urban Development (HUD) [2]. The states play intermediate roles in transferring information between local and federal governments, and the local governments are responsible for their own planning. Using the five aspects of preparedness [4, 16], Table 2 shows how some roles within the Preparedness phase can be checked off by definition, while others remain poorly understood. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (1988), and the Disaster Mitigation Act (2000).
To carry out any of the activities listed at the regional level, without the knowledge or cooperation of the city level, would be extremely poor planning. Each amendment encourages localities to “focus on individual and community infrastructures,” unless the disaster is beyond their ability to manage [12].
Similarly, inter- and intra-jurisdictional cooperation requires the participation of multiple jurisdictions by definition.
Further, “if the disaster exceeds the state’s capacity to respond … the state governor [is allowed] to request aid from the national government. FEMA evaluates the request, prepares material for presidential approval, and coordinates the federal response” [12].
Are they activities that require maximum cooperation, or are counties better suited to perform this task so as to avoid over-complication? Second, the individual government success rate for Hazard Mitigation Plans is minute compared to that for multi-jurisdictional bodies; even though the latter is not well understood in the literature. Finally, a political, response-based culture at the local level has consistently made multi-jurisdictional cooperation difficult.
Returning to planning and preparedness within the context of a national emergency management system, recall that emergency management follows a four-phase model developed in 1979 by the National Governor’s Association. They are accepted as standard among practitioners of emergency management, and are widely considered to be overlapping and cyclical (Figure 1). Due to the complexity of actual disasters, it is likely that even more activities and sub-categories exist within these divisions, but they have yet to be formally established by the literature.As defined by the NGA model, the four phases of emergency management can be extended to all levels of government (Figure 2).
A typical assumption in emergency management literature is that government in the United States is divided into local, state, and federal levels. The activities that comprise the four phases of emergency management may be carried out at all levels of government. Figure 2.Four phases of emergency management at all levels of governmentHowever a third dimension may be added to the model to show what aspects of emergency management can influence the activities within certain areas of government. Three factors were found to have a significant effect on organizing emergency management activities within a government by [21] as discussed earlier: available resources, committee input, and community support. It is likely that there are many more factors that influence preparedness and cooperation in local emergency planning, but these have yet to be documented in the literature. In addition to influencing emergency management activities, these three factors also provide frameworks for measuring the activities.

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